Publications by authors named "Stuart D Russell"

209 Publications

Acute cardiovascular hospitalizations and illness severity before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Clin Cardiol 2021 Mar 7. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Division of Cardiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) hospitalizations declined worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is unclear how shelter-in-place orders affected acute CVD hospitalizations, illness severity, and outcomes.

Hypothesis: COVID-19 pandemic was associated with reduced acute CVD hospitalizations (heart failure [HF], acute coronary syndrome [ACS], and stroke [CVA]), and worse HF illness severity.

Methods: We compared acute CVD hospitalizations at Duke University Health System before and after North Carolina's shelter-in-place order (January 1-March 29 vs. March 30-August 31), and used parallel comparison cohorts from 2019. We explored illness severity among admitted HF patients using ADHERE ("high risk": >2 points) and GWTG-HF (">10%": >57 points) in-hospital mortality risk scores, as well as echocardiography-derived parameters.

Results: Comparing hospitalizations during January 1-March 29 (N = 1618) vs. March 30-August 31 (N = 2501) in 2020, mean daily CVD hospitalizations decreased (18.2 vs. 16.1 per day, p = .0036), with decreased length of stay (8.4 vs. 7.5 days, p = .0081) and no change in in-hospital mortality (4.7 vs. 5.3%, p = .41). HF hospitalizations decreased (9.0 vs. 7.7 per day, p = .0019), with higher ADHERE ("high risk": 2.5 vs. 4.5%; p = .030), but unchanged GWTG-HF (">10%": 5.3 vs. 4.6%; p = .45), risk groups. Mean LVEF was lower (39.0 vs. 37.2%, p = .034), with higher mean LV mass (262.4 vs. 276.6 g, p = .014).

Conclusions: CVD hospitalizations, HF illness severity, and echocardiography measures did not change between admission periods in 2019. Evaluating short-term data, the COVID-19 shelter-in-place order was associated with reductions in acute CVD hospitalizations, particularly HF, with no significant increase in in-hospital mortality and only minor differences in HF illness severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/clc.23590DOI Listing
March 2021

Racial Differences and Temporal Obesity Trends in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Jan 5. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, Texas, USA.

Background/objectives: Obesity increases with age, is disproportionately prevalent in black populations, and is associated with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). An "obesity paradox," or improved survival with obesity, has been reported in patients with HFpEF. The aim of this study was to examine whether racial differences exist in the temporal trends and outcomes associated with obesity among older patients with HFpEF.

Design: Community surveillance of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) hospitalizations, sampled by stratified design from 2005 to 2014.

Setting: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (NC, MS, MD, MN).

Participants: A total of 10,147 weighted hospitalizations for ADHF (64% female, 74% white, mean age 77 years), with ejection fraction ≥50%.

Measurements: ADHF classified by physician review, HFpEF defined by ejection fraction ≥50%. Body mass index (BMI) calculated from weight at hospital discharge. Obesity defined by BMI ≥30 kg/m , class III obesity by BMI ≥40 kg/m .

Results: When aggregated across 2005-2014, the mean BMI was higher for black compared to white patients (34 vs 30 kg/m ; P < .0001), as was prevalence of obesity (56% vs 43%; P < .0001) and class III obesity (24% vs 13%; P < .0001). Over time, the annual mean BMI and prevalence of class III obesity remained stable for black patients, but steadily increased for white patients, with annual rates statistically differing by race (P-interaction = .04 and P = .03, respectively). For both races, a U-shaped adjusted mortality risk was observed across BMI categories, with the highest risk among patients with a BMI ≥40 kg/m .

Conclusion: Black patients were disproportionately burdened by obesity in this decade-long community surveillance of older hospitalized patients with HFpEF. However, temporal increases in mean BMI and class III obesity prevalence among white patients narrowed the racial difference in recent years. For both races, the worst survival was observed with class III obesity. Effective strategies are needed to manage obesity in patients with HFpEF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgs.17004DOI Listing
January 2021

Management of heart failure in cardiac amyloidosis using an ambulatory diuresis clinic.

Am Heart J 2021 03 22;233:122-131. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD. Electronic address:

Background: Recurrent congestion in cardiac amyloidosis (CA) remains a management challenge, often requiring high dose diuretics and frequent hospitalizations. Innovative outpatient strategies are needed to effectively manage heart failure (HF) in patients with CA. Ambulatory diuresis has not been well studied in restrictive cardiomyopathy. Therefore, we aimed to examine the outcomes of an ambulatory diuresis clinic in the management of congestion related to CA.

Methods And Results: We retrospectively studied patients with CA seen in an outpatient HF disease management clinic for (1) safety outcomes of ambulatory intravenous (IV) diuresis and (2) health care utilization. Forty-four patients with CA were seen in the clinic a total of 203 times over 6 months. Oral diuretics were titrated at 96 (47%) visits. IV diuretics were administered at 56 (28%) visits to 17 patients. There were no episodes of severe acute kidney injury or symptomatic hypotension. There was a significant decrease in emergency department and inpatient visits and associated charges after index visit to the clinic. The proportion of days hospitalized per 1000 patient days of follow-up decreased as early as 30 days (147.3 vs 18.1/1000 patient days of follow-up, P< .001) and persisted through 180 days (33.6 vs 22.9/1000 patient days of follow-up, P< .001) pre- vs post-index visit to the clinic.

Conclusions: We demonstrate the feasibility of ambulatory IV diuresis in patients with CA. Our findings also suggest that use of a HF disease management clinic may reduce acute care utilization in patients with CA. Leveraging multidisciplinary outpatient HF clinics may be an effective alternative to hospitalization in patients with HF due to CA, a population who otherwise carries a poor prognosis and contributes to high health care burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2020.12.009DOI Listing
March 2021

Predictors of Mortality by Sex and Race in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction: ARIC Community Surveillance Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 10 14;9(19):e014669. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Duke University School of Medicine Durham NC.

Background Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) accounts for half of heart failure hospitalizations, with limited data on predictors of mortality by sex and race. We evaluated for differences in predictors of all-cause mortality by sex and race among hospitalized patients with HFpEF in the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Community Surveillance Study. Methods and Results Adjudicated HFpEF hospitalization events from 2005 to 2013 were analyzed from the ARIC Community Surveillance Study, comprising 4 US communities. Comparisons between clinical characteristics and mortality at 1 year were made by sex and race. Of 4335 adjudicated acute decompensated heart failure cases, 1892 cases (weighted n=8987) were categorized as HFpEF. Men had an increased risk of 1-year mortality compared with women in adjusted analysis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.06-1.52 [=0.01]). Black participants had lower mortality compared with White participants in unadjusted and adjusted analyses (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.64-0.97 [=0.02]). Age, heart rate, worsening renal function, and low hemoglobin were associated with increased mortality in all subgroups. Higher body mass index was associated with improved survival in men, with borderline interaction by sex. Higher blood pressure was associated with improved survival among all groups, with significant interaction by race. Conclusions In a diverse HFpEF population, men had worse survival compared with women, and Black participants had improved survival compared with White participants. Age, heart rate, and worsening renal function were associated with increased mortality across all subgroups; high blood pressure was associated with decreased mortality with interaction by race. These insights into sex- and race-based differences in predictors of mortality may help strategize targeted management of HFpEF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.014669DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7792380PMC
October 2020

Reducing ECG Artifact From Left Ventricular Assist Device Electromagnetic Interference.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 08 13;9(16):e017563. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Duke Clinical Research Institute Durham NC.

Background Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) generate electromagnetic interference that causes high-frequency noise artifacts on 12-lead ECGs. We describe the causes of this interference and potential solutions to aid ECG interpretation in patients with LVAD. Methods and Results Waveform data from ECGs performed before and after LVAD implantation were passed through a fast Fourier transform to identify LVAD-related changes in the spectral profile. ECGs recorded in 9 patients with HeartMate II, HeartMate 3, and HeartWare LVADs were analyzed to identify the LVAD model-specific spectral patterns. Waveform data were then passed through digital low-pass and bandstop filters and redisplayed to evaluate the effect of filtering on LVAD-related electromagnetic interference. The spectral profile of patients with HeartMate II and HeartMate 3 LVADs demonstrated a prominent signal at the device-specific frequency of impeller rotation. In patients with the HeartMate 3 LVAD, 2 additional peaks were observed at the frequencies equivalent to the LVAD's artificial pulsatility rotational speeds. Patients with HeartWare devices demonstrated a prominent signal peak at a frequency equal to double their LVAD's set rotational speed. Applying a low-pass filter to a value below the observed frequency peak from the LVAD significantly improved the waveform tracing and quality of the ECG. Applying a speed-specific bandstop filter to remove the observed LVAD frequency peak also improved the clarity of the ECG without compromising physiological high-frequency signal components. Conclusions LVADs create impeller rotational speed-specific electromagnetic interference that can be ameliorated by application of low-pass or bandstop filters to improve ECG clarity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.017563DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7660795PMC
August 2020

Highest Obesity Category Associated With Largest Decrease in N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Patients Hospitalized With Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 08 30;9(15):e015738. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Medicine Division of Cardiology Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore MD.

Background Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) constitutes half of hospitalized heart failure cases and is commonly associated with obesity. The role of natriuretic peptide levels in hospitalized obese patients with HFpEF, however, is not well defined. We sought to evaluate change in NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) levels by obesity category and related clinical outcomes in patients with HFpEF hospitalized for acute heart failure. Methods and Results A total of 89 patients with HFpEF hospitalized with acute decompensated heart failure were stratified into 3 obesity categories: nonobese (body mass index [BMI] <30.0 kg/m, 19%), obese (BMI 30.0-39.9 kg/m, 29%), and severely obese (BMI ≥40.0 kg/m, 52%), and compared for percent change in NT-proBNP during hospitalization and clinical outcomes. Clinical characteristics were compared between patients with normal NT-proBNP (≤125 pg/mL) and elevated NT-proBNP. Admission NT-proBNP was inversely related to BMI category (nonobese, 2607 pg/mL [interquartile range, IQR: 2112-5703]; obese, 1725 pg/mL [IQR: 889-3900]; and severely obese, 770.5 pg/mL [IQR: 128-1268]; <0.01). Severely obese patients had the largest percent change in NT-proBNP with diuresis (-64.8% [95% CI, -85.4 to -38.9] versus obese -40.4% [95% CI, -74.3 to -12.0] versus nonobese -46.9% [95% CI, -57.8 to -37.4]; =0.03). Nonobese and obese patients had significantly worse 1-year survival compared with severely obese patients (63% versus 76% versus 95%, respectively; <0.01). Patients with normal NT-proBNP (13%) were younger, with higher BMI, less atrial fibrillation, and less structural heart disease than those with elevated NT-proBNP. Conclusions In hospitalized patients with HFpEF, NT-proBNP was inversely related to BMI with the largest decrease in NT-proBNP seen in the highest obesity category. These findings have implications for the role of NT-proBNP in the diagnosis and assessment of treatment response in obese patients with HFpEF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.015738DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7792252PMC
August 2020

Biomarkers in Advanced Heart Failure: Implications for Managing Patients With Mechanical Circulatory Support and Cardiac Transplantation.

Circ Heart Fail 2020 07 14;13(7):e006840. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Division of Cardiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC.

Biomarkers have a well-defined role in the diagnosis and management of chronic heart failure, but their role in patients with left ventricular assist devices and cardiac transplant is uncertain. In this review, we summarize the available literature in this patient population, with a focus on clinical application. Some ubiquitous biomarkers, for example, natriuretic peptides and cardiac troponin, may assist in the diagnosis of left ventricular assist device complications and transplant rejection. Novel biomarkers focused on specific pathological processes, such as left ventricular assist device thrombosis and profiling of leukocyte activation, continue to be developed and show promise in altering the management of the advanced heart failure patient. Few biomarkers at this time have been assessed with sufficient scrutiny to warrant broad, universal application, but encouraging limited data and large potential for impact should prompt ongoing investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.119.006840DOI Listing
July 2020

Endomyocardial Biopsy Characterization of Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction and Prevalence of Cardiac Amyloidosis.

JACC Heart Fail 2020 09 8;8(9):712-724. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Division of Cardiology, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study prospectively evaluated endomyocardial biopsies in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) to identify histopathologic phenotypes and their association with clinical characteristics.

Background: Myocardial tissue analysis from a prospectively defined HFpEF cohort reflecting contemporary comorbidities is lacking.

Methods: Patients with HFpEF (EF ≥50%) referred to the Johns Hopkins HFpEF Clinic between August 2014 and September 2018 were enrolled for right heart catheterization and endomyocardial biopsy. Clinical features, echocardiography, hemodynamics, and tissue histology were determined and compared with controls (unused donor hearts) and HF with reduced EF (HFrEF).

Results: Of the 108 patients enrolled, median age was 66 years (25th to 75th percentile: 57 to 74 years), 61% were women, 57% were African American, 62% had a previous HF hospitalization, median systolic blood pressure was 141 mm Hg (25th to 75th percentile: 125 to 162 mm Hg), body mass index (BMI) was 37 kg/m (25th to 75th percentile: 32 to 45 kg/m), and 97% were on a loop diuretic. Myocardial fibrosis and myocyte hypertrophy were often present (93% and 88%, respectively); however, mild in 71% with fibrosis and in 52% with hypertrophy. Monocyte infiltration (CD68+ cells/mm) was greater in patients with HFpEF versus controls (60.4 cells/mm [25th to 75th percentile: 36.8 to 97.8] vs. 32.1 cells/mm [25th to 75th percentile: 22.3 to 59.2]; p = 0.02) and correlated with age and renal disease. Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) was diagnosed in 15 (14%) patients (HFpEF-CA: 7 patients with wild-type transthyretin amyloidosis [ATTR], 4 patients with hereditary ATTR, 3 patients with light-chain amyloidosis, and 1 patient with AA (secondary) amyloidosis), of which 7 cases were unsuspected. Patients with HFpEF-CA were older, with lower BMI, higher left ventricular mass index, and higher N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and troponin I levels.

Conclusions: In this large, prospective myocardial tissue analysis of HFpEF, myocardial fibrosis and hypertrophy were common, CD68+ inflammation was increased, and CA prevalence was 14%. Tissue analysis in HFpEF might improve precision therapies by identifying relevant myocardial mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2020.04.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7604801PMC
September 2020

Temporal Trends in Prevalence and Prognostic Implications of Comorbidities Among Patients With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: The ARIC Study Community Surveillance.

Circulation 2020 Jul 3;142(3):230-243. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina and North Carolina State University, Chapel Hill (M.C.C.).

Background: Patients with heart failure (HF) have multiple coexisting comorbidities. The temporal trends in the burden of comorbidities and associated risk of mortality among patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) are not well established.

Methods: HF-related hospitalizations were sampled by stratified design from 4 US areas in 2005 to 2014 by the community surveillance component of the ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities). Acute decompensated HF was classified by standardized physician review and a previously validated algorithm. An ejection fraction <50% was considered HFrEF. A total of 15 comorbidities were abstracted from the medical record. Mortality outcomes were ascertained for up to 1-year postadmission by linking hospital records with death files.

Results: A total of 5460 hospitalizations (24 937 weighted hospitalizations) classified as acute decompensated HF had available ejection fraction data (53% female, 68% white, 53% HFrEF, 47% HFpEF). The average number of comorbidities was higher for patients with HFpEF versus HFrEF, both for women (5.53 versus 4.94; <0.0001) and men (5.20 versus 4.82; <0.0001). There was a significant temporal increase in the overall burden of comorbidities, both for patients with HFpEF (women: 5.17 in 2005-2009 to 5.87 in 2010-2013; men: 4.94 in 2005-2009 and 5.45 in 2010-2013) and HFrEF (women: 4.78 in 2005-2009 to 5.14 in 2010-2013; men: 4.62 in 2005-2009 and 5.06 in 2010-2013; -trend<0.0001 for all). Higher comorbidity burden was significantly associated with higher adjusted risk of 1-year mortality, with a stronger association noted for HFpEF (hazard ratio [HR] per 1 higher comorbidity, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.14-1.25] versus HFrEF (HR, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.05-1.14]; for interaction by HF type=0.02). The associated mortality risk per 1 higher comorbidity also increased significantly over time for patients with HFpEF and HFrEF, as well ( for interaction with time=0.002 and 0.02, respectively) Conclusions: The burden of comorbidities among hospitalized patients with acute decompensated HFpEF and HFrEF has increased over time, as has its associated mortality risk. Higher burden of comorbidities is associated with higher risk of mortality, with a stronger association noted among patients with HFpEF versus HFrEF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.047019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7654711PMC
July 2020

Physical Activity and Incident Heart Failure in High-Risk Subgroups: The ARIC Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 05 11;9(10):e014885. Epub 2020 May 11.

Johns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore MD.

Background Greater physical activity (PA) is associated with lower heart failure (HF) risk. However, it is unclear whether this inverse association exists across all subgroups at high risk for HF, particularly among those with preexisting atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results We followed 13 810 ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study participants (mean age 55 years, 54% women, 26% black) without HF at baseline (visit 1; 1987-1989). PA was assessed using a modified Baecke questionnaire and categorized according to American Heart Association guidelines: recommended, intermediate, or poor. We constructed Cox models to estimate associations between PA categories and incident HF within each high-risk subgroup at baseline, with tests for interaction. We performed additional analyses modeling incident coronary heart disease as a time-varying covariate. Over a median of 26 years of follow-up, there were 2994 HF events. Compared with poor PA, recommended PA was associated with lower HF risk among participants with hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome (all <0.01), but not among those with prevalent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease, stroke, or peripheral arterial disease) (hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.74-1.13 [ interaction=0.02]). Recommended PA was associated with lower risk of incident coronary heart disease (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.72-0.86), but not with lower HF risk in those with interim coronary heart disease events (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.78-1.04 [ interaction=0.04]). Conclusions PA was associated with decreased HF risk in patients with hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. Despite a myriad of benefits in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, PA may have weaker associations with HF prevention after ischemic disease is established.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.014885DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7660876PMC
May 2020

Safety and Utility of Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy/Dysplasia.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 02 3;9(3):e013695. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Division of Cardiology Department of Medicine The Johns Hopkins Hospital Baltimore MD.

Background Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D) is characterized by high arrhythmic burden and progressive heart failure, which can prompt referral for heart transplantation. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) has an established role in risk stratification for advanced heart failure therapies, but has not been described in ARVC/D. This study sought to determine the safety and prognostic utility of CPET in patients with ARVC/D. Methods and Results Using the Johns Hopkins ARVC/D Registry, we examined patients with ARVC/D undergoing CPET. Baseline characteristics and transplant-free survival were compared on the basis of peak oxygen consumption (pVO2) (≤14 or >14 mL/kg per minute) and ventilatory efficiency (Ve/VCO slope ≤34 or >34). Thirty-eight patients underwent 50 CPETs. There were no sustained arrhythmic events. Twenty-nine patients achieved a maximal test. Patients with pVO2 ≤14 mL/kg per minute were more often men (=0.042) compared with patients with pVO2 >14 mL/kg per minute. Patients with Ve/VCO slope >34 tended to have more moderate/severe right ventricular dilation (7/9 [78%] versus 10/26 [38%]; =0.060) and clinical heart failure (8/9 [89%] versus 13/26 [50%]; =0.056) compared with patients with Ve/VCO slope ≤34. Patients who underwent heart transplantation were more likely to have clinical heart failure (10/10 [100%] versus 13/28 [46%]; =0.003). Patients with Ve/VCO slope >34 had worse transplant-free survival compared with patients with Ve/VCO slope ≤34 (n=35; hazard ratio, 6.57 [95% CI, 1.28-33.72]; log-rank =0.010), whereas transplant-free survival was similar on the basis of pVO2 groups (n=29; hazard ratio, 3.38 [95% CI, 0.75-15.19]; log-rank =0.092). Conclusions CPET is safe to perform in patients with ARVC/D. Ve/VCO slope may be used for risk stratification and guide referral for heart transplantation in ARVC/D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.013695DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7033873PMC
February 2020

Impact of Continuous Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device Therapy on Chronic Kidney Disease: A Longitudinal Multicenter Study.

J Card Fail 2020 Apr 23;26(4):333-341. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Thoraxcenter, Unit Heart Failure, Transplantation and Mechanical Circulatory Support, Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Many patients undergoing durable left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation suffer from chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, we investigated the effect of LVAD support on CKD.

Methods: A retrospective multicenter cohort study, including all patients undergoing LVAD (HeartMate II (n = 330), HeartMate 3 (n = 22) and HeartWare (n = 48) implantation. In total, 227 (56.8%) patients were implanted as bridge-to-transplantation; 154 (38.5%) as destination therapy; and 19 (4.7%) as bridge-to-decision. Serum creatinine measurements were collected over a 2-year follow-up period. Patients were stratified based on CKD stage.

Results: Overall, 400 patients (mean age 53 ± 14 years, 75% male) were included: 186 (46.5%) patients had CKD stage 1 or 2; 93 (23.3%) had CKD stage 3a; 82 (20.5%) had CKD stage 3b; and 39 (9.8%) had CKD stage 4 or 5 prior to LVAD implantation. During a median follow-up of 179 days (IQR 28-627), 32,629 creatinine measurements were available. Improvement of kidney function was noticed in every preoperative CKD-stage group. Following this improvement, estimated glomerular filtration rates regressed to baseline values for all CKD stages. Patients showing early renal function improvement were younger and in worse preoperative condition. Moreover, survival rates were higher in patients showing early improvement (69% vs 56%, log-rank P = 0 .013).

Conclusions: Renal function following LVAD implantation is characterized by improvement, steady state and subsequent deterioration. Patients who showed early renal function improvement were in worse preoperative condition, however, and had higher survival rates at 2 years of follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cardfail.2020.01.010DOI Listing
April 2020

Usefulness of Noninvasively Measured Pulse Amplitude Changes During the Valsalva Maneuver to Identify Hospitalized Heart Failure Patients at Risk of 30-Day Heart Failure Events (from the PRESSURE-HF Study).

Am J Cardiol 2020 03 27;125(6):916-923. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

The pulse amplitude ratio (PAR), the ratio of pulse pressure at the end of the Valsalva maneuver to before the onset, correlates with cardiac filling pressure. We have developed a handheld device that uses finger photoplethysmography to measure PAR and estimate left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP). Patients hospitalized with heart failure (HF) performed three 10-second trials of a standardized Valsalva maneuver (at 20 mm Hg measured via pressure transducer), while photoplethysmography waveforms were recorded, at admission and discharge. Combined primary outcome was 30-day HF hospitalization, intravenous diuresis, or death. Fifty-two subjects had discharge PAR testing; 12 met the primary outcome. Median PAR on admission was 0.55 (interquartile range: 0.40 to 0.70, n = 48) and on discharge was 0.50 (interquartile range: 0.36 to 0.69). Mean PAR-estimated LVEDP was significantly higher in subjects that had an event (20.2 vs 16.9 mm Hg, p = 0.043). Subjects with PAR-estimated LVEDP >19.5 mm Hg had an event rate hazard ratio of 4.57 (95% confidence interval 1.37, 15.19, p = 0.013) compared with patients with LVEDP 19.5 mm Hg or below, with significantly lower 30-day event-free survival (log-rank p = 0.006). In conclusion, noninvasively estimated LVEDP using the pulse amplitude response to a Valsalva maneuver in patients hospitalized for HF changes with diuresis and identifies patients at high risk for 30-day HF events. Detection of elevated filling pressures before hospital discharge may be useful in guiding HF management to reduce HF events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2019.12.027DOI Listing
March 2020

Quality of life and treatment preference for ventricular assist device therapy in ambulatory advanced heart failure: A report from the REVIVAL study.

J Heart Lung Transplant 2020 01 20;39(1):27-36. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Background: The Registry Evaluation of Vital Information for Ventricular Assist Devices (VADs) in Ambulatory Life study is a prospective multicenter cohort of 400 ambulatory patients with advanced chronic systolic heart failure (HF). The aim of the study is to better understand disease trajectory and optimal timing of advanced HF therapies. We examined patient health-related quality of life (HRQOL) data collected at enrollment and their association with patient treatment preferences for VAD placement.

Methods: Baseline assessment of HRQOL included the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) and the EuroQol EQ-5D-3L Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), along with patient self-assessment of remaining life (PSARL). Descriptive statistics were used to present baseline HRQOL data and Spearman correlation tests to assess the association between KCCQ, VAS, and VAD treatment preference with patient clinical characteristics of interest.

Results: The median age was 60 years, 75% were male, and the median left ventricular ejection fraction was 20%. The median (25th percentile, 75th percentile), baseline KCCQ summary score was 64 (48, 78), VAS score 65 (50, 75), and PSARL 7 years (5, 10). There were statistically significant associations of baseline KCCQ and VAS with New York Heart Association class and Interagency Registry of Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support profile (p < 0.005 for all comparisons). Baseline KCCQ and VAS revealed a modest association with PSARL (correlation = 0.45 and 0.35, respectively; p < 0.001), and many patients were overly optimistic about their expected survival. VAD treatment preference was associated with KCCQ scores (p < 0.031), but the absolute differences were small. VAD treatment preference was independent of other key clinical characteristics such as subject age, VAS, and PSARL.

Conclusions: We found a lack of strong association between HRQOL and patient preference for VAD therapy. Better understanding of patients' perceptions of their illness and how this relates to HRQOL outcomes, clinician risk assessment, and patient decision-making is needed. This may in turn allow better guidance toward available HF therapies in this vulnerable population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2019.11.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6942204PMC
January 2020

SSRI/SNRI Therapy is Associated With a Higher Risk of Gastrointestinal Bleeding in LVAD Patients.

Heart Lung Circ 2020 Aug 8;29(8):1241-1246. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Charleston, SC, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is common in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) patients. Serotonin release from platelets promotes platelet aggregation, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor/serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SSRI/SNRI) therapy inhibits the transporter responsible for re-uptake.

Methods: We reviewed the records of LVAD (HeartMateII™, Abbott Medical, Lake Bluff, IL, USA and Heartware™, Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) patients at the Medical University of South Carolina and Johns Hopkins Hospital between January 2009 and January 2016. After exclusions, 248 patients were included for analysis. After univariate analysis, logistic regression multivariate analysis was performed to adjust for any demographic, cardiovascular, and laboratory data variables found to be associated with GI bleeding post-LVAD.

Results: Gastrointestinal bleeding occurred in 85 patients (35%) with 55% of GIBs due to arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Of the total cohort, 105 patients received an SSRI or SNRI during LVAD support. Forty-four (44) SSRI/SNRI (41.9%) and 41 non-SSRI/SNRI (28.7%) patients had a GIB (RR 1.46, p = 0.03). Twenty-six (26) (24.8%) of the SSRI/SNRI patients had a GIB due to AVMs versus 21 (14.7%) of the non-SSRI/SNRI patients (RR 1.69, p = 0.05). In fully-adjusted multivariate regression analysis, SSRI/SNRI therapy was independently associated with GIB (OR 1.78, p = 0.045). For GIB, the number needed to harm (NNH) was 7.6.

Conclusion: In conclusion, SSRI/SNRI therapy is independently associated with an increased risk of GIB in LVAD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hlc.2019.07.011DOI Listing
August 2020

Impact of the New Pulmonary Hypertension Definition on Heart Transplant Outcomes: Expanding the Hemodynamic Risk Profile.

Chest 2020 01 22;157(1):151-161. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC. Electronic address:

Background: At the recent 6th World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension (PH), the definition of PH was redefined to include lower pulmonary artery pressures in the setting of elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). However, the relevance of this change to subjects with PH due to left-heart disease as well as the preoperative assessment of heart transplant (HT) recipients is unknown.

Methods: The United Network for Organ Sharing database was queried to identify adult recipients who underwent primary HT from 1996 to 2015. Recipients were subdivided into those with mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) < 25 mm Hg and ≥ 25 mm Hg. Exploratory univariable analysis was undertaken to identify candidate risk factors associated with 30-day and 1-year survival (conditional on 30-day survival) in recipients with mPAP < 25 mm Hg, and subsequently, parsimonious multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to assess the independent association with PVR.

Results: Over the study period, 32,465 patients underwent HT, including 12,257 (38%) with mPAP < 25 mm Hg. The median age was 55 years (interquartile range, 47-62) and the median PVR was 1.5 Wood units (WU) (interquartile range, 1-2.2) in recipients with mPAP < 25 mm Hg. After controlling for confounders, PVR was independently associated with increased risk for 30-day mortality (hazard ratio, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.05-1.27; P < .01), but not conditional 1-year mortality (hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.94-1.12; P = .55). PVR ≥ 3 WU was associated with an absolute 1.9% increase in 30-day mortality in those with mPAP < 25 mm Hg, a similar risk to recipients with PVR ≥ 3 WU and mPAP ≥ 25 mm Hg.

Conclusions: Elevated PVR remains associated with a significant increase in the hazard for 30-day mortality after cardiac transplantation, even in the setting of lower pulmonary artery pressures. These data support the validity of the new definition of pulmonary hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2019.07.028DOI Listing
January 2020

In-Hospital and Postdischarge Mortality Among Patients With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Hospitalizations Ending on the Weekend Versus Weekday: The ARIC Study Community Surveillance.

J Am Heart Assoc 2019 08 19;8(15):e011631. Epub 2019 Jul 19.

University of North Carolina School of Medicine Chapel Hill NC.

Background Hospital staffing is usually reduced on weekends, potentially impacting inpatient care and postdischarge coordination of care for patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). However, investigations of in-hospital mortality on the weekend versus weekday, and post-hospital outcomes of weekend versus weekday discharge are scarce. Methods and Results Hospitalizations for ADHF were sampled by stratified design from 4 US areas by the Community Surveillance component of the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study. ADHF was classified by a standardized computer algorithm and physician review of the medical records. Discharges or deaths on Saturday, Sunday, or national holidays were considered to occur on the "weekend." In-hospital mortality was compared between hospitalizations ending on a weekend versus weekday. Post-hospital (28-day) mortality was compared among patients discharged alive on a weekend versus weekday. From 2005 to 2014, 39 699 weighted ADHF hospitalizations were identified (19% terminating on a weekend). Demographics, comorbidities, length of stay, and guideline-directed therapies were similar for patients with hospitalizations ending on a weekend versus weekday. In-hospital death doubled on the weekend compared with weekday (12% versus 6%) and was not attenuated by adjustment for potential confounders (odds ratio, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.93-2.91). There was no association between weekend discharge and 28-day mortality among patients discharged alive. Conclusions The risk of in-hospital death among patients admitted with ADHF appears to be doubled on the weekends when hospital staffing is usually reduced. However, among patients discharged alive, hospital discharge on a weekend is not adversely associated with mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.118.011631DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6761634PMC
August 2019

Metastatic amelanotic melanoma with cardiac involvement: A case report.

J Cardiol Cases 2019 Feb 10;19(2):59-61. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

Metastatic melanoma has a high rate of cardiac involvement and often presents with non-specific symptoms, including heart failure. We report a case of a 41-year-old woman with a remote history of resected flank melanoma, who presented with heart failure progressing to cardiogenic shock and death. Despite extensive workup including chest computed tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and endomyocardial biopsy, the etiology of her heart failure was not diagnosed until autopsy revealed metastatic amelanotic melanoma. In patients with unexplained heart failure and a history of melanoma, imaging studies including fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography should be included in the workup to guide early diagnosis and treatment. < This case report highlights the importance of maintaining a high clinical suspicion for malignant melanoma in patients presenting with heart failure of uncertain etiology.>.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jccase.2018.10.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6538597PMC
February 2019

Cancer Survivorship and Subclinical Myocardial Damage.

Am J Epidemiol 2019 12;188(12):2188-2195

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.

Cancer survivors might have an excess risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) resulting from toxicities of cancer therapies and a high burden of CVD risk factors. We sought to evaluate the association of cancer survivorship with subclinical myocardial damage, as assessed by elevated high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) test results. We included 3,512 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study who attended visit 5 (2011-2013) and were free of CVD (coronary heart disease, heart failure, or stroke). We used multivariate logistic regression to evaluate the cross-sectional associations of survivorship from any, non-sex-related, and sex-related cancers (e.g., breast, prostate) with elevated hs-cTnT (≥14 ng/L). Of 3,512 participants (mean age, 76 years; 62% women; 21% black), 19% were cancer survivors. Cancer survivors had significantly higher odds of elevated hs-cTnT (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.53). Results were similar for survivors of non-sex-related and colorectal cancers, but there was no association between survivorship from breast and prostate cancers and elevated hs-cTnT. Results were similar after additional adjustments for CVD risk factors. Survivors of some cancers might be more likely to have elevated hs-cTnT than persons without prior cancer. The excess burden of subclinical myocardial damage in this population might not be fully explained by traditional CVD risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212406PMC
December 2019

Effect of Heart Rate Reserve on Exercise Capacity in Patients Treated with a Continuous Left Ventricular Assist Device.

ASAIO J 2020 02;66(2):160-165

From the Department of Cardiology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

We hypothesized that an inadequate increase in heart rate (HR) during exercise was associated with low peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) seen in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) recipients and aimed to analyze the potential relation between HR and VO2 peak and use of drugs with negative chronotropic effect. Sixty-eight LVAD recipients (44 Heartmate 2 and 24 HeartWare Ventricular Assist Device) with support duration >1 month and a VO2 peak were included from two centers. Patients were 57 ± 13 years at time of VO2 peak and LVAD support duration was 483 ± 545 days. Peak oxygen uptake was 12 ± 4 ml/kg/min (40% ± 13% of predicted). Heart rate reserve (HRR = maximal HR - resting HR) was 59 ± 22 min (75% ± 15% of predicted for age, %HRR) and was significantly associated with VO2 peak (r = 0.244, p = 0.045). Predicted heart rate reserve was associated with %Predicted VO2 peak (P = 0.011). Chronotropic incompetence (CI) was observed in 44% and VO2 peak was clearly lower in patients with CI (10 ± 2.7 vs. 13 ± 4.6 ml/kg/min, p = 0.005). Beta-blockers (BB) were prescribed to 85% and adjusting for being on target BB-dose did not affect the correlation between %predicted VO2 peak and %HRR (r = 0.33, p = 0.024). In conclusion, almost half of LVAD recipients suffer from CI which is associated with lower VO2 peak. This relation did not seem to be affected by BB therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MAT.0000000000000955DOI Listing
February 2020

Physiological and Psychological Stress in Patients Living With a Left Ventricular Assist Device.

ASAIO J 2018 Nov/Dec;64(6):e172-e180

From the Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing, Baltimore, Maryland.

Patients with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) commonly experience psychological distress post-implantation, but physiological stress and differences by implant strategy remain unstudied. This study describes indicators of physiological (salivary cortisol, C-reactive protein, sleep quality) and psychological (perceived stress, depression, and fatigue) stress by implant strategy and examines relationships between stress and outcomes (quality of life [QOL] and functional status). Prospective, cross-sectional data were collected from patients ≥3 months post-LVAD implantation (n = 44), and descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used. The study sample was average age 57.7 ± 13 years, mostly male (73%), married (70.5%), and racially diverse. Median LVAD support was 18.2 months. Most had normal cortisol awakening response and fair sleep quality, with moderate psychological stress. There were no differences in stress by implant strategy. Normal cortisol awakening response was correlated with low depressive symptoms. Sleep quality and psychological stress were associated with QOL, whereas cortisol and C-reactive protein levels were associated with functional status. This is the first report of salivary biomarkers and stress in LVAD outpatients. Future research should examine physiological and psychological stress and consider potential clinical implications for stress measurement for tailored approaches to stress management in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MAT.0000000000000847DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6218313PMC
September 2019

Predicting Prognosis in Heart Failure: Important, But Easier Said Than Done.

Authors:
Stuart D Russell

JACC Heart Fail 2018 09 8;6(9):754-756. Epub 2018 Aug 8.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2018.06.003DOI Listing
September 2018

Randomized Evaluation of Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction Patients With Acute Heart Failure and Dopamine: The ROPA-DOP Trial.

JACC Heart Fail 2018 10 8;6(10):859-870. Epub 2018 Aug 8.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Objectives: This study sought to compare a continuous infusion diuretic strategy versus an intermittent bolus diuretic strategy, with the addition of low-dose dopamine (3 μg/kg/min) in the treatment of hospitalized patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF).

Background: HFpEF patients are susceptible to development of worsening renal function (WRF) when hospitalized with acute heart failure; however, inpatient treatment strategies to achieve safe and effective diuresis in HFpEF patients have not been studied to date.

Methods: In a prospective, randomized, clinical trial, 90 HFpEF patients hospitalized with acute heart failure were randomized within 24 h of admission to 1 of 4 treatments: 1) intravenous bolus furosemide administered every 12 h; 2) continuous infusion furosemide; 3) intermittent bolus furosemide with low-dose dopamine; and 4) continuous infusion furosemide with low-dose dopamine. The primary endpoint was percent change in creatinine from baseline to 72 h. Linear and logistic regression analyses with tests for interactions between diuretic and dopamine strategies were performed.

Results: Compared to intermittent bolus strategy, the continuous infusion strategy was associated with higher percent increase in creatinine (continuous infusion: 16.01%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.58% to 23.45% vs. intermittent bolus: 4.62%; 95% CI: -1.15% to 10.39%; p = 0.02). Low-dose dopamine had no significant effect on percent change in creatinine (low-dose dopamine: 12.79%; 95% CI: 5.66% to 19.92%, vs. no-dopamine: 8.03%; 95% CI: 1.44% to 14.62%; p = 0.33). Continuous infusion was also associated with greater risk of WRF than intermittent bolus (odds ratio [OR]: 4.32; 95% CI: 1.26 to 14.74; p = 0.02); no differences in WRF risk were seen with low-dose dopamine. No significant interaction was seen between diuretic strategy and low-dose dopamine (p > 0.10).

Conclusions: In HFpEF patients hospitalized with acute heart failure, low-dose dopamine had no significant impact on renal function, and a continuous infusion diuretic strategy was associated with renal impairment. (Diuretics and Dopamine in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction [ROPA-DOP]; NCT01901809).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2018.04.008DOI Listing
October 2018

Cardiac Events Within the 30-Day Postoperative Period Is Associated With Increased 1-Year Mortality Among Deceased-Donor Liver Transplant Recipients.

Exp Clin Transplant 2019 06 6;17(3):370-374. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

From the Osler Internal Medicine Residency Program, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Objectives: Each year in the United States, approximately 40000 patients with a liver disorder will progress to end-stage liver disease and about 30000 of those patients will subsequently die from this condition. Liver transplant remains the definitive treatment option for end-stage liver disease, and understanding the causes of posttransplant mortality is an ongoing area of investigation.

Materials And Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, patients who underwent orthotopic liver transplant between January 2012 and January 2015 at the Johns Hopkins Hospital Liver Transplant Program were reviewed by a single reviewer for cardiac events in the 30 days after transplant or during the index admission.

Results: Of the 145 patients included, 30 (20.6%) were identified as having experienced a cardiac event during the defined postoperative period. Overall 1-year mortality for the cohort of 145 patients was 11.7%; however, 1-year mortality in those who had a cardiac event was 36.7% compared with 5.2% in the noncardiac event group (odds ratio = 18.17; P < .001). Although there was a statistically significant difference in age between the groups (58.6 vs 52.3 years old), once accounted for in multivariate analysis, a posttransplant cardiac event was still a statistically significant variable in 1-year mortality (odds ratio = 89.16; 95% confidence interval, 2.71-2933.95; P = .012). Similarly, hepatocellular carcinoma, sex, age, and presence of diabetes had little effect on 1-year mortality when we compared those patients who experienced a cardiac event in the first 30 days versus those who did not (odds ratio = 100.82; 95% confidence interval, 2.15-4726.12; P = .019).

Conclusions: Recipients who experience cardiac events within 30 days after transplant have increased 1-year posttransplant mortality. This highlights the importance of cardiac risk stratification before transplant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6002/ect.2017.0276DOI Listing
June 2019

Analysis of carfilzomib cardiovascular safety profile across relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma clinical trials.

Blood Adv 2018 07;2(13):1633-1644

Cardiovascular Division, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO.

Carfilzomib is a selective proteasome inhibitor approved for the treatment of relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). It has significantly improved outcomes, including overall survival (OS), and shown superiority vs standard treatment with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone and bortezomib plus dexamethasone. The incidence rate of cardiovascular (CV) events with carfilzomib treatment has varied across trials. This analysis evaluated phase 1-3 trials with >2000 RRMM patients exposed to carfilzomib to describe the incidence of CV adverse events (AEs). In addition, the individual CV safety data of >1000 patients enrolled in the carfilzomib arm of phase 3 studies were compared with the control arms to assess the benefit-risk profile of carfilzomib. Pooling data across carfilzomib trials, the CV AEs (grade ≥3) noted included hypertension (5.9%), dyspnea (4.5%), and cardiac failure (4.4%). Although patients receiving carfilzomib had a numeric increase in the rates of any-grade and grade ≥3 cardiac failure, dyspnea, and hypertension, the frequency of discontinuation or death due to these cardiac events was low and comparable between the carfilzomib and control arms. Serial echocardiography in a blinded cardiac substudy showed no objective evidence of cardiac dysfunction in the carfilzomib and control arms. Moreover, carfilzomib had no significant effect on cardiac repolarization. Our results, including the OS benefit, showed that the benefit of carfilzomib treatment in terms of reducing progression or death outweighed the risk for developing cardiac failure or hypertension in most patients. Appropriate carfilzomib administration and risk factor management are recommended for elderly patients and patients with underlying risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2017015545DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6039655PMC
July 2018

Predictors of intra-aortic balloon pump hemodynamic failure in non-acute myocardial infarction cardiogenic shock.

Am Heart J 2018 05 13;199:181-191. Epub 2017 Dec 13.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Objectives: To characterize patient profile and hemodynamic profile of those undergoing intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) for cardiogenic shock and define predictors of hemodynamic failure of IABP support.

Background: Clinical characteristics of IABP support in cardiogenic shock not related to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remain poorly characterized.

Methods: We retrospectively studied a cohort of 74 patients from 2010 to 2015 who underwent IABP insertion for cardiogenic shock complicating acute decompensated heart failure not due to AMI.

Results: In the overall cohort, which consisted primarily of patients with chronic systolic heart failure (89%), IABP significantly augmented cardiac index and lowered systemic vascular resistance (P<.05). Despite this improvement, 28% of these patients died (24%) or require urgent escalation in mechanical circulatory support (MCS) (4%). Multivariable regression revealed that baseline left ventricular cardiac power index (LVCPI), a measure of LV power output derived from cardiac index and mean arterial pressure (P=.01), and history of ischemic cardiomyopathy (P=.003) were significantly associated with the composite adverse-event endpoint of death or urgent MCS escalation. An IABP Failure risk score using baseline LVCPI <0.28 W/m and ischemic history predicted 28-day adverse events with excellent discrimination.

Conclusion: Despite hemodynamic improvements with IABP support, patients with non-AMI cardiogenic shock still suffer poor outcomes. Patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and low LVPCI fared significantly worse. These patients may warrant closer observation or earlier consideration of more advanced hemodynamic support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2017.11.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5955398PMC
May 2018

Social Support Moderates the Relationship Between Perceived Stress and Quality of Life in Patients With a Left Ventricular Assist Device.

J Cardiovasc Nurs 2018 Sep/Oct;33(5):E1-E9

Martha Abshire, PhD, RN Assistant Professor, Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing, Baltimore, Maryland. Stuart D. Russell, MD Instructor, School of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. Patricia M. Davidson, PhD, RN, FAAN Dean and Professor, Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing, Baltimore, Maryland. Chakra Budhathoki, PhD Assistant Professor, Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing, Baltimore, Maryland. Hae-Ra Han, PhD, RN, FAAN Professor, Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing, Baltimore, Maryland. Kathleen L. Grady, PhD, RN, FAAN Professor, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois. Shashank Desai, MD Medical Director, Heart Failure and Transplant Program, Inova Heart and Vascular Institute, Falls Church, Virginia. Cheryl Dennison Himmelfarb, PhD, ANP, RN, FAAN Professor, Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing, Baltimore, Maryland.

Background: Living with a left ventricular assist device has significant psychosocial sequelae that affect health-related quality of life (HRQOL).

Objective: The purpose of this study was to (1) describe psychosocial indicators of stress including perceived stress, depression, fatigue, and coping; (2) examine relationships among stress indicators by level of perceived stress; (3) examine relationships among indicators of stress and clinical outcomes; and (4) test the moderation of social support on the relationship between stress and clinical outcomes.

Methods: Participants were recruited from 2 outpatient clinics in a cross-sectional study design. Standardized measures were self-administered via survey. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and multiple linear regression analysis were conducted.

Results: The sample (N = 62) was mostly male (78%), black (47%), and married (66%), with a mean age of 56.5 ± 13 years. The overall sample had a moderate stress profile: moderate perceived stress (mean, 11.7 ± 7), few depressive symptoms (mean, 3.2 ± 3.9), and moderate fatigue (mean, 14.3 ± 9.1). Increased perceived stress was associated with fatigue, depressive symptoms, and maladaptive coping (P < .001). Regression analysis demonstrated that perceived stress and fatigue were significant correlates of overall HRQOL (adj. R = 0.41, P < .0001). Social support moderated the relationship between perceived stress and HRQOL, controlling for fatigue (R = 0.49, P < .001).

Conclusions: Individuals living with left ventricular assist device with high perceived stress have worse depressive symptoms, fatigue, and coping. The influence of high social support to improve the relationship between stress and HRQOL underscores the importance of a comprehensive plan to address psychosocial factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCN.0000000000000487DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6086746PMC
November 2019

Preoperative Echocardiographic Differences and Transplant Outcomes Among Patients Receiving Simultaneous Liver-Kidney Versus Liver Transplant Alone.

Exp Clin Transplant 2018 Mar;16 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):9-13

From the Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Objectives: Liver transplant and simultaneous liver-kidney transplant are major surgeries performed on high-risk individuals with end-stage liver disease and end-stage renal disease. We sought to examine the relationship between pretransplant echocardiographic parameters and outcomes in our simultaneous liver-kidney transplant and liver transplant-alone populations.

Materials And Methods: In our retrospective analysis, we included adult patients who underwent index transplant from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015 at Johns Hopkins Comprehensive Transplant Center.

Results: Our study included 312 patients, 266 who underwent liver transplant alone and 46 who underwent simultaneous liver-kidney transplant. Baseline population demographics were similar in both groups of patients. Primary diagnosis at transplant was similar in both groups except that patients undergoing liver transplant were more likely to have a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, whereas those undergoing simultaneous liver-kidney transplant were more likely to have polycystic kidney disease. Within the liver transplant-alone group, the strongest demographic predictor of poor outcome was age at transplant. The strongest echocar diographic predictors were related to elevated left ventricular ejection fraction and right ventricular systolic pressure.

Conclusions: In our investigation regarding whether the pretransplant cardiovascular evaluation predicted outcomes for patients undergoing liver transplant alone and patients undergoing simultaneous liver-kidney transplant, we found that elevations in right ventricular systolic pressure and left ventricular ejection fraction may be associated with poor outcomes in the posttransplant period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6002/ect.TOND-TDTD2017.L34DOI Listing
March 2018

Trends in Hospitalizations and Survival of Acute Decompensated Heart Failure in Four US Communities (2005-2014): ARIC Study Community Surveillance.

Circulation 2018 07 8;138(1):12-24. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

Epidemiology (L.R.L., W.D.R.), University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

Background: Community trends of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) in diverse populations may differ by race and sex.

Methods: The ARIC study (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) sampled heart failure-related hospitalizations (≥55 years of age) in 4 US communities from 2005 to 2014 using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. ADHF hospitalizations were validated by standardized physician review and computer algorithm, yielding 40 173 events after accounting for sampling design (unweighted n=8746).

Results: Of the ADHF hospitalizations, 50% had reduced ejection fraction, and 39% had preserved EF (HFpEF). HF with reduced ejection fraction was more common in black men and white men, whereas HFpEF was most common in white women. Average age-adjusted rates of ADHF were highest in blacks (38.1 per 1000 black men, 30.5 per 1000 black women), with rates differing by HF type and sex. ADHF rates increased over the 10 years (average annual percentage change: black women +4.3%, black men +3.7%, white women +1.9%, white men +2.6%), mostly reflecting more acute HFpEF. Age-adjusted 28-day and 1-year case fatality proportions were ≈10% and 30%, respectively, similar across race-sex groups and HF types. Only blacks showed decreased 1-year mortality over time (average annual percentage change: black women -5.4%, black men -4.6%), with rates differing by HF type (average annual percentage change: black women HFpEF -7.1%, black men HF with reduced ejection fraction -4.7%).

Conclusions: Between 2005 and 2014, trends in ADHF hospitalizations increased in 4 US communities, primarily driven by acute HFpEF. Survival at 1 year was poor regardless of EF but improved over time for black women and black men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.027551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6030442PMC
July 2018