Publications by authors named "Subidhya Shrestha"

4 Publications

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Identification of fungal species associated with crown and root rots of wheat and evaluation of plant reactions to the pathogens in North Dakota.

Plant Dis 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

North Dakota State University, Plant Pathology, Walster Hall 306, NDSU Dept. 7660, Fargo, North Dakota, United States, 58108-6050;

Common root rot (CRR) and crown rot (CR), caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana and Fusarium species, respectively, can cause significant yield losses in cereal crops. To assess the prevalence, incidence, and severity of these diseases in North Dakota, wheat samples were collected from spring wheat fields across the state in 2012, 2013, and 2014. Based on sub-crown internode symptoms, a greater incidence and severity of CRR was observed in 2012 (warm and dry year) than in 2013 and 2014. Also, the Northwestern Glaciated Plains and Northwestern Great Plains ecoregions showed greater CRR incidence and severity compared to the Northern Glaciated Plains and Lake Agassiz Plains ecoregions in the state. Bipolaris sorokiniana and Fusarium species including F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. equiseti, F. pseudograminearum, F. oxysporum, F. redolens, F. sporotrichioides, and F. solani were isolated and identified from the root and crown tissues of the wheat samples. B. sorokiniana was isolated more frequently than other fungal species in all sampled years and ecoregions of North Dakota. F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. equiseti, F. graminearum, F. pseudograminearum, and F. redolens were pathogenic causing infections on seedlings of the two wheat genotypes (ND652 and Alsen), whereas isolates of F. oxysporum and F. solani were non-pathogenic and considered as secondary invaders associated with the root and crown rot diseases. Evaluation of some spring wheat genotypes for reactions to one B. sorokiniana isolate at seedling and adult plant stages, and one F. culmorum isolate at the seedling stage indicated that susceptibility to these pathogens varied among different wheat genotypes tested. This study provides useful information on fungal species associated with root and crown rots of wheat in North Dakota and on resistant/susceptible reactions of some spring wheat lines to the different fungal isolates evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-11-20-2412-REDOI Listing
March 2021

Rapid Detection of in Sugar Beet and Mutations Associated with Fungicide Resistance Using LAMP or Probe-Based qPCR.

Plant Dis 2020 Jun 13;104(6):1654-1661. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Department of Plant Pathology, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108, U.S.A.

Cercospora leaf spot (CLS), caused by the fungal pathogen , is the most destructive disease of sugar beet worldwide. Although growing CLS-tolerant varieties is helpful, disease management currently requires timely application of fungicides. However, overreliance on fungicides has led to the emergence of fungicide resistance in many populations, resulting in multiple epidemics in recent years. Therefore, this study focused on developing a fungicide resistance detection "toolbox" for early detection of in sugar beet leaves and mutations associated with different fungicides in the pathogen population. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method was developed for rapid detection of in infected sugar beet leaves. The LAMP primers specific to (Cb-LAMP) assay was able to detect in inoculated sugar beet leaves as early as 1 day postinoculation. A quinone outside inhibitor (QoI)-LAMP assay was also developed to detect the G143A mutation in cytochrome b associated with QoI resistance in . The assay detected the mutation in both in vitro and in planta with 100% accuracy. We also developed a probe-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for detecting an E198A mutation in β-tubulin associated with benzimidazole resistance and a probe-based qPCR assay for detection of mutations in cytochrome P450-dependent sterol 14α-demethylase (Cyp51) associated with resistance to sterol demethylation inhibitor fungicides. The primers and probes used in the assay were highly efficient and precise in differentiating the corresponding fungicide-resistant mutants from sensitive wild-type isolates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-09-19-2023-REDOI Listing
June 2020

Transcriptome-wide association study identifies putative elicitors/suppressor of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici that modulate barley rpg4-mediated stem rust resistance.

BMC Genomics 2019 Dec 16;20(1):985. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA.

Background: Stem rust is an economically important disease of wheat and barley. However, studies to gain insight into the molecular basis of these host-pathogen interactions have primarily focused on wheat because of its importance in human sustenance. This is the first extensive study utilizing a transcriptome-wide association mapping approach to identify candidate Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) effectors/suppressors that elicit or suppress barley stem rust resistance genes. Here we focus on identifying Pgt elicitors that interact with the rpg4-mediated resistance locus (RMRL), the only effective source of Pgt race TTKSK resistance in barley.

Results: Thirty-seven Pgt isolates showing differential responses on RMRL were genotyped using Restriction Site Associated DNA-Genotyping by Sequencing (RAD-GBS), identifying 24 diverse isolates that were used for transcript analysis during the infection process. In planta RNAseq was conducted with the 24 diverse isolates on the susceptible barley variety Harrington, 5 days post inoculation. The transcripts were mapped to the Pgt race SCCL reference genome identifying 114 K variants in predicted genes that would result in nonsynonymous amino acid substitutions. Transcriptome wide association analysis identified 33 variants across 28 genes that were associated with dominant RMRL virulence, thus, representing candidate suppressors of resistance. Comparative transcriptomics between the 9 RMRL virulent -vs- the 15 RMRL avirulent Pgt isolates identified 44 differentially expressed genes encoding candidate secreted effector proteins (CSEPs), among which 38 were expressed at lower levels in virulent isolates suggesting that they may represent RMRL avirulence genes. Barley transcript analysis after colonization with 9 RMRL virulent and 15 RMRL avirulent isolates inoculated on the susceptible line Harrington showed significantly lower expression of host biotic stress responses specific to RMRL virulent isolates suggesting virulent isolates harbor effectors that suppress resistance responses.

Conclusions: This transcriptomic study provided novel findings that help fill knowledge gaps in the understanding of stem rust virulence/avirulence and host resistance in barley. The pathogen transcriptome analysis suggested RMRL virulence might depend on the lack of avirulence genes, but evidence from pathogen association mapping analysis and host transcriptional analysis also suggested the alternate hypothesis that RMRL virulence may be due to the presence of suppressors of defense responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-019-6369-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6915985PMC
December 2019

Coordinated and independent functions of velvet-complex genes in fungal development and virulence of the fungal cereal pathogen Cochliobolus sativus.

Fungal Biol 2016 08 20;120(8):948-960. Epub 2016 May 20.

Department of Plant Pathology, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108, USA. Electronic address:

LaeA and velvet proteins regulate fungal development and secondary metabolism through formation of multimeric complexes in many fungal species, but their functions in the cereal fungal pathogen Cochliobolus sativus are not well understood. In this study, four velvet complex genes (CsLaeA, CsVeA, CsVelB, and CsVelC) in C. sativus were identified and characterized using knockout mutants generated for each of the genes. Both ΔCsVeA and ΔCsVelB showed significant reduction in aerial mycelia growth. ΔCsVelB also exhibited a hypermorphic conidiation phenotype with indeterminate growth of the conidial tip cells and premature germination of conidia. ΔCsLaeA, ΔCsVeA, and ΔCsVelB produced more conidia under constant dark conditions than under constant light conditions whereas no differences were observed under the two conditions for the wild type. These three mutants also showed significantly reduced conidiation under constant light conditions, but produced more small sized conidia under constant dark conditions compared to the wild type. All knockout mutants (ΔCsLaeA, ΔCsVeA, ΔCsVelB and ΔCsVelC) showed some extent of reduction in virulence on susceptible barley plants compared to the wild type strain. The results revealed the conserved and unique roles of velvet-complex proteins as regulators in mediating fungal development and secondary metabolism in C. sativus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2016.05.004DOI Listing
August 2016