Publications by authors named "Stig Lenhoff"

52 Publications

Organ sparing total marrow irradiation compared to total body irradiation prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

Eur J Haematol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Radiation Physics, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Radiation Physics, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

Objectives: Total body irradiation (TBI) is commonly used prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in myeloablative conditioning regimens. However, TBI may be replaced by total marrow irradiation (TMI) at centers with access to Helical TomoTherapy, a modality that has the advantage of delivering intensity modulated radiotherapy to long targets such as the entire bone marrow compartment. Toxicity after organ sparing TMI prior to HSCT has not previously been reported compared to TBI or with regards to engraftment data.

Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study on 37 patients that received organ sparing TMI prior to HSCT and compared this cohort to retrospective data on 33 patients that received TBI prior to HSCT.

Results: The 1-year graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) was 67.5% for all patients treated with TMI and 80.5% for patients with matched unrelated donor and treated with TMI, which was a significant difference from historical data on TBI patients with a Hazard Ratio of 0.45 (p=.03) and 0.24 (p<.01). Engraftment with a platelet count over 20 [K/µL] and 50 [K/µL] was significantly shorter for the TMI group and neutrophil recovery was satisfactory in both treatment cohorts. There was generally a low occurrence of other treatment-related toxicities.

Conclusions: Despite small cohorts, some significant differences were found; TMI as part of the myeloablative conditioning yields a high 1-year GRFS, fast and robust engraftment, and low occurrence of acute toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13675DOI Listing
June 2021

Prognostic impact of early-versus-late responses to different induction regimens in patients with myeloma undergoing autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation: Results from the CALM study by the CMWP of the EBMT.

Eur J Haematol 2021 May 27;106(5):708-715. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

University Hospital of Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, INSERM, Infinite, Lille, France.

Background: In autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT)-eligible myeloma patients, prolonged induction does not necessarily improve the depth of response.

Method: We analyzed 1222 ASCT patients who were classified based on (a) the interval between induction and stem cell collection, (b) the type of induction regimen: BID (Bortezomib, IMiDs, and Dexamethasone), Bortezomib-based, or CTD (Cyclophosphamide, Thalidomide, and Dexamethasone), and (c) the time to best response (Early ie, best response within 4 or 5 months, depending on the regimen vs Late; Good ie, VGPR or better vs Poor).

Results: The length of induction treatment required to achieve a Good response did not affect PFS (P = .65) or OS (P = .61) post-ASCT. The three types of regimen resulted in similar outcomes: median PFS 31, 27.7 and 30.8 months (P = .31), and median OS 81.7, 92.7, and 77.4 months, respectively (P = .83). On multivariate analysis, neither the type nor the duration of the induction regimen affected OS and PFS, except for Early Good Responders who had a better PFS compared to Early Poor Responders (HR = 1.21, P-value = .02). However, achieving a Good response at induction was associated with a better response (≥VGPR) post-transplant.

Conclusion: The kinetics of response did not affect outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13602DOI Listing
May 2021

Development of acoustically isolated extracellular plasma vesicles for biomarker discovery in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Biomark Res 2021 Jan 19;9(1). Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Division of Molecular Hematology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund Stem Cell Center, Lund University, BMC B12, Klinikgatan 26, 22184, Lund, Sweden.

Background: Infection and graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) are the major causes for mortality and morbidity of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Plasma-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) contain disease-related proteins, DNAs and RNAs, and have recently been suggested as potential biomarker candidates for transplantation complications. However, EV isolation from small plasma volumes in clinical biomarker studies using conventional methods is challenging. We therefore investigated if EVs isolated by novel automated acoustic trapping could be developed as potential biomarkers for allo-HSCT complications by performing a clinical proof-of-principle study.

Results: Plasma samples were collected from twenty consecutive patients with high-risk/relapsed hematologic malignancies undergoing allo-HSCT before transplantation and post-transplant up to 12 weeks. EVs were isolated from small plasma sample volumes (150 μl) by an automated, acoustofluidic-based particle trapping device, which utilizes a local λ/2 ultrasonic standing wave in a borosilicate glass capillary to capture plasma EVs among pre-seeded polystyrene microbeads through sound scatter interactions. We found that EVs could be reliably isolated from all plasma samples (n = 173) and that EV numbers increased more than 2-fold in the majority of patients after transplantation. Also, sufficient quantities of RNA for downstream microRNA (miRNA) analysis were obtained from all samples and EV miRNA profiles were found to differ from whole plasma profiles. As a proof of principle, expression of platelet-specific miR-142-3p in EVs was shown to correlate with platelet count kinetics after transplantation as expected. Importantly, we identified plasma EV miRNAs that were consistently positively correlated with infection and GvHD, respectively, as well as miRNAs that were consistently negatively correlated with these complications.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that acoustic enrichment of EVs in a clinical biomarker study setting is feasible and that downstream analysis of acoustically-enriched EVs presents a promising tool for biomarker development in allo-HSCT. Certainly, these findings warrant further exploration in larger studies, which will have significant implications not only for biomarker studies in transplantation but also for the broad field of EV-based biomarker discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40364-020-00259-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7814576PMC
January 2021

Upfront stem cell transplantation for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma with del(17p) and t(4;14): a study from the CMWP-EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 01 24;56(1):210-217. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

We analyzed newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients with del(17p) and/or t(4;14) undergoing either upfront single autologous (auto), tandem autologous (auto-auto) or tandem autologous/reduced-intensity allogeneic (auto-allo) stem cell transplantation. 623 patients underwent either auto (n = 446), auto-auto (n = 105), or auto-allo (n = 72) between 2000 and 2015. 46% of patients had t(4;14), 45% had del(17p) while 9% were reported having both abnormalities. Five-year overall survival (OS) was 51% (95% confidence interval [CI], 45-58%) for single auto, 60% (95% CI, 49-72%) for auto-auto, and 67% (95% CI, 53-80%) for auto-allo (p = 0.187). Five-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 17% (95% CI, 12-22%), 33% (95% CI, 22-43%), and 34% (95% CI, 21-38%; p = 0.048). Five-year relapse rate was 82, 63, and 56%, while non-relapse mortality was 1, 4, and 10%. In multivariable analysis, in t(4;14) with single auto as reference, auto-auto (hazard ratio [HR], 0.44; p = 0.007) and auto-allo (HR, 0.45; p = 0.018) were associated with better PFS. In terms of t(4;14) and OS, auto-auto appeared to improve outcome compared with single auto (HR, 0.49; p = 0.096). In del(17p), outcome in PFS was similar between single auto and auto-auto, while auto-allo appeared to improve PFS (HR, 0.65; p = 0.097). No significant difference in OS was identified between the groups in patients with del(17p).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01007-wDOI Listing
January 2021

Intensive immunosuppression followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

Ther Adv Neurol Disord 2020 24;13:1756286420929467. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Hematology, Oncology and Radiophysics, Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) has mostly been used in devastating cases as the last option to stop further neurological deterioration. However, evidence from several retrospective clinical trials indicates that young, less disabled patients with highly inflammatory active MS are the most likely to benefit from AHSCT, and after moving from high-intensity to nonmyeloablative procedures the tolerability of AHSCT has increased and its associated risk and mortality have declined considerably. Recent meta-analyses and randomized clinical trials show that AHSCT is more effective than currently approved disease-modifying therapies (DMTs), with suppression of disease activity in 70-90% of patients and long-term cessation of disease activity in two-thirds of treated patients. The rationale for AHSCT is to eliminate autoimmunity and achieve immune resetting by intense immunosuppression followed by infusion of autologous hematopoietic stem cells. Similar effects on the immune system have been suggested for cladribine and alemtuzumab treatment and, together with AHSCT, they constitute the induction or immune-reconstitution therapies for MS. Although, further randomized controlled trials of AHSCT for MS are needed, it has become clear that improved patient selection and lower intensity conditioning regimens have reduced AHSCT associated risks and mortality and strengthened the position of AHSCT among other DMTs. Do we have enough experience and scientific support for AHSCT in MS to move from an exclusive treatment for aggressive, treatment-resistant MS and acquire broader indications, similar to other effective DMTs?
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1756286420929467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315665PMC
June 2020

Results from a multicenter, noninterventional registry study for multiple myeloma patients who received stem cell mobilization regimens with and without plerixafor.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 02 18;55(2):356-366. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

University Hospital, Hamburg, Germany.

Plerixafor plus granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhances the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for collection and subsequent autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). This international, multicenter, noninterventional registry study (NCT01362972), evaluated long-term outcomes for MM patients who received plerixafor versus other mobilization regimens. The comparisons were: G-CSF + plerixafor (G-CSF + P) versus G-CSF-; G-CSF + P versus G-CSF + chemotherapy (G-CSF + C); and G-CSF + P + C versus G-CSF + C. Propensity score matching was used to balance groups. Primary outcome measures were progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) after transplantation. After propensity matching, 77 versus 41 patients in the G-CSF + P versus G-CSF cohorts, 129 versus 129 in the G-CSF + P versus G-CSF + C cohorts, and 117 versus 117 in the G-CSF + P + C versus G-CSF + C cohorts were matched, respectively. Propensity score matching resulted in a smaller sample size and imbalances were not completely overcome. For both PFS and OS, the upper limits of the hazard ratio 95% confidence intervals exceeded prespecified boundaries; noninferiority was not demonstrated. CIR rates were higher in the plerixafor cohorts. G-CSF + P remains an option for the mobilization of HSCs in poor mobilizers with MM with no substantial differences in PFS, OS, and CIR in comparison with other regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0676-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6995780PMC
February 2020

Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia and the Role of Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation in a Population-Based Setting.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 09 6;25(9):1770-1778. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Secondary AML (s-AML), including AML with an antecedent hematologic disorder (AHD-AML) and therapy-related AML (t-AML), constitutes a large proportion of patients with AML and is considered to confer a dismal prognosis. The role of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with s-AML and the extent to which HCT is performed in these patients has been little studied to date. We used the population-based Swedish AML Registry comprising 3337 intensively treated adult patients over a 17-year period to study the role of HCT within the group of patients with s-AML as well as compared with patients with de novo AML. HCT was performed in 576 patients (22%) with de novo AML, in 74 patients (17%) with AHD-AML, and in 57 patients (20%) with t-AML. At 5 years after diagnosis, there were no survivors among patients with previous myeloproliferative neoplasms who did not undergo HCT, and corresponding survival for patients with antecedent myelodysplastic syndromes and t-AML was and 2% and 4%, respectively. HCT was compared with chemotherapy consolidation in s-AML using 3 models: (1) a 200-day landmark analysis, in which HCT was favorable compared with conventional consolidation (P = .04, log-rank test); (2) a multivariable Cox regression with HCT as a time-dependent variable, in which the hazard ratio for mortality was 0.73 (95% confidence interval, 0.64 to 0.83) for HCT and favored HCT in all subgroups; and (3) a propensity score matching analysis, in which the 5-year overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival in patients with s-AML in first complete remission (CR1) was 48% and 43%, respectively, for patients undergoing HCT versus 20% and 21%, respectively, for those receiving chemotherapy consolidation (P = .01 and .02, respectively, log-rank test). Our observational data suggest that HCT improves survival and offers the only realistic curative treatment option in patients with s-AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.05.038DOI Listing
September 2019

High Graft-versus-Host Disease-Free, Relapse/Rejection-Free Survival and Similar Outcome of Related and Unrelated Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation for Aplastic Anemia: A Nationwide Swedish Cohort Study.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 10 4;25(10):1970-1974. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Section of Hematology and Coagulation, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) as primary treatment for aplastic anemia (AA) is being increasingly used. Yet, age, stem cell source, and donor type are important outcome factors. We have recently performed a nationwide cohort study of all patients with AA in Sweden diagnosed from 2000 to 2011 and now present outcome data on SCT patients. In total, 68 patients underwent SCT, and 63% of them had failed immunosuppressive therapy. We found that, with a median follow-up of 109 months (range, 35 to 192 months), 5-year overall survival (OS) for all patients was 86.8%, whereas graft-versus-host disease-free, relapse/rejection-free survival (GRFS) at 5 years was 69.1%. There was no survival impact regarding the donor type or stem cell source. Patients aged ≥40 years had a higher transplant-related mortality (29.4% versus 7.8%; P = .023), which translated into a lower 5-year OS: 70.6% versus 92.2% (P = .022) and a trend of lower GRFS (52.9% versus 74.5%; P = .069). In conclusion, we found in this real-world setting that both OS and GRFS were high, but SCT for patients with AA aged ≥40 years is problematic, and clinical trials addressing this issue are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.05.032DOI Listing
October 2019

Implementing safe and robust Total Marrow Irradiation using Helical Tomotherapy - A practical guide.

Phys Med 2019 Apr 6;60:162-167. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Department of Haematology, Oncology and Radiation Physics, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

Total Marrow Irradiation (TMI) with Helical Tomotherapy is a radiotherapy treatment technique that targets bone marrow and sanctuary sites prior to stem cell or bone marrow transplantation (SCT/BMT). TMI is a complex procedure that involves several critical steps that all need to be carefully addressed for a successful implementation, such as dose homogeneity in field junctions, choice of target margins, integrity of treatment and back-up planning. In this work we present our solution for a robust and reproducible workflow throughout the treatment chain and data for twenty-three patients treated to date.

Material & Methods: Patients were immobilized in a whole body vacuum cushion and thermoplastic mask. CT-scanning and treatment were performed in two parts with field matching at the upper thigh. Target consisted of marrow containing bone and sanctuary sites. Lungs, kidneys, bowel, heart and liver were defined as organs at risk (OAR). A fast surface scanning system was used to position parts of the body not covered by the imaging system (MVCT) as well as to reduce treatment time.

Results: All patients completed their treatment and could proceed with SCT/BMT. Doses to OARs were significantly reduced and target dose homogeneity was improved compared to TBI. Robustness tests performed on field matching and patient positioning support that the field junction technique is adequate. Replacing MVCT with optical surface scanning reduced the treatment time by 25 min per fraction.

Conclusion: The methodology presented here has shown to provide a safe, robust and reproducible treatment for Total Marrow Irradiation using Tomotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmp.2019.03.032DOI Listing
April 2019

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia in the TKI era: population-based data from the Swedish CML registry.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 11 8;54(11):1764-1774. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Medical Sciences, Division of Hematology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.

Two decades after the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), a sizeable portion of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in chronic phase (CP) still undergo allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We investigated the indications for allo-HSCT, clinical outcome, management of relapse, and post-transplant TKI treatment in a population-based setting using the Swedish CML registry. Of 118 CML patients transplanted between 2002 and 2017, 56 (47.4%) received allo-HSCT in first CP, among whom TKI resistance was the most common transplant indication (62.5%). For patients diagnosed with CML in CP at <65 years of age, the cumulative probability of undergoing allo-HSCT within 5 years was 9.7%. Overall 5-year survival was 96.2%, 70.1% and 36.9% when transplanted in first CP, second or later CP, and in accelerated phase or blast crisis, respectively. Risk factors for relapse were EBMT score >2 and reduced intensity conditioning, and for death, CP > 2 at time point of allo-HSCT only. Non-relapse mortality for patients transplanted in CP was 11.6%. Our data indicate that allo-HSCT still constitutes a reasonable therapeutic option for patients with CML in first CP, especially those resistant to TKI treatment, providing high long-term survival and low non-relapse mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0513-5DOI Listing
November 2019

Clinical predictors of long-term survival in newly diagnosed transplant eligible multiple myeloma - an IMWG Research Project.

Blood Cancer J 2018 11 23;8(12):123. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

service d'Hematologie, CHU de Nantes, Nantes, France.

Purpose: multiple myeloma is considered an incurable hematologic cancer but a subset of patients can achieve long-term remissions and survival. The present study examines the clinical features of long-term survival as it correlates to depth of disease response.

Patients & Methods: this was a multi-institutional, international, retrospective analysis of high-dose melphalan-autologous stem cell transplant (HDM-ASCT) eligible MM patients included in clinical trials. Clinical variable and survival data were collected from 7291 MM patients from Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Korea, Spain, the Nordic Myeloma Study Group and the United States. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to assess progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Relative survival (RS) and statistical cure fractions (CF) were computed for all patients with available data.

Results: achieving CR at 1 year was associated with superior PFS (median PFS 3.3 years vs. 2.6 years, p < 0.0001) as well as OS (median OS 8.5 years vs. 6.3 years, p < 0.0001). Clinical variables at diagnosis associated with 5-year survival and 10-year survival were compared with those associated with 2-year death. In multivariate analysis, age over 65 years (OR 1.87, p = 0.002), IgA Isotype (OR 1.53, p = 0.004), low albumin < 3.5 g/dL (OR = 1.36, p = 0.023), elevated beta 2 microglobulin ≥ 3.5 mg/dL (OR 1.86, p < 0.001), serum creatinine levels ≥ 2 mg/dL (OR 1.77, p = 0.005), hemoglobin levels < 10 g/dL (OR 1.55, p = 0.003), and platelet count < 150k/μL (OR 2.26, p < 0.001) appeared to be negatively associated with 10-year survival. The relative survival for the cohort was ~0.9, and the statistical cure fraction was 14.3%.

Conclusions: these data identify CR as an important predictor of long-term survival for HDM-ASCT eligible MM patients. They also identify clinical variables reflective of higher disease burden as poor prognostic markers for long-term survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-018-0155-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6251924PMC
November 2018

Minimal residual disease assessed with deep sequencing of NPM1 mutations predicts relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplant in AML.

Leuk Lymphoma 2019 02 2;60(2):409-417. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

a Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine , Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg , Gothenburg , Sweden.

Mutations in NPM1 can be used for minimal residual disease (MRD) analysis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We here applied a newly introduced method, deep sequencing, allowing for simultaneous analysis of all recurrent NPM1 insertions and thus constituting an attractive alternative to multiple PCRs for the clinical laboratory. We retrospectively used deep sequencing for measurement of MRD pre- and post-allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT). For 29 patients in morphological remission at the time of alloHCT, the effect of deep sequencing MRD on outcome was assessed. MRD positivity was defined as variant allele frequency ≥0.02%. Post-transplant MRD status was significantly and independently associated with clinical outcome; 3-year relapse-free survival 20% vs 85% (p < .001), HR 45 (95% CI 2-1260), and overall survival 20% vs 89% (p < .001), HR 49 (95% CI 2-1253). Thus, the new methodology deep sequencing is an applicable and predictive tool for MRD assessment in AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2018.1485910DOI Listing
February 2019

Low response rate to ATG-based immunosuppressive therapy in very severe aplastic anaemia - A Swedish nationwide cohort study.

Eur J Haematol 2018 Jun 10;100(6):613-620. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Objectives: Antithymocyte globulin (ATG)-based immunosuppression remains a cornerstone in aplastic anaemia (AA) treatment. However, most ATG studies are not population-based and knowledge about real-world results concerning response and outcome could offer important information for treating physicians.

Methods: We have recently performed a nationwide retrospective cohort study on all AA patients diagnosed in Sweden in 2000-2011 and now present treatment and outcome data on patients receiving first-line ATG. In total, 158 patients showed a 47.0% response rate which was similar in all age groups (range 41.5%-51.7%) with no difference regarding ATG formulation. The response was significantly associated with severity grade-especially at time of treatment initiation: very severe (VSAA) 22.7%; severe (SAA) 54.5% (P < .001); and non-severe 88.5% (P < .001). A logistic regression-based predictive model indicated that VSAA patients with an absolute reticulocyte count <25 × 10 /L had only a 19% probability of response. In a multivariable analysis, age and VSAA at the time of treatment were the independent factors for inferior survival.

Conclusions: Real-world VSAA patients respond poorly to ATG which indicates the need for a different treatment approach. Our findings suggest that age alone should not be a discriminating factor for administering ATG treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13057DOI Listing
June 2018

Impact of extramedullary disease in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation: a study from the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the EBMT.

Haematologica 2018 05 1;103(5):890-897. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, University Medical Center Hamburg- Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany

We investigated extramedullary disease in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients and its impact on outcome following first-line autologous stem cell transplantation. We identified 3744 adult myeloma patients who received up-front single (n=3391) or tandem transplantation (n=353) between 2005 and 2014 with available data on extramedullary involvement at diagnosis. The overall incidence of extramedullary disease was 18.2% (n=682) and increased per year from 6.5% (2005) to 23.7% (2014). Paraskeletal involvement was found in 543 (14.5%) and extramedullary organ involvement in 139 (3.7%). More patients with extramedullary organ involvement had multiple involved sites (≥2; <0.001). In a comparison of patients with single sites with patients without the disease, up-front transplantation resulted in at least similar 3-year progression-free survival (paraskeletal: =0.86, and extramedullary organ: =0.88). In single paraskeletal involvement, this translated less clearly into worse 3-year overall survival (=0.07) while single organ involvement was significantly worse (=0.001). Multiple organ sites were associated with worse outcome (<0.001 and =0.01). First-line treatment with tandem compared with single transplantation resulted in similar survival in patients with extramedullary disease at diagnosis (=0.13 for both).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2017.178434DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5927971PMC
May 2018

Incidence of Second Primary Malignancies after Autologous Transplantation for Multiple Myeloma in the Era of Novel Agents.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 05 12;24(5):930-936. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

The advent of novel agents for multiple myeloma (MM) is cause for a re-examination of the incidence of second primary malignancies (SPMs). We examined the SPM rate in MM patients who were enrolled in the prospective observational CALM (Collaboration to Collect Autologous Transplant outcome in Lymphoma and Myeloma) study. Between 2008 and 2012, 3204 patients with MM underwent a first autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Plerixafor was used as a mobilizing agent for patients with poor (or potentially poor) stem cell mobilization as defined by the respective centers. A total of 135 patients developed SPMs, with a cumulative incidence of 5.3% (95% confidence interval, 4.4 to 6.3) at 72 months. Ninety-four patients developed solid tumors, 30 developed hematologic malignancies, and 11 developed an SPM of an unknown type. The cumulative incidence of known hematologic and solid malignancies were 1.4% and 3.6%, respectively, at 72 months. In a univariate analysis, use of radiotherapy, type of induction regimen, hematopoietic stem cell dose, poor mobilizer status, plerixafor use, and sex did not influence the cumulative incidence of SPMs. Only age over 65 years was statistically associated with an increased incidence. Overall, the incidence of SPMs was comparable to earlier estimations of SPMs in MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.01.006DOI Listing
May 2018

Melphalan 140 mg/m or 200 mg/m for autologous transplantation in myeloma: results from the Collaboration to Collect Autologous Transplant Outcomes in Lymphoma and Myeloma (CALM) study. A report by the EBMT Chronic Malignancies Working Party.

Haematologica 2018 03 7;103(3):514-521. Epub 2017 Dec 7.

University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Melphalan at a dose of 200 mg/m is standard conditioning prior to autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma, but a dose of 140 mg/m is often used in clinical practice in patients perceived to be at risk of excess toxicity. To determine whether melphalan 200 mg/m and melphalan 140 mg/m are equally effective and tolerable in clinically relevant patient subgroups we analyzed 1964 first single autologous transplantation episodes using a series of Cox proportional-hazards models. Overall survival, progression-free survival, cumulative incidence of relapse, non-relapse mortality, hematopoietic recovery and second primary malignancy rates were not significantly different between the melphalan 140 mg/m (n=245) and melphalan 200 mg/m (n=1719) groups. Multivariable subgroup analysis showed that disease status at transplantation interacted with overall survival, progression-free survival, and cumulative incidence of relapse, with a significant advantage associated with melphalan 200 mg/m in patients transplanted in less than partial response (adjusted hazard ratios for melphalan 200 mg/m melphalan 140 mg/m: 0.5, 0.54, and 0.56). In contrast, transplantation in very good partial or complete response significantly favored melphalan 140 mg/m for overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.02). Age, renal function, prior proteasome inhibitor treatment, gender, or Karnofsky score did not interact with overall/progression-free survival or relapse rate in the melphalan dose groups. There were no significant survival or relapse rate differences between melphalan 200 mg/m and melphalan 140 mg/m patients with high-risk or standard-risk chromosomal abnormalities. In conclusion, remission status at the time of transplantation may favor the use of melphalan 200 mg/m or melphalan 140 mg/m for key transplant outcomes (NCT01362972).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2017.181339DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5830386PMC
March 2018

Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation for Myelodysplastic Syndrome Patients with a 5q Deletion.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 03 28;24(3):507-513. Epub 2017 Nov 28.

Department of Haematology, University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

The deletion (5q) karyotype (del [5q]) in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is the most common karyotypic abnormality in de novo MDS. An increased number of blasts and additional karyotypic abnormalities (del [5q]+) are associated with a poor outcome. We analyzed the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants (HCT) in patients suffering from MDS with only del (5q) or del (5q)+ . A total of 162 patients, of median age 54 years (range, 9 to 73), having MDS and del (5q) abnormalities received HCT from identical siblings (n = 87) or unrelated donors (n = 75). The cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality and relapse incidence at 4 years was 29% (95% CI, 22 to 36) and 46% (95% CI, 38 to 54), whereas the estimated 4 year survival, relapse-free and overall, was 25% (95% CI, 18 to 33) and 30% (95% CI, 23 to 38), respectively. In a multivariate analysis patients with del (5q) and a blast excess displayed poorer survival (hazard ratio, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.44 to 3.93; P < .001), whereas female recipient sex resulted in improved survival (hazard ratio, .61; 95% CI, .41 to .90; P = .01). We conclude that allogeneic HCT can cure a subset of patients with MDS and a del (5q) abnormality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.11.017DOI Listing
March 2018

Relatively favorable outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for BCR-ABL1-positive AML: A survey from the acute leukemia working party of the European Society for blood and marrow transplantation (EBMT).

Am J Hematol 2018 01 31;93(1):31-39. Epub 2017 Oct 31.

Hôpital Saint Antoine, ALWP office, Service d'Hématologie et de Thérapie cellulaire, Paris, France.

The aim of the study was to assess the role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in patients diagnosed with BCR-ABL1-positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Fifty-seven patients (median age, 48 years, range: 19-67) with BCR-ABL1 positive AML undergoing SCT were identified. The majority of the patients (70%) received a TKI before the transplant. At SCT 48 patients were in CR (45 in CR1), while 9 patients were transplanted in a more advanced stage of the disease. MRD was negative (BCR-ABL1/ABL < 10 ) at time of SCT in 36.1% (14/40). After SCT, 16 (61.5%) out of 26 patients with MRD positive at transplantation reached MRD negativity. After a median follow-up of 6.3 years (0.7-14.2), NRM, RI, LFS, OS, and GRFS at 5 years were 18.1%, 37%, 44.2%, 53.8%, and 32.1%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of acute GvHD grade II-IV was 16.4%, incidence of chronic GvHD 24.9%, and of extensive cGvHD 21.4%, respectively. In patients who received SCT in CR1, 5-yr NRM, RI, LFS, OS, and GRFS were 15.9%, 36.4%, 46.5%, 59.4%, and 34.9%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that age (<50 vs. ≥50 years) was associated with RI (5-yr: 22.7 vs. 50%), LFS (5-yr: 61.9 vs. 31.8%), and GRFS (5-yr: 52.4 vs. 18.2%), whereas MRD-negative status before SCT was associated with an improved GRFS (38.9 vs. 16.7%). We conclude that the outcome of patients <50 years of age with BCR-ABL1-positive AML receiving allogeneic SCT in CR is relatively favorable, possibly reflecting the beneficial effect of the use of TKI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.24928DOI Listing
January 2018

Short-term side effects and attitudes towards second donation: A comparison of related and unrelated haematopoietic stem cell donors.

J Clin Apher 2018 Jun 18;33(3):226-235. Epub 2017 Aug 18.

Department of Haematology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.

The Nordic Register of Haematopoietic Stem Cell Donors (NRHSD) has registered related and unrelated donors from 10 transplant centres in Sweden, Norway, Finland and Denmark since 1998. We present a prospective, observational study of 1,957 donors, focusing mainly on the differences between related and unrelated donors. Related donors are reported to have more comorbidities, but similar side effects compared with unrelated donors. Side effects after BM or PBSC donation are generally of short duration and in this study no deaths, myocardial infarctions, splenic ruptures, or thromboembolic events are reported. Interestingly, related donors express more hesitancy towards donating again when asked 1 month after donation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jca.21576DOI Listing
June 2018

Incidence and outcome of acquired aplastic anemia: real-world data from patients diagnosed in Sweden from 2000-2011.

Haematologica 2017 10 27;102(10):1683-1690. Epub 2017 Jul 27.

South Älvsborg Hospital Borås, Sweden.

A plastic anemia is a rare life-threatening disease. However, since the introduction of immunosuppressive therapy and allogeneic stem cell transplantation, the outcome has improved considerably, and the 5-year survival is reported to be 70-80% in selected patient cohorts. Yet, contemporary population-based data on incidence and survival are lacking. We performed a national retrospective study to determine the incidence, treatment, and survival of patients with aplastic anemia diagnosed in Sweden from 2000-2011. Patients were included via the National Patient Registry, and diagnosed according to the Camitta criteria. In total, 257 confirmed cases were identified, with an overall incidence of 2.35 (95% CI: 2.06-2.64) cases per million inhabitants per year. Median age was 60 years (range: 2-92), and median follow up was 76 (0-193) months. Primary treatments included immunosuppressive therapy (63%), allogenic stem cell transplantation (10%), or single-agent cyclosporine/no specific therapy (27%). The 5-year survival was 90.7% in patients aged 0-18 years, 90.5% in patients aged 19-39 years, 70.7% in patients aged 40-59 years, and 38.1% in patients aged ≥60 years. Multivariate analysis showed that age (both 40-59 and ≥60 age groups), very severe aplastic anemia and single-agent cyclosporine/no specific therapy were independent risk factors for inferior survival. In conclusion, younger aplastic anemia patients experience a very good long-term survival, while that of patients ≥60 years in particular remains poor. Apparently, the challenge today is to improve the management of older aplastic anemia patients, and prospective studies to address this medical need are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2017.169862DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5622852PMC
October 2017

Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for multiple myeloma.

Nat Commun 2016 07 1;7:12050. Epub 2016 Jul 1.

Division of Genetics and Epidemiology, The Institute of Cancer Research, 15 Cotswold Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5NG, UK.

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy with a significant heritable basis. Genome-wide association studies have transformed our understanding of MM predisposition, but individual studies have had limited power to discover risk loci. Here we perform a meta-analysis of these GWAS, add a new GWAS and perform replication analyses resulting in 9,866 cases and 239,188 controls. We confirm all nine known risk loci and discover eight new loci at 6p22.3 (rs34229995, P=1.31 × 10(-8)), 6q21 (rs9372120, P=9.09 × 10(-15)), 7q36.1 (rs7781265, P=9.71 × 10(-9)), 8q24.21 (rs1948915, P=4.20 × 10(-11)), 9p21.3 (rs2811710, P=1.72 × 10(-13)), 10p12.1 (rs2790457, P=1.77 × 10(-8)), 16q23.1 (rs7193541, P=5.00 × 10(-12)) and 20q13.13 (rs6066835, P=1.36 × 10(-13)), which localize in or near to JARID2, ATG5, SMARCD3, CCAT1, CDKN2A, WAC, RFWD3 and PREX1. These findings provide additional support for a polygenic model of MM and insight into the biological basis of tumour development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms12050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4932178PMC
July 2016

Comparison of Intensive Chemotherapy and Hypomethylating Agents before Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation for Advanced Myelodysplastic Syndromes: A Study of the Myelodysplastic Syndrome Subcommittee of the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplant Research.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2016 09 3;22(9):1615-1620. Epub 2016 Jun 3.

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

The European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplant Research data set was used to retrospectively analyze the outcomes of hypomethylating therapy (HMA) compared with those of conventional chemotherapy (CC) before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in 209 patients with advanced myelodysplastic syndromes. Median follow-up was 22.1 months and the median age of the group was 57.6 years with 37% of the population older than > 60 years. The majority of patients (59%) received reduced-intensity conditioning and 34% and 27% had intermediate-2 and high international prognostic scoring system (IPSS) scores. At time of HSCT, 32% of patients did not achieve complete remission (CR) and 13% had primary refractory disease. On univariate analysis, outcomes at 3 years were not significantly different between HMA and CC for overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS), cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM): OS (42% versus 35%), RFS (29% versus 31%), CIR (45% versus 40%), and NRM (26% versus 28%). Comparing characteristics of the groups, there were more patients < 55 years old, more patients in CR (68% versus 32%), and fewer patients with primary refractory disease in the CC group than in the HMA group (10% versus 19%, P < .001). Patients with primary refractory disease had worse outcomes than those in CR with regard to OS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41 to 4.13; P = .001), RFS (HR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.37 to 3.76; P = .001), and NRM (HR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.18 to 5.26; P = .016). In addition, an adverse effect of IPSS-R cytogenetic risk group was evident for RFS. In summary, outcomes after HSCT are similar for patients receiving HMA compared with those receiving CC, despite the higher proportion of patients with primary refractory disease in the HMA group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2016.05.026DOI Listing
September 2016

Young woman with mild bone marrow dysplasia, GATA2 and ASXL1 mutation treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Leuk Res Rep 2015 17;4(2):72-5. Epub 2015 Oct 17.

Department of Hematology and Vascular Disorders, Skåne University Hospital, 22185 Lund, Sweden ; Department of Molecular Medicine and Gene Therapy, Sölvegatan 17, BMC A12, Lund University, 22184 Lund, Sweden.

Heterozygous mutations in GATA2 underlie different syndromes, previously described as monocytopenia and mycobacterial avium complex infection (MonoMAC); dendritic cell, monocytes, B- and NK lymphocytes deficiency (DCML); lymphedema, deafness and myelodysplasia (Emberger syndrome) and familiar myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia (MDS / AML). Onset and severity of clinical symptoms vary and preceding cytopenias are not always present. We describe a case of symptomatic DCML deficiency and rather discrete bone marrow findings due to GATA2 mutation. Exome sequencing revealed a somatic ASXL1 mutation and the patient underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation successfully.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lrr.2015.10.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4672090PMC
December 2015

Outcome of patients with distinct molecular genotypes and cytogenetically normal AML after allogeneic transplantation.

Blood 2015 Oct 8;126(17):2062-9. Epub 2015 Sep 8.

Faculté de Médicine Saint-Antoine and EBMT Data Office, Paris, France.

To analyze the influence of distinct combinations of molecular aberrations on outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML), a retrospective registry analysis was performed on 702 adults undergoing HSCT in first complete remission (CR). Patients were grouped according to presence or absence of NPM1 mutations (NPM1(mut)) and FLT3 internal tandem duplications (FLT3-ITD). Double-negative patients were evaluated for mutations of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α gene (CEBPα). The influence of genotypes on relapse, non-relapse mortality, leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS), and a prognostic classification combining NPM1/FLT3-ITD profile and classical risk factors were calculated. Two-year OS from HSCT was 81 ± 5% in NPM1(mut)/FLT3(wt), 75 ± 3% in NPM1(wt)/FLT3(wt), 66 ± 3% in NPM1(mut)/FLT3-ITD, and 54 ± 7% in NPM1(wt)/FLT3-ITD (P = .003). Analysis of CEBPα among patients with NPM1(wt)/FLT3(wt) revealed excellent results both in patients with CEBPα(mut) and with a triple negative genotype (2-year OS: 100%/77 ± 3%). In a Cox-model of predefined variables, age, FLT3-ITD and >1 course of chemotherapy to reach CR were risk factors associated with inferior outcome, regardless of NPM1 mutational status, variations of transplant protocols, or development of graft-versus-host disease. In a prognostic risk classification, 2-year OS/LFS rates were 88 ± 3%/79 ± 4% without any, 77 ± 2%/73 ± 3% with one, and 53 ± 4%/50 ± 4 with ≥2 risk factors (P = .003/.002).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2015-06-651562DOI Listing
October 2015

Variants in ELL2 influencing immunoglobulin levels associate with multiple myeloma.

Nat Commun 2015 May 26;6:7213. Epub 2015 May 26.

Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, BMC B13, SE-221 84 Lund, Sweden.

Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by an uninhibited, clonal growth of plasma cells. While first-degree relatives of patients with MM show an increased risk of MM, the genetic basis of inherited MM susceptibility is incompletely understood. Here we report a genome-wide association study in the Nordic region identifying a novel MM risk locus at ELL2 (rs56219066T; odds ratio (OR)=1.25; P=9.6 × 10(-10)). This gene encodes a stoichiometrically limiting component of the super-elongation complex that drives secretory-specific immunoglobulin mRNA production and transcriptional regulation in plasma cells. We find that the MM risk allele harbours a Thr298Ala missense variant in an ELL2 domain required for transcription elongation. Consistent with a hypomorphic effect, we find that the MM risk allele also associates with reduced levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and G (IgG) in healthy subjects (P=8.6 × 10(-9) and P=6.4 × 10(-3), respectively) and, potentially, with an increased risk of bacterial meningitis (OR=1.30; P=0.0024).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms8213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4455110PMC
May 2015

Being a haematopoietic stem cell donor for a sick sibling: Adult donors' experiences prior to donation.

Eur J Oncol Nurs 2015 Oct 23;19(5):529-35. Epub 2015 Mar 23.

Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, S-205 06 Malmö, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background: There is a lack of knowledge about sibling stem cell donors' experiences pre-donation and the waiting period before the donation might have been long. The donors and their corresponding sibling recipients were simultaneously included in two different interview studies. The results from the recipient study have been presented in a separate paper.

Purpose: The aim was to explore the experiences of being a stem cell donor for a sibling, prior to donation.

Method: Ten adult sibling donors were interviewed prior to stem cell donation. The interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and subjected to qualitative content analysis.

Results: The main theme Being a cog in a big wheel describes the complex process of being a sibling donor prior to donation, covering a mixture of emotions and thoughts. The four subthemes Being available, Being anxious, Being concerned and Being obliged cover the various experiences. The sibling donors' experiences are influenced by the quality of the relationship with the sick sibling.

Conclusions: Sibling stem cell donors go through a complex process once they have accidentally got involved in. They have been asked to become a donor; it was not a voluntary choice. In caring for sibling stem cell donors the nurses should be aware of the complexity of the process they experience and take into consideration their personal situation and needs. Providing optimal care for both sibling donors and their corresponding recipients is a challenge, and further improvement and exploration are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejon.2015.02.014DOI Listing
October 2015

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors improve long-term outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for adult patients with Philadelphia chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Haematologica 2015 Mar 19;100(3):392-9. Epub 2014 Dec 19.

Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France INSERM, UMRs 938, Paris, France Service d'Hématologie Clinique et de Thérapie Cellulaire, Hôpital Saint Antoine, APHP, Paris, France

This study aimed to determine the impact of tyrosine kinase inhibitors given pre- and post-allogeneic stem cell transplantation on long-term outcome of patients allografted for Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. This retrospective analysis from the EBMT Acute Leukemia Working Party included 473 de novo Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients in first complete remission who underwent an allogeneic stem cell transplantation using a human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling or human leukocyte antigen-matched unrelated donor between 2000 and 2010. Three hundred and ninety patients received tyrosine kinase inhibitors before transplant, 329 at induction and 274 at consolidation. Kaplan-Meier estimates of leukemia-free survival, overall survival, cumulative incidences of relapse incidence, and non-relapse mortality at five years were 38%, 46%, 36% and 26%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, tyrosine-kinase inhibitors given before allogeneic stem cell transplantation was associated with a better overall survival (HR=0.68; P=0.04) and was associated with lower relapse incidence (HR=0.5; P=0.01). In the post-transplant period, multivariate analysis identified prophylactic tyrosine-kinase inhibitor administration to be a significant factor for improved leukemia-free survival (HR=0.44; P=0.002) and overall survival (HR=0.42; P=0.004), and a lower relapse incidence (HR=0.40; P=0.01). Over the past decade, administration of tyrosine kinase inhibitors before allogeneic stem cell transplantation has significantly improved the long-term allogeneic stem cell transplantation outcome of adult Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Prospective studies will be of great interest to further confirm the potential benefit of the prophylactic use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the post-transplant setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2014.116954DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4349279PMC
March 2015

Should the standard dimethyl sulfoxide concentration be reduced? Results of a European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation prospective noninterventional study on usage and side effects of dimethyl sulfoxide.

Transfusion 2014 Oct 26;54(10):2514-22. Epub 2014 Jun 26.

Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, UK.

Background: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is essential for the preservation of liquid nitrogen-frozen stem cells, but is associated with toxicity in the transplant recipient.

Study Design And Methods: In this prospective noninterventional study, we describe the use of DMSO in 64 European Blood and Marrow Transplant Group centers undertaking autologous transplantation on patients with myeloma and lymphoma and analyze side effects after return of DMSO-preserved stem cells.

Results: While the majority of centers continue to use 10% DMSO, a significant proportion either use lower concentrations, mostly 5 or 7.5%, or wash cells before infusion (some for selected patients only). In contrast, the median dose of DMSO given (20 mL) was much less than the upper limit set by the same institutions (70 mL). In an accompanying statistical analysis of side effects noted after return of DMSO-preserved stem cells, we show that patients in the highest quartile receiving DMSO (mL and mL/kg body weight) had significantly more side effects attributed to DMSO, although this effect was not observed if DMSO was calculated as mL/min. Dividing the myeloma and lymphoma patients each into two equal groups by age we were able to confirm this result in all but young myeloma patients in whom an inversion of the odds ratio was seen, possibly related to the higher dose of melphalan received by young myeloma patients.

Conclusion: We suggest better standardization of preservation method with reduced DMSO concentration and attention to the dose of DMSO received by patients could help reduce the toxicity and morbidity of the transplant procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.12759DOI Listing
October 2014

Having a sibling as donor: patients' experiences immediately before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Eur J Oncol Nurs 2014 Aug 8;18(4):436-42. Epub 2014 Apr 8.

Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, S-205 06 Malmö, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers a potential cure for a variety of diseases but is also associated with significant risks. With HSCT the donor is either a relative, most often a sibling, or an unrelated registry donor.

Purpose: The aim was to explore patients' experiences, immediately before transplantation, regarding having a sibling as donor.

Method: Ten adult patients with sibling donors were interviewed before admission for HSCT. The interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and subjected to qualitative content analysis.

Results: The main theme Being in no man's land is a metaphor for the patients' complex situation with its mixture of emotions and thoughts prior to transplantation. The three subthemes Trust in the sibling donor, Concern about others and Loss of control cover the various experiences. The patient's experiences are influenced by their personal situation and the quality of the relationship with the sibling donor. While patients feel secure in having a sibling donor, they are dependent for their survival on the cell donation and feel responsible for the donor's safety during donation. These emotions intensify the patients' sense of dependency and loss of control.

Conclusions: In caring for HSCT patients the nurses should be aware of the complexity of the patients' situation and keep in mind that having a sibling donor might imply extra pressure, including a sense of responsibility. Caring for both patients and sibling donors optimally is a challenge, which needs further improvement and exploration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejon.2014.03.004DOI Listing
August 2014