Publications by authors named "Stuart T Hauser"

27 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A narrative analysis of helplessness in depression.

J Am Psychoanal Assoc 2008 Dec;56(4):1309-30

Department of Psychoanalysis and Clinical Consulting, Ghent University, H. Dunantlaan 2, Ghent, Belgium.

The transcripts of semistructured clinical interviews with forty psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents were subjected to narrative analysis in an effort to map the logic of their explanations as they spontaneously talked about helplessness experiences, and to determine how helplessness is embedded in broader story lines. Three types of narrative composition were discerned, and are discussed by means of excerpts from the interviews. In a first and predominant type of narrative, a disturbing confrontation with another is pivotal: the other's intentions are obscure; this frightens the narrator, who does not know what to do. Helplessness arises as a direct result of not knowing how to manage the "unbearable riddle" of the other's intentions. In the second, more marginal type of narrative, helplessness is embedded in an account of emptiness and boredom. The protagonist relates enduring experiences of emptiness due to loss and the suffering consequent on it. In the third, also more marginal type of narrative, helplessness is framed in a context of failure: the protagonist adheres to strict standards, feels he or she has fallen short, and concludes that he or she is a failure. Only the first type of narrative is significantly related to the psychiatric diagnoses of mood disorder and major depression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003065108325969DOI Listing
December 2008

Continuity and Change from Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood: Adolescence-limited vs. Life-course-persistent Profound Ego Development Arrests.

J Youth Adolesc 2008 11 22;37(10):1178-1192. Epub 2008 Aug 22.

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Participants ( = 36) with consistent Pre-conformist ego development levels during multiple adolescent assessments were studied to determine whether and how their ego levels had changed at age 25. Those ( = 12) whose ego levels remained at the Pre-conformist level were assigned to trajectory group; those ( = 24) whose ego levels reached the Conformist or Post-conformist level at age 25 were assigned to an trajectory group. Analysis of predictors and age 25 correlates of group membership revealed that selected age 14 family interaction behaviors differentiated the two groups. At age 25, members of the adolescence-limited group showed superior performance on several measures of interpersonal and intrapersonal functioning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-008-9317-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5283839PMC
November 2008

Depressive symptoms and bias in perceived social competence among young adults.

J Clin Psychol 2008 Jul;64(7):791-805

Judge Baker Children's Center, Harvard Medical School, USA.

We examined associations between depressive symptoms and young adults' self-perceptions of social competence to explore whether higher symptoms are associated with self-evaluations that are more accurate (i.e., depressive realism), negatively biased (i.e., cognitive distortion), or less accurate (i.e., self-verification perspective). In 133 young adults, depressive symptoms and discrepancies between self- and peer ratings of social competence were assessed. Results demonstrated a linear relationship between depressive symptoms and self-peer discrepancies, such that higher symptoms were associated with underestimation of the self and low symptom levels were linked with overestimation of the self relative to peer evaluations. These findings suggest negative bias in dysphorics' self-perceptions, supporting cognitive distortion models, as well as positive bias in self-perceptions of those with low depressive symptoms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20488DOI Listing
July 2008

Prospective associations from family-of-origin interactions to adult marital interactions and relationship adjustment.

J Fam Psychol 2008 Apr;22(2):274-86

Judge Baker Children's Center, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, MA USA.

To test the social learning-based hypothesis that marital conflict resolution patterns are learned in the family of origin, longitudinal, observational data were used to assess prospective associations between family conflict interaction patterns during adolescence and offspring's later marital conflict interaction patterns. At age 14 years, 47 participants completed an observed family conflict resolution task with their parents. In a subsequent assessment 17 years later, the participants completed measures of marital adjustment and an observed marital conflict interaction task with their spouse. As predicted, levels of hostility and positive engagement expressed by parents and adolescents during family interactions were prospectively linked with levels of hostility and positive engagement expressed by offspring and their spouses during marital interactions. Family-of-origin hostility was a particularly robust predictor of marital interaction behaviors; it predicted later marital hostility and negatively predicted positive engagement, controlling for psychopathology and family-of-origin positive engagement. For men, family-of-origin hostility also predicted poorer marital adjustment, an effect that was mediated through hostility in marital interactions. These findings suggest a long-lasting influence of family communication patterns, particularly hostility, on offspring's intimate communication and relationship functioning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.22.2.274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3072794PMC
April 2008

Being close and being social: peer ratings of distinct aspects of young adult social competence.

J Pers Assess 2007 Oct;89(2):136-48

Judge Baker Children's Center, Harvard Medical School, USA.

The present study had three main objectives: (1) to develop and validate scales of young adult social competence in two domains, close relationships and social groups, using peer ratings of California Q-sort (Block, 1974; Kremen & Block, 2002) items; (2) to test the hypothesis that social competence is associated with young adult well-being and ego development; (3) to test the hypothesis that close relationship competence aligns more closely than social group competence with young adult functioning. Psychometric data on peer ratings of social competence are presented. For 133 young adults, peer ratings of social competence were correlated in expected directions with indices of functioning (e.g., self-worth, education, psychological distress, criminal behavior, and ego development). Associations were generally stronger for competence in close relationships than in social groups.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223890701468501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3395164PMC
October 2007

Inspiring inquiries: introduction to Falkenström et al.

Authors:
Stuart T Hauser

J Am Psychoanal Assoc 2007 ;55(2):621-7

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00030651070550020601DOI Listing
September 2007

Helplessness in depression: the unbearable riddle of the other.

J Am Psychoanal Assoc 2007 ;55(1):314-8

Department of Psychoanalysis and Clinical Counseling, Ghent University, Belgium.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
May 2007

The creation of a coding scheme assessing curiosity expression in adolescent interviews: preliminary findings.

J Am Psychoanal Assoc 2007 ;55(1):287-94

Harvard Medical School, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
May 2007

Adolescent Ego-Development Trajectories and Young Adult Relationship Outcomes.

J Early Adolesc 2004 Feb;24(1):29-44

Judge Baker Children's Center.

Adolescent ego-development trajectories were related to close-relationship outcomes in young adulthood. An adolescent sample completed annual measures of ego development from ages 14 through 17. The authors theoretically determined and empirically traced five ego-development trajectories reflecting stability or change. At age 25, the sample completed a close-relationship interview and consented for two peers to rate the participants'ego resiliency and hostility. Participants who followed the profound-arrest trajectory in adolescence reported more mundane sharing of experiences, more impulsive or egocentric conflict-resolution tactics, and less mature interpersonal understanding in their young adult relationships, and their young adult peers described these participants as more hostile. Participants who attained or maintained higher levels of ego development in adolescence reported more complex sharing of experiences, more collaborative conflict-resolution strategies, and greater interpersonal understanding, and their young adult peers rated them as less hostile and as more flexible.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0272431603260920DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1847419PMC
February 2004

Narrative in the study of resilience.

Psychoanal Study Child 2006 ;61:205-27

Judge Baker Children's Center, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard .ledical School, Boston, USA.

The authors trace the contribution of narrative studies to the study of resilience. Narrative studies infiltrated the mental health field more slowly than they did the medical and social sciences, despite its long reliance on "talking therapies. " With the development of the Adult Attachment Interview, however narrative studies began to come into their own in developmental psychology, psychiatry, and psychoanalysis. Narrative studies are an especially apt tool in resilience studies. The authors discuss their use in this context, considering also some theoretical questions about the nature of narrative and its implications for psychotherapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00797308.2006.11800771DOI Listing
May 2007

Markers of Resilience and Risk: Adult Lives in a Vulnerable Population.

Res Hum Dev 2004 ;1(4):291-326

Harvard Medical School.

In this report, we drew on data from an ongoing longitudinal study that began in 1978 (Hauser, Powers, Noam, Jacobson, Weiss, & Folansbee, 1984). Focusing on late, young-adult life among individuals who were psychiatrically hospitalized during adolescence, we examined markers of resilience empirically defined in terms of adult success and well-being. The study includes a demographically similar group recruited from a public high school. Major goals were to (a) develop preliminary models of adaptive functioning among adults in their 30s, (b) examine the extent to which adults with histories of serious mental disorders can be characterized by these models, and (c) explore predictors of successful adult lives from indicators of individuals' psychosocial adjustment at age 25.Results showed significant cohort effects on indexes of adaptive functioning, especially for men. Findings suggest that social relations as well as self-views of competence and relatedness play important roles in characterizing adjustment during the adult years. In addition, indexes of psychosocial adjustment as well as symptoms of psychiatric distress and hard drug use at age 25 made a difference in adult social functioning and well-being, providing hints of possible mechanisms likely to facilitate the ability to "bounce back" after a difficult adolescence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15427617rhd0104_4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1557869PMC
January 2004

The Same Old Song?-Stability and Change in Relationship Schemas From Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

J Youth Adolesc 2002 Feb;31(1):17-29

Relationship schemas are core elements of personality that guide interpersonal functioning. The aim of this study is to examine stability and change in relationship schemas across two developmental epochs-adolescence and young adulthood-in the stories that people tell about their interactions with others. Using the Core Conflictual Relationship Theme Method, relationship themes were coded from semistructured interviews conducted in adolescence and again at age 25. The sample consisted of 40 participants in a longitudinal study of adolescent and young adult psychological development. There was considerable stability in the frequency with which particular themes were expressed in the narratives of adolescents and young adults. Significant changes from adolescence to young adulthood included a decrease in the perception of others as rejecting and of the self as opposing others. Young adults saw themselves and others more positively, and used a broader repertoire of themes in their relationship narratives than they had as adolescents. The basic continuity and particular changes in relationship schemas found in this study are consistent with knowledge about the adolescent-to-young-adult transition derived from other empirical and clinical findings. Relationship schemas may be rich units of study for learning about the development of interpersonal functioning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1557868PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/a:1014080915602DOI Listing
February 2002

Attachment and core relationship themes: wishes for autonomy and closeness in the narratives of securely and insecurely attached adults.

Psychother Res 2003 ;13(1):77-98

Judge Baker Children's Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

This study examines links between attachment states of mind and relationship schemas in a sample of 40 young adults, half of whom were hospitalized as adolescents for psychiatric treatment. Participants were interviewed about their closest relationships, and, using the Core Conflictual Relationship Theme method, their narratives about these relationships were analyzed for the relative frequency with which they expressed wishes for closeness and for autonomy in relation to others. Participants were also administered the Adult Attachment Interview and were classified with respect to security of attachment. Security of attachment was associated with the relative frequency with which participants expressed wishes for autonomy in their narratives about close relationships, even after accounting for current levels of psychological functioning and history of serious psychopathology in adolescence. Security of attachment was not associated with the relative frequency with which participants expressed wishes for closeness. The study suggests that core relational wishes for autonomy are linked specifically with subtypes of insecure attachment. These findings extend what is known about connections between the representation of early attachment relationships and the wishes and needs expressed in current relationships with significant others.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ptr/kpg008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1557627PMC
December 2009

Beyond psychopathology: assessing seriously disruptive students in school settings.

J Pediatr 2006 Aug;149(2):252-6

Cambridge Health Alliance, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Objective: To obtain a demographic profile of aggressive students in an urban setting and discern psychiatric diagnoses, functional impairment, and psychosocial stressors.

Study Design: Participants were 33 students in an urban public school district referred for comprehensive psychiatric evaluation by school staff because they were viewed as a threat to school safety. Evaluations included a review of records, interviews with school and mental health professionals, and student and parent interviews.

Results: Students were characterized by severe and untreated or undertreated psychopathology together with high levels of psychosocial stressors and learning disorders. Thirty-two students received at least one Axis I diagnosis, and the mean number of diagnoses for each student was 3; 33% had substance abuse problems, and 30% had nonpsychiatric medical conditions.

Conclusions: The sample is a chronically impaired group of students confronting serious adversity in their daily lives, whose psychosocial and psychiatric needs are not met by current educational and mental health programming. Necessary interventions include prevention and early identification, substance abuse and family treatment, and appropriate psychopharmacological treatment. A comprehensive psychiatric assessment can help change the outcomes for this group of aggressive students.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2006.03.018DOI Listing
August 2006

Adolescents' behavior in the presence of interparental hostility: developmental and emotion regulatory influences.

Dev Psychopathol 2005 ;17(2):489-507

Department of Psychology, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Avenue, Bryn Mawr, PA 19010, USA.

Within-family covariation between interparental hostility and adolescent behavior across three interactions over a 2-year period was explored in a sample that included 37 typical adolescents and 35 adolescents recently hospitalized for psychiatric difficulties. More interparental hostility across the three interactions was associated with more adolescent hostility and more positive engagement (at a trend level) regardless of psychiatric background. Parent-to-child hostility in each interaction mediated the link for adolescent hostility but not for positive adolescent engagement. Emotion regulation capacities and age were linked to variability in adolescents' behavior in the presence of interparental conflict. In interactions with more interparental hostility, adolescents with greater capacity to tolerate negative affect were more likely to show increased positive engagement, and adolescents who were better able to modulate their emotional expression were less likely to show increased hostility. Covariation between interparental and adolescent hostility across the three family interactions decreased as the adolescent aged. These findings are consistent with the theory that exposure to interparental hostility is emotionally disequilibrating, and that adolescent responses may reflect differences in emotion regulation and other developmentally based capacities. Gender and variations across families in overall levels of hostile parenting were also linked with adolescent behavior in the presence of interparental hostility.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1557645PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0954579405050236DOI Listing
October 2006

Bilingual children: cross-sectional relations of psychiatric syndrome severity and dual language proficiency.

Harv Rev Psychiatry 2006 Jan-Feb;14(1):15-29

Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

The severity of child psychiatric disorders is commonly associated with child language delays. However, the characteristics of these associations in the fast-growing population of bilingual children remain unknown. To begin to address this gap, we studied a unique sample of Spanish-English bilingual children with significant parent-reported psychopathology (n = 29), focusing on their language proficiencies and psychiatric severity using the Child Behavior Check List. We present cross-sectional analyses of associations of general and specific language proficiency in Spanish and English with the severity of specific psychiatric syndromes. We found Spanish language-proficiency scores to have negative correlations with a wide range of psychiatric symptoms, particularly externalizing (i.e., delinquency and aggression) symptoms (r = -.38 to -.61, p < or = .05). English scores were similarly associated. Dual language tests covering multiple specific language dimensions explained a large proportion (51%) of overall variance in aggression symptoms and also important proportions (40%) of total and attentional symptoms. While children's proficiency levels in both Spanish and English showed similar associations with the symptom severity measures (explaining close to 20% of the symptom variance; r(sp) = -.44, p < .01), these proficiency levels explain nonconverging variance in children's symptomatology. The findings suggest that clinical evaluation of language functioning is often needed in such populations and that it should be comprehensive and include both languages. Such thorough evaluation of bilingual children suffering from psychopathology will help us to precisely identify (1) language deficits, (2) specific relations of these deficits to the child's psychopathology, (3) differential implications of communication at home (e.g., in Spanish) and at school (e.g., in English) for clinical presentation and the child's competence in those differing contexts, and (4) language of choice for therapy, evaluation, and educational services. The findings are discussed in the context of clinical and conceptual implications and future research needs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10673220500519698DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3538856PMC
June 2006

Bridging cultures or withering on the vine.

Authors:
Stuart T Hauser

J Am Psychoanal Assoc 2005 ;53(4):1283-9

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00030651050530040701DOI Listing
June 2006

The legacy of Enrico Jones.

Authors:
Stuart T Hauser

J Am Psychoanal Assoc 2005 ;53(2):535-40

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00030651050530021201DOI Listing
October 2005

Adolescent psychiatric hospitalization and mortality, distress levels, and educational attainment: follow-up after 11 and 20 years.

Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004 Aug;158(8):749-52

Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences and Neuropsychiatric Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles 90095-1759, USA.

Background: Adolescents with early psychiatric hospitalization are likely to be at a significant risk for long-term difficulties.

Objective: To examine early adulthood outcomes of psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents.

Design: Inception cohort recruited from 1978 to 1981 and observed until 2002.

Setting: Northeastern United States.

Participants: Adolescents (aged 12-15 years) from 2 matched cohorts were recruited and assessed repeatedly across 20 years: 70 psychiatrically hospitalized youths and 76 public high school students.

Main Outcome Measures: Death, emotional distress, high school completion, and educational attainment.

Results: Psychiatrically hospitalized youths were significantly more likely to die and to report higher levels of emotional distress. Hospitalized youths were significantly less likely to graduate from high school and complete college and graduate school.

Conclusions: The association between psychiatric symptoms sufficient to result in psychiatric hospitalization during adolescence and later mortality, emotional distress, high school completion, and educational attainment is striking. Further study is needed to identify and understand linkages between adolescent psychiatric impairment and decrements in adult functioning, particularly the processes that may underlie these linkages. Increasing school completion and educational attainment among hospitalized youths may minimize decrements in adult adaptation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.158.8.749DOI Listing
August 2004

Reading others emotions: The role of intuitive judgments in predicting marital satisfaction, quality, and stability.

J Fam Psychol 2004 Mar;18(1):58-71

Judge Baker Children's Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

This study examined links between emotion expression in couple interactions and marital quality and stability. Core aspects of emotion expression in marital interactions were identified with the use of naive observational coding by multiple raters. Judges rated 47 marital discussions with 15 emotion descriptors. Coders' pooled ratings yielded good reliability on 4 types of emotion expression: hostility, distress, empathy, and affection. These 4 types were linked with concurrent marital satisfaction and interviewer ratings of marital adjustment as well as with marital stability at a 5-year follow-up. The study also examined the extent to which naive judges' ratings of emotion expression correspond to "expert" ratings using the Specific Affect Coding System (SPAFF). The unique advantages of naive coding of emotion expression in marital interaction are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.18.1.58DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1770839PMC
March 2004

"My Father Did This to Me!" the psychodynamic treatment of an angry, sad, and violent young man.

Harv Rev Psychiatry 2003 Jul-Aug;11(4):194-209

Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA 02478, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10673220303945DOI Listing
January 2004

The future of psychoanalytic research: turning points and new opportunities.

Authors:
Stuart T Hauser

J Am Psychoanal Assoc 2002 ;50(2):395-405

Judge Baker Children's Center, Boston, MA 02115-5794, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00030651020500021401DOI Listing
February 2003

Prediction of peer-rated adult hostility from autonomy struggles in adolescent-family interactions.

Dev Psychopathol 2002 ;14(1):123-37

Department of Psychology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville 22904-4400, USA.

Observed parent-adolescent autonomy struggles were assessed as potential predictors of the development of peer-rated hostility over a decade later in young adulthood in both normal and previously psychiatrically hospitalized groups of adolescents. Longitudinal, multireporter data were obtained by coding family interactions involving 83 adolescents and their parents at age 16 years and then obtaining ratings by close friends of adolescents' hostility at age 25 years. Fathers' behavior undermining adolescents' autonomy in interactions at age 16 years were predictive of adolescents-as-young-adults' hostility, as rated by close friends at age 25 years. These predictions contributed additional variance to understanding young adult hostility even after accounting for concurrent levels of adolescent hostility at age 16 years and paternal hostility at this age, each of which also significantly contributed to predicting future hostility. Results are discussed as highlighting a pathway by which difficulties attaining autonomy in adolescence may presage the development of long-term difficulties in social functioning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1551977PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0954579402001074DOI Listing
September 2002
-->