Publications by authors named "Steven R McAnulty"

50 Publications

Effect of 12 Weeks of Resistance Training on Motor Coordination and Dynamic Balance of Older Woman.

Rejuvenation Res 2021 Jun 11;24(3):191-197. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Research Group on Metabolism, Nutrition and Strength Training, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil.

Resistance training (RT) is considered a viable strategy to enhance the autonomy and functionality of older populations. We randomized 49 older women (64.2 ± 3.8) into one of two groups: an intervention group (IG) ( = 29) that performed regimented RT or a nontraining control group (CG) ( = 20). The RT protocol was carried out three times a week for both the upper and lower limbs over a 12-week study period. A 30-second arm flexion test was used to test upper limb endurance and a 30-second chair stand test was used to analyze lower limb endurance. Dynamic balance was tested by a Y balance test normalized by leg length. A Soda Pop test was employed to analyze coordination. Results showed significant improvements in IG versus CG in both upper limb (19.50 ± 1.52 vs. 11.40 ± 2.87,  = 0.001) and lower limb muscular endurance (14.90 ± 3.10 vs. 26.56 ± 3.17,  = 0.001). Moreover, the training group showed superior improvements in anterior and posterolateral balance compared to CG (63.9% ± 3.1% to 70.2 ± 2.1 and 88.1 ± 3.9 to 94.2 ± 2.7 with  = 0.001, respectively). There were no significant differences in coordination outcomes between groups. In conclusion, we demonstrate that RT is effective in developing muscular endurance and dynamic balance in postmenopausal women, but does not influence muscular coordination in the measures studied. Study registered in the Brazilian Registry Clinical Trials Registry (No. RBR-7MZ2KR).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/rej.2020.2339DOI Listing
June 2021

Reduced Dose of Beta-Alanine Is Sufficient to Maintain Performance in Repeated Sprints.

J Strength Cond Res 2020 Aug 21. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Research Group on Metabolism, Nutrition and Strength Training, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil.

Zandona, BA, Ramos, RA, de Oliveira, CdS, McAnulty, SR, Ferreira, LHB, Smolarek, AC, Enes, AAN, Urbinati, KMdSS, Aragon, AA, Schoenfeld, BJ, and de Souza Junior, TP. Reduced Dose of Beta-Alanine Is Sufficient to Maintain Performance in Repeated Sprints. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-Beta-alanine (BA) supplementation has been shown to be effective in improving physical performance by increasing carnosine concentration. However, it is still necessary to know the effect of a maintenance dose on performance. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of a maintenance dose of BA supplementation on performance. Forty-four anaerobically trained men with 23.9 ± 3.8 years of age, 176.0 ± 0.05 cm height, 81.2 ± 7.5 kg body mass, and 15.5 ± 2.9% of body fat performed a cycle ergometer test consisting of 4 sprints of 30 s with 4 minutes of active recovery. The study comprised 3 phases: (a) presupplementation, (b) supplementation with 6.4 g·d BA or placebo, and (c) postsupplementation with a maintenance dose of 1.2 g·d of BA or interruption of supplementation. Data were analyzed using generalized estimated equations with a priori 0.05 level of significance. The placebo group and interruption group presented a lower power (7.28 ± 0.66 and 7.71 ± 0.42 W·kg vs. 8.04 ± 0.84 and 9.25 ± 1.18 W·kg, respectively; p < 0.05) during the third sprint in postsupplementation, whereas the maintenance group maintained the required power (7.47 ± 1.03 vs. 8.74 ± 1.07 W·kg; p > 0.05). The placebo group also presented higher percentage of fatigue (44.5% ± 12.3 and 44.8% ± 7.7 vs. 37.6 ± 7.2%; p = 0.021) and higher subjective perception of exertion (8.92 ± 0.90 vs. 8.00 ± 1.60; p = 0.028). Therefore, the maintenance dose of 1.2 g·d BA was effective in maintaining performance, whereas a reduction in performance was observed after supplementation interruption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003715DOI Listing
August 2020

Immunological Responses to a Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu High-Intensity Interval Training Session.

J Hum Kinet 2019 Nov 30;70:115-124. Epub 2019 Nov 30.

Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Metrocamp College, Campinas, SP, Brazil.

The objective of the study was to characterize immunological responses to a Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu high-intensity interval training session. Neuromuscular function, blood, and salivary samples were obtained after a Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu high-intensity interval training session. Saliva and blood samples were collected at Pre- (before the warm-up) and immediately Post-training. Neuromuscular function was evaluated by lower body muscle testing. The horizontal countermovement jump was performed at Pre (after the warm-up) and immediately Post blood and saliva collection, and approximately 5 minutes Post-training. The horizontal countermovement jump performance did not present any significant changes Post-training, while blood leukocytes, urea, IgA and salivary alpha-amylase showed a significant increase. Salivary alpha-amylase activity increased more than six times immediately Post compared to Pre-training. Saliva volume, secretion rate, and uric acid were not significantly different between Pre and Post condition. A Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu high-intensity interval training session elicited an increase in the blood cells responsible for antibody production and muscle damage adaptation after exercise. On the other hand, neuromuscular performance was not significantly affected Post-training, suggesting that immunological and performance responses were not necessarily associated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2019-0051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6942484PMC
November 2019

High doses of sodium bicarbonate increase lactate levels and delay exhaustion in a cycling performance test.

Nutrition 2019 04 13;60:94-99. Epub 2018 Oct 13.

Research Group on Metabolism, Nutrition and Strength Training, Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Brazil; Appalachian State University, Department of Health and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, North Caroline, USA.

Objectives: It is well established that ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO) causes metabolic alkalosis. However, there is no consensus in terms of optimal NaHCO doses leading to enhanced performance. This study aimed to determine the effects of different NaHCO doses on performance and lactate clearance in non-professional cyclists.

Methods: Twenty-one cyclists performed the following three double-blind trials: 1) ingestion of 0.3 g · kg body weight (BW) of placebo; 2) ingestion of 0.1 g · kg BW NaHCO plus 0.2 g · kg BW placebo (0.1 BC); and 3) ingestion of 0.3 g · kg BW NaHCO (0.3 BC). Performance was evaluated after warm-up on the bike followed by a performance test until exhaustion. Lactate levels were monitored in blood samples before and immediately after performance tests.

Results: Lactate levels in the blood were significantly higher after exercise in 0.3 BC and 0.1 BC (15.12 ± 0.92 versus 10.3 ± 1.22 and 13.24 ± 0.87 versus 10.3 ± 1.22 mmol/L; P < 0.05) compared with control. Significant improvements in performance were only identified in 0.3 BC group (76.42 ± 2.14; P = 0.01).

Conclusions: The present study found that 0.3 g · kg BW NaHCO is effective in improving performance and improving blood lactate levels in cyclists compared with control and 0.1 g · kg BW NaHCO
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2018.09.018DOI Listing
April 2019

Effect of low dose, short-term creatine supplementation on muscle power output in elite youth soccer players.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2017 7;14. Epub 2017 Feb 7.

Department of Physical Education, Research Group on Metabolism, Nutrition and Strength Training, Curitiba, Brazil.

Background: To determine the effects of a low dose, short-term Creatine monohydrate (Cr) supplementation (0.03 g.kg.d during 14 d) on muscle power output in elite youth soccer players.

Methods: Using a two-group matched, double blind, placebo-controlled design, nineteen male soccer players (mean age = 17.0 ± 0.5 years) were randomly assigned to either Cr ( = 9) or placebo ( = 10) group. Before and after supplementation, participants performed a 30s Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) to assess peak power output (PPO), mean power output (MPO), fatigue index (FI), and total work.

Results: There were significant increases in both PPO and MPO after the Cr supplementation period ( ≤ 0.05) but not the placebo period. There were also significant increases in total work, but not FI, after the Cr supplementation and placebo periods ( ≤ 0.05). Notably, there were differences in total work between the Cr and placebo groups after ( ≤ 0.05) but not before the 14 d supplementation period.

Conclusion: There is substantial evidence to indicate that a low-dose, short-term oral Cr supplementation beneficially affected muscle power output in elite youth soccer players.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12970-017-0162-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5296953PMC
January 2018

Effect of exercise-induced dehydration on circulatory markers of oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2017 Jul 9;42(7):694-699. Epub 2017 Feb 9.

a Department of Health and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, 111 Rivers Street, Boone, NC USA.

Dehydration is a common event associated with exercise. However, few studies have examined the effects of dehydration on plasma redox status in humans. Eighty-two athletes were recruited and baseline anthropometrics and blood samples were obtained. Athletes then engaged in a dehydration protocol, training until 3% of preweight body mass was lost. Athletes returned to the lab and had postdehydration blood collected. Athletes then consumed an isotonic drink until pre-exercise body weight was reestablished. Blood was then recollected (1 h post full rehydration (PFR)). Samples were centrifuged and the plasma snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C. Lipid and protein oxidative stress was determined by measuring F-isoprostanes and protein carbonyls (PC), respectively. Antioxidant capacity was determined by the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Plasma osmolality was determined using an osmometer. Statistical analysis utilized a 1-way ANOVA with posthoc testing. Values are reported as mean ± SD. Plasma osmolality was significantly elevated immediately postdehydration (p ≤ 0.001) but decreased to baseline at PFR. Plasma TEAC increased immediately postdehydration and at PFR (p ≤ 0.001). FRAP increased immediately postdehydration (p ≤ 0.001) and decreased to below baseline at PFR (p ≤ 0.05). Conversely, F-isoprostanes declined significantly from baseline to immediately postdehydration and then significantly rose at PFR (p ≤ 0.001), whereas PC declined at PFR (p ≤ 0.01). This study indicates that dehydration and exercise cause a significant increase in plasma osmolality and antioxidant potential immediately postexercise. We propose dehydration significantly elevates antioxidant concentration which suppresses F-isoprostanes and PC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2016-0701DOI Listing
July 2017

Effect of 1 Repetition Maximum, 80% Repetition Maximum, and 50% Repetition Maximum Strength Exercise in Trained Individuals on Variations in Plasma Redox Biomarkers.

J Strength Cond Res 2017 Sep;31(9):2489-2497

1Institute of Physical Activity and Sports Science (ICAFE), Cruzeiro do Sul University, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Physical Education, Research Group on Metabolism, Nutrition and Strength Training, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Brazil; 3Department of Health and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina; and 4Free Radical Metabolism Group, Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

Polotow, TG, Souza-Junior, TP, Sampaio, RC, Okuyama, AR, Ganini, D, Vardaris, CV, Alves, RC, McAnulty, SR, and Barros, MP. Effect of 1RM, 80%RM, and 50%RM strength exercise in trained individuals on variations in plasma redox biomarkers. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2489-2497, 2017-For decades, scientists have examined the participation of oxygen/nitrogen species in anaerobic-like exercises, especially weightlifting and resistance exercises. The balance between the production of oxyradicals and antioxidant responses during anaerobic-like exercises is essential to assure adaptation to the physiological benefits of strength training and to prevent chronic harmful effects. The aim of this study is to examine the hypothesis that different weight loads (1 repetition maximum (RM), 80%RM, and 50%RM) lifted until exhaustion could impose distinct oxidative insults and elicit diverse antioxidant responses in plasma of young trained subjects. Glucose (+10%), lactate (+65%), urea (+30%), free iron (+65%), reduced/oxidized glutathione (+14 and +23%, respectively), and xanthine oxidase activity (2.2-fold) significantly increased after the 1RM test, whereas plasma antioxidant capacity dropped by 37%. When lower weight loads were applied (80%RM and 50%RM tests), heme-iron (+15 and +20%, respectively) became the prevalent pro-oxidant, although glutathione responses were only detected after 80%RM (+14%). Lactate concentration in plasma continuously increased, by 2.9-fold (80%RM) and 3.6-fold higher (50%RM test). We demonstrated that 1RM tests significantly diminish the antioxidant capacity of plasma because of iron overload, whereas 80%RM tests require higher involvement of glutathione molecules to counteract heme-iron oxidative insult. Mild redox imbalances promoted by heme-iron were found in plasma after 50%RM. Although we did not observe overall changes in muscle damage in young trained subjects, we cannot exclude the need for specific antioxidant supplementation depending on the strength protocols applied, especially for less responsive groups, such as sedentary and elderly populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001703DOI Listing
September 2017

Differential Effects of Continuous Versus Discontinuous Aerobic Training on Blood Pressure and Hemodynamics.

J Strength Cond Res 2018 Jan;32(1):97-104

Department of Health and Exercise Science, Vascular Biology and Autonomic Studies Laboratory, College of Health Sciences, Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina.

Landram, MJ, Utter, AC, Baldari, C, Guidetti, L, McAnulty, SR, and Collier, SR. Differential effects of continuous versus discontinuous aerobic training on blood pressure and hemodynamics. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 97-104, 2018-The purpose of this study was to compare the hemodynamic, arterial stiffness, and blood flow changes after 4 weeks of either continuous or discontinuous aerobic exercise in adults. Forty-seven subjects between the ages of 18 and 57 were recruited for 1 month of either continuous aerobic treadmill work for 30 minutes at 70% max heart rate or 3 bouts of 10 minutes of exercise at 70% of max heart rate with two 10 minutes break periods in between, totaling 30 minutes of aerobic work. After exercise, both continuous (CON) and discontinuous (DIS) groups demonstrated a significant improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, CON 35.39 ± 1.99 to 38.19 ± 2.03; DIS 36.18 ± 1.82 to 39.33 ± 1.75), heart rate maximum (CON 183.5 ± 3.11 to 187.17 ± 3.06; DIS 179.06 ± 2.75 to 182 ± 2.61), decreases in systolic blood pressure (CON 119 ± 1.82 to 115.11 ± 1.50; DIS 117.44 ± 1.90 to 112.67 ± 1.66), diastolic blood pressure (CON 72.56 ± 1.65 to 70.56 ± 1.06; DIS 71.56 ± 1.59 to 69.56 ± 1.43), augmentation index (CON 17.17 ± 2.17 to 14.9 ± 1.92; DIS 19.71 ± 2.66 to 13.91 ± 2.46), central pulse wave velocity (CON 8.29 ± 0.32 to 6.92 ± 0.21; DIS 7.85 ± 0.30 to 6.83 ± 0.29), peripheral pulse wave velocity (CON 9.49 ± 0.35 to 7.72 ± 0.38; DIS 9.11 ± 0.37 to 7.58 ± 0.47), and significant increases in average forearm blood flow (CON 4.06 ± 0.12 to 4.34 ± 0.136; DIS 4.26 ± 0.18 to 4.53 ± 0.15), peak forearm blood flow (FBF) after reactive hyperemia (CON 28.45 ± 0.094 to 29.96 ± 0.45; DIS 29.29 ± 0.46 to 30.6 ± 0.38), area under the curve (AUC) of FBF (CON 28.65 ± 1.77 to 30.4 ± 1.08; DIS 30.52 ± 1.9 to 31.67 ± 1.44), and AUC peak FBF after reactive hyperemia (CON 222.3 ± 5.68 to 231.95 ± 4.42; DIS 230.81 ± 6.91 to 237.19 ± 5.39). These data suggest that for healthy people either 4 weeks of continuous or discontinuous aerobic training is effective in improving measures of fitness and vascular health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001661DOI Listing
January 2018

The effects of strength training on cognitive performance in elderly women.

Clin Interv Aging 2016 1;11:749-54. Epub 2016 Jun 1.

Research Group on Metabolism, Nutrition and Strength Training, Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Brazil; Department of Health and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA.

Aging is a degenerative process marked by recognized functional, physiological, and metabolic impairments, such as dynapenia and diminished cognitive capacity. Therefore, the search for innovative strategies to prevent/delay these physiological and cognitive disorders is essential to guarantee the independence and life quality of an elderly population. The aim of this work is to verify the effect of a 12-week resistance exercise program on the general physical aptitude and cognitive capacities of elderly and sedentary women. Twenty-nine women (65.87±5.69 years) were divided into two groups. The control group was composed of eight elderly women who met the same inclusion criteria of the study and the strength training group was composed of 29 elderly women who were subjected to a resistance exercise program defined by 12 upper and lower limb exercises combined in 3×10 repetitions with 1-minute interval between repetitions and two resting minutes between exercises (three times/week). Weight loads were fixed between 60% and 75% of the apparent 1 repetition maximum, which was estimated by the test of 10 maximum repetitions. The direct curl was performed for upper body strength evaluation with 2.3 kg dumbbells for 30 seconds, whereas the chair test was used for lower body evaluation (total sit-stand movements in 30 seconds). The cognitive capacities of subjects were evaluated by "The Montreal Cognitive Assessment" questionnaire. After 12 weeks, the elderly group showed significant increases in the average upper body strength (58%), lower body strength (68%), and cognitive capacity (19%). The present study demonstrated that regular resistance exercises could provide significant gains on the upper and lower body strength concomitant to positive improvements on cognitive capacities of elderly women, bringing enhanced life quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S102126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4896469PMC
February 2017

Validity of Urine Specific Gravity When Compared With Plasma Osmolality as a Measure of Hydration Status in Male and Female NCAA Collegiate Athletes.

J Strength Cond Res 2016 Aug;30(8):2219-25

Department of Health and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina.

Sommerfield, LM, McAnulty, SR, McBride, JM, Zwetsloot, JJ, Austin, MD, Mehlhorn, JD, Calhoun, MC, Young, JO, Haines, TL, and Utter, AC. Validity of urine specific gravity when compared with plasma osmolality as a measure of hydration status in male and female NCAA collegiate athletes. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2219-2225, 2016-The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of urine specific gravity (Usg) and urine osmolality (Uosm) when compared with plasma osmolality (Posm) from euhydration to 3% dehydration and then a 2-hour rehydration period in male and female collegiate athletes. Fifty-six National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) wrestlers (mean ± SEM); height 1.75 ± 0.01 m, age 19.3 ± 0.2 years, and body mass (BM) 78.1 ± 1.8 kg and 26 NCAA women's soccer athletes; height 1.64 ± 0.01 m, age 19.8 ± 0.3 years, and BM 62.2 ± 1.2 kg were evaluated. Hydration status was obtained by measuring changes in Posm, Uosm, Usg, and BM. Male and female subjects dehydrated to achieve an average BM loss of 2.9 ± 0.09% and 1.9 ± 0.03%, respectively. Using the medical diagnostic decision model, the sensitivity of Usg was high in both the hydrated and dehydrated state for males (92%) and females (80%). However, the specificity of Usg was low in both the hydrated and dehydrated states for males (10 and 6%, respectively) and females (29 and 40%, respectively). No significant correlations were found between Usg and Posm during either the hydrated or dehydrated state for males or females. Based on these results, the use of Usg as a field measure of hydration status in male and female collegiate athletes should be used with caution. Considering that athletes deal with hydration status on a regular basis, the reported low specificity of Usg suggests that athletes could be incorrectly classified leading to the unnecessary loss of competition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4912946PMC
August 2016

Six weeks daily ingestion of whole blueberry powder increases natural killer cell counts and reduces arterial stiffness in sedentary males and females.

Nutr Res 2014 Jul 8;34(7):577-84. Epub 2014 Jul 8.

Dept. of Health and Exercise Science Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, 28608.

Evidence suggests that berries contain bioactive compounds, which reduce certain cancers and hypertension. Our hypothesis was that daily blueberry (BB) consumption would increase natural killer (NK) cells and plasma redox capacity and reduce blood pressure, augmentation index (AIx), central pulse wave velocity, and aortic systolic pressures (ASPs). Twenty-five men and postmenopausal women aged 18 to 50 years were recruited and randomized to BB (n, 13) or placebo groups (n, 12). Participants were provided with BB (equivalent to 250 g berries) or placebo powders each day for 6 weeks. Blood pressure, vascular performance testing, and blood samples were taken at baseline (presupplementation). Participants returned after 6 weeks and repeated all procedures. Presupplementation to postsupplementation comparisons for the main effects of treatment, time, and treatment-time interaction were made using a 2 (treatment) × 2 (times) repeated-measures analysis of variance for all vascular measures, redox status, and NK cell counts. Anthropometric measures were compared using t tests. Body mass, composition, and overall blood pressures were not affected in either group. Overall, AIx and ASPs were decreased in BB (treatment effect, P = .024 and P = .046, respectively). Plasma redox was not affected. Absolute NK cells were increased in BB (time, P = .001 and interaction, P = .012). Subjects (n, 9) with prehypertensive pressures (≥120/80 mm Hg, respectively) were examined as a subset using t tests and exhibited significant reductions in diastolic pressure (P = .038) from presupplementation to postsupplementation in BB. We conclude that BB ingestion for 6 weeks increases NK cells and reduces AIx, ASP, and diastolic pressures in sedentary males and females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2014.07.002DOI Listing
July 2014

Effect of resveratrol and quercetin supplementation on redox status and inflammation after exercise.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2013 Jul 8;38(7):760-5. Epub 2013 Mar 8.

Department of Nutrition and Health Care Management, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608, USA.

Resveratrol and quercetin function as antioxidants and anti-inflammatories in vitro, but these mechanisms have been minimally examined in combination in exercising humans. The purpose of this investigation was to examine supplementation as a countermeasure against oxidative stress and inflammation in response to exercise. Fourteen athletes were randomly assigned, in a double-blind crossover design, to a resveratrol and quercetin combination (RQ) (120 mg resveratrol and 225 mg quercetin for 6 days and 240 mg resveratrol and 450 mg quercetin on day 7 just prior to exercise) or to placebo (P). There was a 1-week washout between trials. Blood was taken at baseline, pre-exercise, immediately after exercise, and 1 h after exercise. Plasma was analyzed for oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes and protein carbonyls), antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorptive capacity (ORAC)), and inflammation (cytokine interleukin (IL)-8 and C-reactive protein (CRP)). Statistical design utilized a 2 × 3 ANOVA and Student's t test. Pre-exercise values were not different from baseline for any measure. The postexercise increase in F2-isoprostanes was significantly less (p = 0.039 interaction) with RQ (68%) than with P (137%). Protein carbonyls, FRAP, ORAC, and TEAC significantly increased after exercise but were not affected by treatment. IL-8 and CRP increased significantly immediately after exercise but were not affected by treatment. These data indicate that RQ significantly reduces exercise-induced lipid peroxidation without associated changes in inflammation or plasma antioxidant status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2012-0455DOI Listing
July 2013

Does vitamin C and E supplementation impair the favorable adaptations of regular exercise?

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2012 13;2012:707941. Epub 2012 Aug 13.

Department of Physical Education and Sports Science at Serres, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Serres, Greece.

The detrimental outcomes associated with unregulated and excessive production of free radicals remains a physiological concern that has implications to health, medicine and performance. Available evidence suggests that physiological adaptations to exercise training can enhance the body's ability to quench free radicals and circumstantial evidence exists to suggest that key vitamins and nutrients may provide additional support to mitigate the untoward effects associated with increased free radical production. However, controversy has risen regarding the potential outcomes associated with vitamins C and E, two popular antioxidant nutrients. Recent evidence has been put forth suggesting that exogenous administration of these antioxidants may be harmful to performance making interpretations regarding the efficacy of antioxidants challenging. The available studies that employed both animal and human models provided conflicting outcomes regarding the efficacy of vitamin C and E supplementation, at least partly due to methodological differences in assessing oxidative stress and training adaptations. Based on the contradictory evidence regarding the effects of higher intakes of vitamin C and/or E on exercise performance and redox homeostasis, a permanent intake of non-physiological dosages of vitamin C and/or E cannot be recommended to healthy, exercising individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/707941DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3425865PMC
November 2012

Effect of blueberry ingestion on natural killer cell counts, oxidative stress, and inflammation prior to and after 2.5 h of running.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2011 Dec 23;36(6):976-84. Epub 2011 Nov 23.

Department of Nutrition and Health Care Management, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608, USA.

Blueberries are rich in antioxidants known as anthocyanins, which may exhibit significant health benefits. Strenous exercise is known to acutely generate oxidative stress and an inflammatory state, and serves as an on-demand model to test antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds. The purpose of this study was to examine whether 250 g of blueberries per day for 6 weeks and 375 g given 1 h prior to 2.5 h of running at ∼72% maximal oxygen consumption counters oxidative stress, inflammation, and immune changes. Twenty-five well-trained subjects were recruited and randomized into blueberry (BB) (N = 13) or control (CON) (N = 12) groups. Blood, muscle, and urine samples were obtained pre-exercise and immediately postexercise, and blood and urine 1 h postexercise. Blood was examined for F₂-isoprostanes for oxidative stress, cortisol, cytokines, homocysteine, leukocytes, T-cell function, natural killer (NK), and lymphocyte cell counts for inflammation and immune system activation, and ferric reducing ability of plasma for antioxidant capacity. Muscle biopsies were examined for glycogen and NFkB expression to evaluate stress and inflammation. Urine was tested for modification of DNA (8-OHDG) and RNA (5-OHMU) as markers of nucleic acid oxidation. A 2 (treatment) × 3 (time) repeated measures ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Increases in F₂-isoprostanes and 5-OHMU were significantly less in BB and plasma IL-10 and NK cell counts were significantly greater in BB vs. CON. Changes in all other markers did not differ. This study indicates that daily blueberry consumption for 6 weeks increases NK cell counts, and acute ingestion reduces oxidative stress and increases anti-inflammatory cytokines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/h11-120DOI Listing
December 2011

The validity of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance measures to detect changes in the hydration status of wrestlers during acute dehydration and rehydration.

J Strength Cond Res 2012 Jan;26(1):9-15

Department of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina, USA.

The objective of this study was to examine the validity of multifrequency direct segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (DSM-BIA) measures to detect changes in the hydration status of wrestlers after they underwent 3% acute dehydration and a 2-hour rehydration period. Fifty-six National Collegiate Athletic Association wrestlers: (mean ± SEM); age 19.5 ± 0.2 years, height 1.73 ± 0.01 m, and body mass (BM) 82.5 ± 2.3 kg were tested in euhydrated, dehydrated (-3.5%), and 2-hour rehydration conditions using DSM-BIA to detect the changes in hydration status. The hydration status was quantified by measuring the changes in plasma osmolality (P(osm)), urine osmolality (Uosm), urine specific gravity (U(sg)), BM, and weighted segmental impedance at frequencies of 5, 20, 50, 100, and 500 kHz. Weighted segmental impedance significantly increased after a 3.5% reduction in the body weight for all the 5 frequencies evaluated, but it did not return to baseline at 2-hour rehydration. P(osm) (303 ± 0.6 mOsm·L(-1)), Uosm (617 ± 47 mOsm·L(-1)), and U(sg) (1.017 ± 0.001) all significantly increased at postdehydration and returned to baseline at 2-hour rehydration. Estimations of extracellular water were significantly different throughout the trial, but there were no significant changes in the estimations of the total body water or intracellular water. The results of this study demonstrate the potential use of DSM-BIA as a field measure to assess the hydration status of wrestlers for the purpose of minimal weight certification before the competitive season. When employing DSM-BIA to assess the hydration status, the results indicated that the changes in weighted segmental impedance at the frequencies evaluated (5, 20, 50, 100, and 500 kHz) are sensitive to acute changes in dehydration but lag behind changes in the standard physiological (plasma and urinary) markers of hydration status after a 2-hour rehydration period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318238ea51DOI Listing
January 2012

Effect of mixed flavonoids, n-3 fatty acids, and vitamin C on oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity before and after intense cycling.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2011 Aug;21(4):328-37

Dept. of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA.

Consumption of plant flavonoids, antioxidants, and n-3 fatty acids is proposed to have many potential health benefits derived primarily through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This study examined the effects of 1,000 mg quercetin + 1,000 mg vitamin C (QC); 1,000 mg quercetin, 1,000 mg vitamin C, 400 mg isoquercetin, 30 mg epigallocatechin gallate, and 400 mg n-3 fatty acids (QFO); or placebo (P), taken each day for 2 wk before and during 3 d of cycling at 57% W(max) for 3 hr, on plasma antioxidant capacity (ferricreducing ability of plasma [FRAP], oxygen-radical absorbance capacity [ORAC]), plasma oxidative stress (F(2)-isoprostanes), and plasma quercetin and vitamin C levels. Thirty-nine athletes were recruited and randomized to QC, QFO, or P. Blood was collected at baseline, after 2 wk supplementation, immediately postexercise, and 14 hr postexercise. Statistical design used a 3 (groups) × 4 (times) repeated-measures ANOVA with post hoc analyses. Plasma quercetin was significantly elevated in QC and QFO compared with P. Plasma F(2)-isoprostanes, FRAP, and vitamin C were significantly elevated and ORAC significantly decreased immediately postexercise, but no difference was noted in the overall pattern of change. Post hoc analyses revealed that the QC and QFO groups did not exhibit a significant increase in F(2)-isoprostanes from baseline to immediately postexercise compared with P. This study indicates that combining flavonoids and antioxidants with n-3 fatty acids is effective in reducing the immediate postexercise increase in F(2)-isoprostanes. Moreover, this effect occurs independently of changes in plasma antioxidant capacity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.21.4.328DOI Listing
August 2011

Evaluation of ultrasound velocity to assess the hydration status of wrestlers.

J Strength Cond Res 2010 Jun;24(6):1451-7

Department of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina, USA.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of ultrasound velocity (UV) to detect changes in the hydration status of wrestlers after undergoing acute dehydration and a 2-hour rehydration period. Forty-seven NCAA wrestlers (mean+/-SEM); age 19.1+/-0.2 years, height 1.73+/-0.1 m, body mass (BM) 79.4+/-2.4 kg were tested in euhydrated, dehydrated, and a 2-hours rehydrated conditions. Hydration status was quantified by measuring changes in plasma osmolarity (Posm), urine osmolarity (Uosm), urine specific gravity (Usg), and BM. Ultrasound velocity was measured at 1 MHz using 1.5-microsecond duration tone burst in the soleus muscle. Significant changes (p<0.001) in UV during periods of dehydration (BM change=-3.6+/-0.14%) (UV=+2.18 m.s) and rehydration (BM change=+2.8+/-0.12%) (UV=-2.89 m.s) were found. Significant main effects (p<0.001) were also found for Usg, Uosm, and Posm during dehydration. The change in Posm from the 1 to 2-hour rehydration time period significantly correlated to the change in UV during the same time period (r=0.27, p<0.001). This study demonstrates that changes in UV correspond to the changes of Posm, Usg, Uosm, and BM during acute dehydration and rehydration in collegiate wrestlers. The use of ultrasound measures may have potential application as an alternative field-based method to assess the hydration status of collegiate wrestlers although future research is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181d82d26DOI Listing
June 2010

Effect of n-3 fatty acids and antioxidants on oxidative stress after exercise.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2010 Sep;42(9):1704-11

Department of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608, USA.

Purpose: n-3 fatty acids are known to exert multiple beneficial effects including anti-inflammatory actions that may diminish oxidative stress. Supplementation with antioxidant vitamins has been proposed to counteract oxidative stress and improve antioxidant status. Therefore, this project investigated the effects of daily supplementation in 48 trained cyclists over 6 wk and during 3 d of continuous exercise on F2-isoprostanes (oxidative stress), plasma n-3 fatty acids, and antioxidant status (oxygen radical absorption capacity and ferric-reducing antioxidant potential).

Methods: Cyclists were randomized into n-3 fatty acids (N3) (n = 11) (2000 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid and 400 mg of docosahexaenoic acid), a vitamin-mineral (VM) complex (n = 12) emphasizing vitamins C (2000 mg), E (800 IU), A (3000 IU), and selenium (200 microg), a VM and n-3 fatty acid combination (VN3) (n = 13), or placebo (P) (n = 12). Blood was collected at baseline and preexercise and postexercise. A 4 x 3 repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to test main effects.

Results: After exercise, F2-isoprostanes were higher in N3 (treatment effect P = 0.014). Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid plasma values were higher after supplementation (interaction effect P = 0.001 and 0.006, respectively) in both n-3 supplemented groups. Oxygen radical absorption capacity declined similarly among all groups after exercise. Ferric-reducing antioxidant potential exhibited significant interaction (P = 0.045) and significantly increased after exercise in VN3 and VM (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: This study indicates that supplementation with n-3 fatty acids alone significantly increases F2-isoprostanes after exhaustive exercise. Lastly, antioxidant supplementation augments plasma antioxidant status and modestly attenuates but does not prevent the significant n-3 fatty acid associated increase in F2-isoprostanes postexercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181d85bd1DOI Listing
September 2010

Quercetin's effect on cycling efficiency and substrate utilization.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2009 Dec;34(6):993-1000

Department of Health and Human Perfomance, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA.

Previous evidence suggests that quercetin supplementation increases performance in humans. We examined the effects of 3 weeks of quercetin supplementation on fuel utilization, gross efficiency (GE), and perceived effort during 3 h of cycling over 3 successive days. Forty cyclists were randomized into quercetin and placebo groups and tested for maximal oxygen consumption (53.2 +/- 1.2 and 54.7 +/- 1.1 mL.kg(-1).min(-1)). For 3 weeks following maximal oxygen consumption testing, subjects supplemented either 1000 mg.day(-1) quercetin or placebo during normal training. Following supplementation, subjects cycled at 57% maximum power for 3 h, on 3 successive days, using their own bicycles fitted to CompuTrainer Pro Model trainers (RacerMate, Seattle, Wash.). Metabolic measurements were taken every 30 min for each 3-h ride. Muscle biopsies obtained from the vastus lateralis immediately pre-exercise and postexercise on days 1 and 3 were analyzed for muscle glycogen content. Power output remained constant for all 3 exercise trials, but significant decreases over time were measured for GE, cadence, respiratory exchange ratio, blood glucose, and muscle glycogen. Significant increases were measured for heart rate and volume of oxygen consumption over time. No quercetin treatment effect was observed for any of the outcome measures in this study. These data indicate that GE is reduced during an exhausting 3-h bout of exercise. However, quercetin did not significantly affect any outcomes in these already well-trained subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/H09-099DOI Listing
December 2009

Quercetin supplementation does not alter antioxidant status in humans.

Free Radic Res 2010 Feb;44(2):224-31

North Carolina Research Campus, Appalachian State University, Human Performance Laboratory, Plants for Human Health Building, 600 Laureate Way, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA.

This study measured the influence of ingesting quercetin on plasma measures for oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity. Male and female subjects (n = 1002) varying in age (18-85 years) and body mass index (BMI) (16.7-52.7 kg/m(2)) were studied. Subjects were randomized to one of three groups using double-blinded methods: placebo, 500 mg or 1000 mg quercetin/day with 125 mg or 250 mg vitamin C/day, respectively. Pre- and post-study fasting blood samples show that plasma quercetin increased in a dose-responsive manner. The pattern of change in plasma F(2)-isoprostanes, oxidized low density lipoprotein, reduced glutathione, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) did not differ between supplementation groups or after adjustment for gender, age, BMI and disease status. In summary, quercetin supplementation over 12 weeks in doses of 500 mg or 1000 mg/day significantly increased plasma quercetin levels, but had no influence on several measures of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10715760903407293DOI Listing
February 2010

Quercetin's influence on exercise performance and muscle mitochondrial biogenesis.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2010 Feb;42(2):338-45

Department of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608, USA.

Purpose: To determine the influence of 2 wk of quercetin (Q; 1000 mg x d(-1)) compared with placebo (P) supplementation on exercise performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis in untrained, young adult males (N = 26, age = 20.2 +/- 0.4 yr, VO2max = 46.3 +/- 1.2 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)).

Methods: Using a randomized, crossover design with a 2-wk washout period, subjects provided blood and muscle biopsy samples presupplementation and postsupplementation periods and were given 12-min time trials on 15% graded treadmills after 60 min of moderate exercise preloads at 60% VO2max.

Results: Plasma Q levels rose significantly in Q versus P during the 2-wk supplementation period (interaction P value <0.001). During the 12-min trial, the net change in distance achieved was significantly greater during Q (2.9%) compared with P (-1.2%; 29.5 +/- 11.5 vs -11.9 +/- 16.0 m, respectively, P = 0.038). Skeletal muscle messenger RNA expression tended to increase (range = 16-25%) during Q versus P for sirtuin 1 (interaction effect, P = 0.152), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (P = 0.192), cytochrome c oxidase (P = 0.081), and citrate synthase (P = 0.166). Muscle mitochondrial DNA (relative copy number per diploid nuclear genome) increased 140 +/- 154 (4.1%) with Q compared with -225 +/- 157 (6.0% decrease) with P (P = 0.098).

Conclusions: In summary, 1000 mg x d(-1) Q versus P for 2 wk by untrained males was associated with a small but significant improvement in 12-min treadmill time trial performance and modest but insignificant increases in the relative copy number of mitochondrial DNA and messenger RNA levels of four genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181b18fa3DOI Listing
February 2010

n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids do not alter immune and inflammation measures in endurance athletes.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2009 Oct;19(5):536-46

Dept. of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608, USA.

The purpose of this study was to test the influence of 2.4 g/d fish oil n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) over 6 wk on exercise performance, inflammation, and immune measures in 23 trained cyclists before and after a 3-d period of intense exercise. Participants were randomized to n-3 PUFA (n = 11; 2,000 mg eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA], 400 mg docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) or placebo (n = 12) groups. They ingested supplements under double-blind methods for 6 wk before and during a 3-d period in which they cycled for 3 hr/d at ~57% W(max) with 10-km time trials inserted during the final 15 min of each 3-hr bout. Blood and saliva samples were collected before and after the 6-wk supplementation period, immediately after the 3-hr exercise bout on the third day, and 14 hr postexercise and analyzed for various immune-function and inflammation parameters. Supplementation with n-3 PUFA resulted in a significant increase in plasma EPA and DHA but had no effect on 10-km time-trial performance; preexercise outcome measures; exercise-induced increases in plasma cytokines, myeloperoxidase, blood total leukocytes, serum C-reactive protein, and creatine kinase; or the decrease in the salivary IgA:protein ratio. In conclusion, 6 wk supplementation with a large daily dose of n-3 PUFAs increased plasma EPA and DHA but had no effect on exercise performance or in countering measures of inflammation and immunity before or after a 3-d period of 9 hr of heavy exertion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.19.5.536DOI Listing
October 2009

Successive bouts of cycling stimulates genes associated with mitochondrial biogenesis.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2009 Nov 6;107(4):419-27. Epub 2009 Aug 6.

Department of Health and Human Performance, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA.

Exercise increases mRNA for genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative enzyme capacity. However, little is known about how these genes respond to consecutive bouts of prolonged exercise. We examined the effects of 3 h of intensive cycling performed on three consecutive days on the mRNA associated with mitochondrial biogenesis in trained human subjects. Forty trained cyclists were tested for VO(2max) (54.7 +/- 1.1 ml kg(-1) min(-1)). The subjects cycled at 57% watts(max) for 3 h using their own bicycles on CompuTrainer Pro Model trainers (RacerMate, Seattle, WA) on three consecutive days. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis pre- and post-exercise on days one and three. Muscle samples were analyzed for mRNA content of peroxisome proliferator receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1alpha), sirtuin 1 (Sirt-1), cytochrome c, and citrate synthase. Data were analyzed using a 2 (time) x 2 (day) repeated measures ANOVA. Of the mRNA analyzed, the following increased from pre to post 3 h rides: cytochrome c (P = 0.006), citrate synthase (P = 0.03), PGC-1alpha (P < 0.001), and Sirt-1 (P = 0.005). The following mRNA showed significant effects from days one to three: cytochrome c (P < 0.001) and citrate synthase (P = 0.01). These data show that exhaustive cycling performed on three consecutive days resulted in both acute and chronic stimuli for mRNA associated with mitochondrial biogenesis in already trained subjects. This is the first study to illustrate an increase in sirtuin-1 mRNA with acute and chronic exercise. These data contribute to the understanding of mRNA expression during both acute and successive bouts of prolonged exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-009-1143-1DOI Listing
November 2009

Chia seed does not promote weight loss or alter disease risk factors in overweight adults.

Nutr Res 2009 Jun;29(6):414-8

Department of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608, USA.

The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of chia seed (Salvia hispanica L) in promoting weight loss and altering disease risk factors in overweight adults. The hypothesis was that the high dietary fiber and alpha-linolenic (ALA) contents of chia seed would induce a small but significant decrease in body weight and fat and improve disease risk factors. Subjects were randomized to chia seed (CS) and placebo (P) groups, and under single-blinded procedures, ingested 25 g CS or P supplements mixed in 0.25 L water twice daily before the first and last meal for 12 weeks. Ninety nondiseased, overweight/obese men and women between the ages of 20 and 70 years were recruited into the study, with 76 subjects (n = 39 CS, n = 37 P) completing all phases of the study. Pre- and poststudy measures included body mass and composition (dual energy x-ray absorptiometry), inflammation markers from fasting blood samples (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and tumor necrosis factor alpha), oxidative stress markers (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and plasma nitrite), blood pressure, and a serum lipid profile. Plasma ALA increased 24.4% compared to a 2.8% decrease in CS and P, respectively (interaction effect, P = .012). No group differences were measured for changes in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (interaction effects, P = .420 and .980, respectively). Pre-to-post measures of body composition, inflammation, oxidative stress, blood pressure, and lipoproteins did not differ between CS and P for both sexes. In conclusion, ingestion of 50 g/d CS vs P for 12 weeks by overweight/obese men and women had no influence on body mass or composition, or various disease risk factor measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2009.05.011DOI Listing
June 2009

Effects of quercetin and EGCG on mitochondrial biogenesis and immunity.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2009 Jul;41(7):1467-75

Department of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608, USA.

Purpose: To test the influence of 1000 mg of quercetin (Q) with or without 120 mg of epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), 400 mg of isoquercetin, and 400 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (Q-EGCG) on exercise performance, muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, and changes in measures of immunity and inflammation before and after a 3-d period of heavy exertion.

Methods: Trained cyclists (N = 39) were randomized to placebo (P), Q, or Q-EGCG and ingested supplements in a double-blinded fashion for 2 wk before, during, and 1 wk after a 3-d period in which subjects cycled for 3 h x d(-1) at approximately 57% Wmax. Blood, saliva, and muscle biopsy samples were collected before and after 2 wk of supplementation and immediately after the exercise bout on the third day. Blood and saliva samples were also collected 14 h after exercise.

Results: Two-week supplementation resulted in a significant increase in plasma quercetin for Q and Q-EGCG and granulocyte oxidative burst activity (GOBA) in Q-EGCG. Immediately after the third exercise bout, significant decreases for C-reactive protein (CRP), and plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) were measured in Q-EGCG compared with P. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and CRP were reduced in Q-EGCG 14 h after exercise. No group differences were measured in muscle messenger RNA expression for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator alpha, citrate synthase, or cytochrome c.

Conclusions: Two-week supplementation with Q-EGCG was effective in augmenting GOBA andin countering inflammation after 3 d of heavy exertion in trained cyclists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e318199491fDOI Listing
July 2009

Quercetin does not affect rating of perceived exertion in athletes during the Western States endurance run.

Res Sports Med 2009 ;17(2):71-83

Department of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina 28608, USA.

The purpose of this study was to measure the influence of quercetin supplementation on ratings of perceived exertion in ultramarathon runners competing in the 160-km Western States Endurance Run (WSER). Sixty-three runners were randomized to quercetin (Q) and placebo (P) groups, and under double blinded methods ingested four supplements per day with or without 250 mg quercetin for 3 weeks before the WSER. Thirty-nine of the 63 subjects (quercetin N = 18, placebo N = 21) finished the race. At the completion of exercise ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed at aid stations located at 40, 90, 125, 150, and 160 km (finish line). The pattern of change in RPE over time was not significantly different between the Q and P groups. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) did not significantly increase throughout the race (15.2 +/- 2.9 at 40 km -14.2 +/- 4.0 at 160 km) for both groups combined. Race times were not different between the groups (Q = 26.4 +/- 0.7 h and P = 27.5 +/- 0.6 h). Significant time main effects (p < 0.001) were found for both serum glucose and cortisol throughout the race. Quercetin supplementation for 3 weeks prior to the WSER had no effect on RPE during competitive self-paced ultramarathon running. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) did not increase in a linear fashion but instead fluctuated nonmonotonically throughout the self-paced endurance running event.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15438620902901474DOI Listing
September 2009

Oral quercetin supplementation and blood oxidative capacity in response to ultramarathon competition.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2008 Dec;18(6):601-16

Dept. of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA.

Previous research indicates that ultramarathon exercise can result in blood oxidative stress. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the efficacy of oral supplementation with quercetin, a naturally occurring compound with known antioxidant properties, as a potential countermeasure against blood oxidative stress during an ultramarathon competition. In double-blind fashion, 63 participants received either oral quercetin (250 mg, 4x/day; 1,000 mg/day total) or quercetin-free supplements 3 weeks before and during the 160-km Western States Endurance Run. Blood drawn before and immediately after (quercetin finishers n = 18, quercetin-free finishers n = 21) the event was analyzed for changes in blood redox status and oxidative damage. Results show that quercetin supplementation did not affect race performance. In response to the ultramarathon challenge, aqueous-phase antioxidant capacity (ferric-reducing ability of plasma) was similarly elevated in athletes in both quercetin and quercetin-free treatments and likely reflects significant increases in plasma urate levels. Alternatively, trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity was not altered by exercise or quercetin. Accordingly, neither F2-isoprostances nor protein carbonyls were influenced by either exercise or quercetin supplementation. In the absence of postrace blood oxidative damage, these findings suggest that oral quercetin supplementation does not alter blood plasma lipid or aqueous-phase antioxidant capacity or oxidative damage during an ultramarathon challenge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.18.6.601DOI Listing
December 2008

The effect of resistance exercise on humoral markers of oxidative stress.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008 Mar;40(3):542-8

Department of Health, Leisure and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28607, USA.

Unlabelled: Previous research attempts to identify an oxidative stress response to acute resistance exercise have yielded mixed results. Inconsistencies in the current literature base probably reflect study-to-study variance in resistance exercise protocols; where high volume and short recovery elicit the most identifiable oxidative stress response.

Purpose: This study examined the effect of resistance exercise intensity on blood oxidative stress.

Methods: To elicit a blood oxidative stress, 10 subjects undertook two different back squat protocols: 1) a hypertrophy protocol of four sets, 10 repetitions with 90 s of rest at 75% one-repetition max (1RM); and 2) a strength protocol of 11 sets, three repetitions with 5 min of rest at 90% 1RM. The resistance exercise protocols were standardized for total volume and completed in a randomized crossover fashion with 1 wk between trials. Blood drawn before (PRE), immediately following exercise (IP), and 60 min following exercise (60POST) was analyzed for markers of oxidative stress and damage.

Results: In response to both hypertrophy and strength exercise protein carbonyls were significantly elevated IP and 60POST while plasma lipid hydroperoxides were not. Following the hypertrophy protocol, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity was elevated IP while urate lower than baseline. At the 60POST time point plasma ferric reducing ability of plasma was elevated following the hypertrophy protocol. Based on protein carbonyl data, a similar oxidative stress was incurred following both hypertrophy and strength protocols.

Conclusion: Normalization for time of blood draw following the two protocols indicates that the magnitude of blood oxidative protein damage was identical between the protocols. These findings demonstrate that both resistance exercise protocols elicited a blood oxidative stress in a time-dependent fashion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31815daf89DOI Listing
March 2008

Chronic quercetin ingestion and exercise-induced oxidative damage and inflammation.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2008 Apr;33(2):254-62

Department of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608, USA.

Quercetin is a flavonoid compound that has been demonstrated to be a potent antioxidant in vitro. The objective of this study was to evaluate if quercetin ingestion would increase plasma antioxidant measures and attenuate increases in exercise-induced oxidative damage. Forty athletes were recruited and randomized to quercetin or placebo. Subjects consumed 1000 mg quercetin or placebo each day for 6 weeks before and during 3 d of cycling at 57% work maximum for 3 h. Blood was collected before and immediately after exercise each day, and analyzed for F2-isoprostanes, nitrite, ferric-reducing ability of plasma, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and C-reactive protein. Statistical analyses involved a 2 (treatment) x 6 (times) repeated measures analysis of variance to test main effects. F2-isoprostanes, nitrite, ferric-reducing ability of plasma, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and C-reactive protein were significantly elevated as a result of exercise, but no group effects were found. Despite previous data demonstrating potent antioxidant actions of quercetin in vitro, this study indicates that this effect is absent in vivo and that chronic quercetin ingestion does not exert protection from exercise-induced oxidative stress and inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/H07-177DOI Listing
April 2008
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