Publications by authors named "Stuart J Bennett"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Age-associated changes in long-chain fatty acid profile during healthy aging promote pro-inflammatory monocyte polarization via PPARγ.

Aging Cell 2016 Feb 2;15(1):128-39. Epub 2015 Nov 2.

Life & Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET, UK.

Differences in lipid metabolism associate with age-related disease development and lifespan. Inflammation is a common link between metabolic dysregulation and aging. Saturated fatty acids (FAs) initiate pro-inflammatory signalling from many cells including monocytes; however, no existing studies have quantified age-associated changes in individual FAs in relation to inflammatory phenotype. Therefore, we have determined the plasma concentrations of distinct FAs by gas chromatography in 26 healthy younger individuals (age < 30 years) and 21 healthy FA individuals (age > 50 years). Linear mixed models were used to explore the association between circulating FAs, age and cytokines. We showed that plasma saturated, poly- and mono-unsaturated FAs increase with age. Circulating TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations increased with age, whereas IL-10 and TGF-β1 concentrations decreased. Oxidation of MitoSOX Red was higher in leucocytes from FA adults, and plasma oxidized glutathione concentrations were higher. There was significant colinearity between plasma saturated FAs, indicative of their metabolic relationships. Higher levels of the saturated FAs C18:0 and C24:0 were associated with lower TGF-β1 concentrations, and higher C16:0 were associated with higher TNF-α concentrations. We further examined effects of the aging FA profile on monocyte polarization and metabolism in THP1 monocytes. Monocytes preincubated with C16:0 increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to phorbol myristate acetate-induced differentiation through ceramide-dependent inhibition of PPARγ activity. Conversely, C18:1 primed a pro-resolving macrophage which was PPARγ dependent and ceramide dependent and which required oxidative phosphorylation. These data suggest that a midlife adult FA profile impairs the switch from proinflammatory to lower energy, requiring anti-inflammatory macrophages through metabolic reprogramming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acel.12416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4717269PMC
February 2016

CD4(+) T cell surface alpha enolase is lower in older adults.

Mech Ageing Dev 2015 Dec 1;152:56-62. Epub 2015 Oct 1.

Life and Health Sciences, Aston Research Centre for Healthy Ageing, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK. Electronic address:

To identify novel cell ageing markers in order to gain insight into ageing mechanisms, we adopted membrane enrichment and comparison of the CD4(+) T cell membrane proteome (purified by cell surface labelling using Sulfo-NHS-SS-Biotin reagent) between healthy young (n=9, 20-25 years) and older (n=10; 50-70 years) male adults. Following two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) to separate pooled membrane proteins in triplicates, the identity of protein spots with age-dependent differences (p<0.05 and >1.4 fold difference) was determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Seventeen protein spot density differences (ten increased and seven decreased in the older adult group) were observed between young and older adults. From spot intensity analysis, CD4(+) T cell surface α-enolase was decreased in expression by 1.5 fold in the older age group; this was verified by flow cytometry (n=22) and qPCR with significantly lower expression of cellular α-enolase mRNA and protein compared to young adult CD4(+) T cells (p<0.05). In an independent age-matched case-control study, lower CD4(+) T cell surface α-enolase expression was observed in age-matched patients with cardiovascular disease (p<0.05). An immune-modulatory role has been proposed for surface α-enolase and our findings of decreased expression suggest that deficits in surface α-enolase merit investigation in the context of immune dysfunction during ageing and vascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mad.2015.09.005DOI Listing
December 2015

Ultra-endurance exercise: unanswered questions in redox biology and immunology.

Biochem Soc Trans 2014 Aug;42(4):989-95

∥School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, U.K.

Ultra-endurance races are extreme exercise events that can take place over large parts of a day, several consecutive days or over weeks and months interspersed by periods of rest and recovery. Since the first ultra-endurance races in the late 1970s, around 1000 races are now held worldwide each year, and more than 100000 people take part. Although these athletes appear to be fit and healthy, there have been occasional reports of severe complications following ultra-endurance exercise. Thus there is concern that repeated extreme exercise events could have deleterious effects on health, which might be brought about by the high levels of ROS (reactive oxygen species) produced during exercise. Studies that have examined biomarkers of oxidative damage following ultra-endurance exercise have found measurements to be elevated for several days, which has usually been interpreted to reflect increased ROS production. Levels of the antioxidant molecule GSH (reduced glutathione) are depleted for 1 month or longer following ultra-endurance exercise, suggesting an impaired capacity to cope with ROS. The present paper summarizes studies that have examined the oxidative footprint of ultra-endurance exercise in light of current thinking in redox biology and the possible health implications of such extreme exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BST20140120DOI Listing
August 2014

Thioredoxin as a putative biomarker and candidate target in age-related immune decline.

Biochem Soc Trans 2014 Aug;42(4):922-7

*School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, U.K.

The oxidoreductase Trx-1 (thioredoxin 1) is highly conserved and found intra- and extra-cellularly in mammalian systems. There is increasing interest in its capacity to regulate immune function based on observations of altered distribution and expression during ageing and disease. We have investigated previously whether extracellular T-cell or peripheral blood mononuclear cell Trx-1 levels serve as a robust marker of ageing. In a preliminary study of healthy older adults compared with younger adults, we showed that there was a significant, but weak, relationship with age. Interestingly, patients with rheumatoid arthritis and cancer have been described by others to secrete or express greater surface Trx-1 than predicted. It is interesting to speculate whether a decline in Trx-1 during ageing protects against such conditions, but correspondingly increases risk of disease associated with Trx-1 depletion such as cardiovascular disease. These hypotheses are being explored in the MARK-AGE study, and preliminary findings confirm an inverse correlation of surface Trx-1 with age. We review recent concepts around the role of Trx-1 and its partners in T-cell function on the cell surface and as an extracellular regulator of redox state in a secreted form. Further studies on the redox state and binding partners of surface and secreted Trx-1 in larger patient datasets are needed to improve our understanding of why Trx-1 is important for lifespan and immune function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BST20140162DOI Listing
August 2014

Does metabolic reprogramming underpin age-associated changes in T cell phenotype and function?

Free Radic Biol Med 2014 Jun 12;71:26-35. Epub 2014 Mar 12.

Life and Health Sciences and Aston Research Centre for Healthy Ageing, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, West Midlands, UK. Electronic address:

T cells are required for an effective adaptive immune response. The principal function of T cells is to promote efficient removal of foreign material by identifying and mounting a specific response to nonself. A decline in T cell function in aging is thought to contribute to reduced response to infection and vaccination and an increase in autoimmunity. This may in part be due to the age-related decrease in naïve CD4(+) T cells and increase in antigen-experienced CD4(+) T cells, loss of redox homeostasis, and impaired metabolic switching. Switching between subsets is triggered by the integration of extracellular signals sensed through surface receptors and the activation of discrete intracellular metabolic pathways. This article explores how metabolic programming and loss of redox homeostasis during aging may contribute to age-associated changes in T cell phenotype and function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2014.03.002DOI Listing
June 2014

Measurement of HNE-protein adducts in human plasma and serum by ELISA-Comparison of two primary antibodies.

Redox Biol 2013 8;1:226-33. Epub 2013 Feb 8.

Department of Nutritional Toxicology, Institute of Nutrition, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Dornburger Strasse 24, Jena 07743, Germany.

There is increasing evidence that non-enzymatic post-translational protein modifications might play key roles in various diseases. These protein modifications can be caused by free radicals generated during oxidative stress or by their products generated during lipid peroxidation. 4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE), a major biomarker of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, has been recognized as important molecule in pathology as well as in physiology of living organisms. Therefore, its detection and quantification can be considered as valuable tool for evaluating various pathophysiological conditions. The HNE-protein adduct ELISA is a method to detect HNE bound to proteins, which is considered as the most likely form of HNE occurrence in living systems. Since the earlier described ELISA has been validated for cell lysates and the antibody used for detection of HNE-protein adducts is non-commercial, the aim of this work was to adapt the ELISA to a commercial antibody and to apply it in the analysis of human plasma samples. AFTER MODIFICATION AND VALIDATION OF THE PROTOCOL FOR BOTH ANTIBODIES, SAMPLES OF TWO GROUPS WERE ANALYZED: apparently healthy obese (n=62) and non-obese controls (n=15). Although the detected absolute values of HNE-protein adducts were different, depending on the antibody used, both ELISA methods showed significantly higher values of HNE-protein adducts in the obese group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2013.01.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3757688PMC
May 2015

Healthy ageing and depletion of intracellular glutathione influences T cell membrane thioredoxin-1 levels and cytokine secretion.

Chem Cent J 2013 Sep 5;7(1):150. Epub 2013 Sep 5.

Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle Birmingham B4 7ET, UK.

Background: During ageing an altered redox balance has been observed in both intracellular and extracellular compartments, primarily due to glutathione depletion and metabolic stress. Maintaining redox homeostasis is important for controlling proliferation and apoptosis in response to specific stimuli for a variety of cells. For T cells, the ability to generate specific response to antigen is dependent on the oxidation state of cell surface and cytoplasmic protein-thiols. Intracellular thiols are maintained in their reduced state by a network of redox regulating peptides, proteins and enzymes such as glutathione, thioredoxins and thioredoxin reductase. Here we have investigated whether any relationship exists between age and secreted or cell surface thioredoxin-1, intracellular glutathione concentration and T cell surface thioredoxin 1 (Trx-1) and how this is related to interleukin (IL)-2 production.

Results: Healthy older adults have reduced lymphocyte surface expression and lower circulating plasma Trx-1 concentrations. Using buthionine sulfoximine to deplete intracellular glutathione in Jurkat T cells we show that cell surface Trx-1 is lowered, secretion of Trx-1 is decreased and the response to the lectin phytohaemagglutinin measured as IL-2 production is also affected. These effects are recapitulated by another glutathione depleting agent, diethylmaleate.

Conclusion: Together these data suggest that a relationship exists between the intracellular redox compartment and Trx-1 proteins. Loss of lymphocyte surface Trx-1 may be a useful biomarker of healthy ageing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1752-153X-7-150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3766689PMC
September 2013

Free radicals and redox signalling in T-cells during chronic inflammation and ageing.

Biochem Soc Trans 2011 Oct;39(5):1273-8

School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK.

During chronic inflammation and ageing, the increase in oxidative stress in both intracellular and extracellular compartments is likely to influence local cell functions. Redox changes alter the T-cell proteome in a quantitative and qualitative manner, and post-translational modifications to surface and cytoplasmic proteins by increased reactive species can influence T-cell function. Previously, we have shown that RA (rheumatoid arthritis) T-cells exhibit reduced ROS (reactive oxygen species) production in response to extracellular stimulation compared with age-matched controls, and basal ROS levels [measured as DCF (2',7'-dichlorofluorescein) fluorescence] are lower in RA T-cells. In contrast, exposing T-cells in vitro to different extracellular redox environments modulates intracellular signalling and enhances cytokine secretion. Together, these data suggest that a complex relationship exists between intra- and extra-cellular redox compartments which contribute to the T-cell phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BST0391273DOI Listing
October 2011