Publications by authors named "Steven W Granger"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Levels of Interleukin-6 in Saliva, but Not Plasma, Correlate with Clinical Metrics in Huntington's Disease Patients and Healthy Control Subjects.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Sep 2;21(17). Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Institute for Interdisciplinary Salivary Bioscience Research, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.

Growing evidence suggests that inflammatory responses, in both the brain and peripheral tissues, contribute to disease pathology in Huntington's disease (HD), an inherited, progressive neurodegenerative disorder typically affecting adults in their 30-40 s. Hence, studies of inflammation-related markers in peripheral fluids might be useful to better characterize disease features. In this study, we measured levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1B), and alpha-amylase (AA) in saliva and plasma from = 125 subjects, including = 37 manifest HD patients, = 36 premanifest patients, and = 52 healthy controls, using immunoassays. We found increases in salivary levels of IL-6, IL-1B and CRP across different disease groups and increased levels of IL-6 in the plasma of HD patients as compared to premanifest patients and controls. The levels of salivary IL-6 were significantly correlated with each of the other salivary markers, as well as with IL-6 levels measured in plasma. Further, salivary IL-6 and IL-1B levels were significantly positively correlated with Total Motor Score (TMS) and chorea scores and negatively correlated with Total Functional Capacity (TFC) in HD patients, whereby in healthy control subjects, IL-6 was significantly negatively correlated with Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Symbol Digit Modalities test (SDM). Interestingly, the plasma levels of IL-6 did not show similar correlations to any clinical measures in either HD or control subjects. These findings suggest that salivary IL-6 is particularly relevant as a potential non-invasive biomarker for HD symptoms. The advent of an effective, dependable salivary biomarker would meet the urgent need for a less invasive means of identifying and monitoring HD disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21176363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7503233PMC
September 2020

Uric Acid as a Potential Peripheral Biomarker for Disease Features in Huntington's Patients.

Front Neurosci 2020 4;14:73. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Institute for Interdisciplinary Salivary Bioscience Research, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States.

Oxidative stress has long been implicated in the pathophysiology and progression of Huntington's disease (HD). Uric acid (UA) is a naturally occurring antioxidant that is present in the brain and periphery. Growing evidence has implicated UA as a molecular biomarker for several neurodegenerative diseases, most notably Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated UA levels in clinical samples from HD patients and normal controls (NCs) and assessed potential relationships between UA levels and disease and clinical data. UA levels were measured in plasma ( = 107) and saliva ( = 178) samples from premanifest (pre-HD) and manifest HD patients and control subjects. Gender effects of UA levels were observed in both biofluids, with male patients showing higher UA levels compared to female patients. Comparisons of UA levels across diagnostic groups, separated by gender, revealed that both plasma and salivary UA levels were significantly lower in female pre-HD and manifest HD patients compared to NCs. Salivary levels of UA were also significantly lower in male manifest HD patients versus controls, but not in plasma. Correlations of peripheral UA levels to clinical data also showed differences according to gender. In male HD patients, both plasma and salivary UA levels were significantly negatively correlated with total functional capacity (TFC), while positive correlations were observed with total motor score (TMS). Female HD patients showed a significant positive correlation between plasma UA levels and TMS, while salivary UA levels from female patients were significantly correlated to disease burden. Finally, in a separate cohort, we show that UA levels are decreased in postmortem prefrontal cortical samples ( = 20) from HD subjects compared to matched controls. These findings suggest that decreased levels of UA in the brains of HD patients can be reflected in peripheral fluids, with salivary measures of UA particularly offering significant promise as a potentially relevant, non-invasive biomarker of disease symptoms and burden. Our findings further highlight the impact of sexual dimorphism in HD pathophysiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7065265PMC
March 2020

Polymorphic variants of LIGHT (TNF superfamily-14) alter receptor avidity and bioavailability.

J Immunol 2010 Aug 30;185(3):1949-58. Epub 2010 Jun 30.

Division of Molecular Immunology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA, USA.

The TNF superfamily member homologous to lymphotoxins, exhibits inducible expression, and competes with HSV glycoprotein D for herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM), a receptor expressed by T lymphocytes (LIGHT) [TNF superfamily (SF)-14], is a key cytokine that activates T cells and dendritic cells and is implicated as a mediator of inflammatory, metabolic, and malignant diseases. LIGHT engages the lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTbetaR) and HVEM (TNFRSF14), but is competitively limited in activating these receptors by soluble decoy receptor-3 (DcR3; TNFRSF6B). Two variants in the human LIGHT alter the protein at E214K (rs344560) in the receptor-binding domain and S32L (rs2291667) in the cytosolic domain; however, the functional impact of these polymorphisms is unknown. A neutralizing Ab failed to bind the LIGHT-214K variant, indicating this position as a part of the receptor-binding region. Relative to the predominant reference variant S32/E214, the other variants showed altered avidity with LTbetaR and less with HVEM. Heterotrimers of the LIGHT variants decreased binding avidity to DcR3 and minimized the inhibitory effect of DcR3 toward LTbetaR-induced activation of NF-kappaB. In patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, DcR3 protein levels were significantly elevated. Immunohistochemistry revealed synoviocytes as a significant source of DcR3 production, and DcR3 hyperexpression is controlled by posttranscriptional mechanisms. The increased potential for LTbetaR signaling, coupled with increased bioavailability due to lower DcR3 avidity, provides a mechanism of how polymorphic variants in LIGHT could contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1001159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2921593PMC
August 2010

Combination therapy of vaccinia virus infection with human anti-H3 and anti-B5 monoclonal antibodies in a small animal model.

Antivir Ther 2010 ;15(4):661-75

Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Background: Treatment of rare severe side effects of vaccinia virus (VACV) immunization in humans is currently very challenging. VACV possesses two immunologically distinct virion forms in vivo - intracellular mature virion (MV, IMV) and extracellular virion (EV, EEV).

Methods: Antibody-mediated therapeutic efficacy was determined against VACV infection in a small animal model of progressive vaccinia. The model consisted of severe combined immunodeficiency mice infected with VACV New York City Board of Health vaccine strain and treated with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs).

Results: Here, we show that combination therapy with two fully human mAbs against an immunodominant MV antigen, H3 (H3L), and an EV antigen, B5 (B5R), provides significantly better protection against disease and death than either single human monoclonal or human vaccinia immune globulin, the currently licensed therapeutic for side effects of smallpox vaccination.

Conclusions: The preclinical studies validate that this combination of mAbs against H3 and B5 is a promising approach as a poxvirus infection treatment for use in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP1573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2898516PMC
October 2010

Heavily isotype-dependent protective activities of human antibodies against vaccinia virus extracellular virion antigen B5.

J Virol 2009 Dec 30;83(23):12355-67. Epub 2009 Sep 30.

Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

Antibodies against the extracellular virion (EV or EEV) form of vaccinia virus are an important component of protective immunity in animal models and likely contribute to the protection of immunized humans against poxviruses. Using fully human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), we now have shown that the protective attributes of the human anti-B5 antibody response to the smallpox vaccine (vaccinia virus) are heavily dependent on effector functions. By switching Fc domains of a single MAb, we have definitively shown that neutralization in vitro--and protection in vivo in a mouse model--by the human anti-B5 immunoglobulin G MAbs is isotype dependent, thereby demonstrating that efficient protection by these antibodies is not simply dependent on binding an appropriate vaccinia virion antigen with high affinity but in fact requires antibody effector function. The complement components C3 and C1q, but not C5, were required for neutralization. We also have demonstrated that human MAbs against B5 can potently direct complement-dependent cytotoxicity of vaccinia virus-infected cells. Each of these results was then extended to the polyclonal human antibody response to the smallpox vaccine. A model is proposed to explain the mechanism of EV neutralization. Altogether these findings enhance our understanding of the central protective activities of smallpox vaccine-elicited antibodies in immunized humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01593-09DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2786738PMC
December 2009

Chimeras between SRS and Moloney murine leukemia viruses reveal novel determinants in disease specificity and MCF recombinant formation.

Virology 2006 Jul 17;351(1):7-17. Epub 2006 Apr 17.

Cancer Research Institute, Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.

SRS 19-6 MuLV is a murine retrovirus originally isolated in mainland China. A noteworthy feature of this virus (referred to as SRS MuLV here) induces tumors of multiple hematopoietic lineages, including myeloid, erythroid, T-lymphoid and B-lymphoid. To identify the determinants of disease specificity, chimeras between SRS and Moloney MuLV (M-MuLV) were generated by molecular cloning, and the pathogenic properties of the chimeras were investigated. The results indicated that, while the M-MuLV LTR can confer lymphoid specificity to SRS MuLV, the SRS LTR by itself was not sufficient to confer multiple lineage tumorigenesis to M-MuLV; additional sequences in gag or pol were also required. Thus, a secondary determinant for myeloid/erythroid leukemia in SRS MuLV is located in gag-pol. In these chimeras, an independent determinant for T-lymphoma was found in M-MuLV gag-pol. It was also interesting that insertion of M-MuLV env into SRS MuLV decreased the rate of leukemogenicity, while insertion of SRS env into M-MuLV (SEM) accelerated leukemogenesis. The enhanced pathogenicity of SEM was found to correlate with earlier formation of MCF recombinants. The basis for the accelerated MCF recombinant formation was investigated. The endogenous polytropic MuLV env sequences contributing to several SEM MCF recombinants were identified, and the cross-over points were identified. While no obvious differences in the relative homologies between SRS MuLV env and polytropic env vs. M-MuLV and polytropic envs suggested a reason for the more rapid MCF recombinant formation, an overlapping but different set of polytropic env proviruses were found to participate in MCF formation for M-MuLV vs. SEM. Thus, the mechanisms for MCF formation appear to differ for M-MuLV and SEM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2006.03.010DOI Listing
July 2006

A lymphotoxin-IFN-beta axis essential for lymphocyte survival revealed during cytomegalovirus infection.

J Immunol 2005 Jun;174(11):7217-25

Division of Molecular Immunology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

The importance of lymphotoxin (LT) betaR (LTbetaR) as a regulator of lymphoid organogenesis is well established, but its role in host defense has yet to be fully defined. In this study, we report that mice deficient in LTbetaR signaling were highly susceptible to infection with murine CMV (MCMV) and early during infection exhibited a catastrophic loss of T and B lymphocytes, although the majority of lymphocytes were themselves not directly infected. Moreover, bone marrow chimeras revealed that lymphocyte survival required LTalpha expression by hemopoietic cells, independent of developmental defects in lymphoid tissue, whereas LTbetaR expression by both stromal and hemopoietic cells was needed to prevent apoptosis. The induction of IFN-beta was also severely impaired in MCMV-infected LTalpha(-/-) mice, but immunotherapy with an agonist LTbetaR Ab restored IFN-beta levels, prevented lymphocyte death, and enhanced the survival of these mice. IFN-alphabetaR(-/-) mice were also found to exhibit profound lymphocyte death during MCMV infection, thus providing a potential mechanistic link between type 1 IFN induction and lymphocyte survival through a LTalphabeta-dependent pathway important for MCMV host defense.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.174.11.7217DOI Listing
June 2005
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