Publications by authors named "Steven Glassman"

297 Publications

Does reduction of the Meyerding grade correlate with outcomes in patients undergoing decompression and fusion for grade I degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis?

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 Sep 17:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

1Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Objective: Reduction of Meyerding grade is often performed during fusion for spondylolisthesis. Although radiographic appearance may improve, correlation with patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is rarely reported. In this study, the authors' aim was to assess the impact of spondylolisthesis reduction on 24-month PRO measures after decompression and fusion surgery for Meyerding grade I degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis.

Methods: The Quality Outcomes Database (QOD) was queried for patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion for spondylolisthesis with a minimum 24-month follow-up, and quantitative correlation between Meyerding slippage reduction and PROs was performed. Baseline and 24-month PROs, including the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), EQ-5D, Numeric Rating Scale (NRS)-back pain (NRS-BP), NRS-leg pain (NRS-LP), and satisfaction (North American Spine Society patient satisfaction questionnaire) scores were noted. Multivariable regression models were fitted for 24-month PROs and complications after adjusting for an array of preoperative and surgical variables. Data were analyzed for magnitude of slippage reduction and correlated with PROs. Patients were divided into two groups: < 3 mm reduction and ≥ 3 mm reduction.

Results: Of 608 patients from 12 participating sites, 206 patients with complete data were identified in the QOD and included in this study. Baseline patient demographics, comorbidities, and clinical characteristics were similarly distributed between the cohorts except for depression, listhesis magnitude, and the proportion with dynamic listhesis (which were accounted for in the multivariable analysis). One hundred four (50.5%) patients underwent lumbar decompression and fusion with slippage reduction ≥ 3 mm (mean 5.19, range 3 to 11), and 102 (49.5%) patients underwent lumbar decompression and fusion with slippage reduction < 3 mm (mean 0.41, range 2 to -2). Patients in both groups (slippage reduction ≥ 3 mm, and slippage reduction < 3 mm) reported significant improvement in all primary patient reported outcomes (all p < 0.001). There was no significant difference with regard to the PROs between patients with or without intraoperative reduction of listhesis on univariate and multivariable analyses (ODI, EQ-5D, NRS-BP, NRS-LP, or satisfaction). There was no significant difference in complications between cohorts.

Conclusions: Significant improvement was found in terms of all PROs in patients undergoing decompression and fusion for lumbar spondylolisthesis. There was no correlation with clinical outcomes and magnitude of Meyerding slippage reduction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2021.3.SPINE202059DOI Listing
September 2021

Costs associated with potentially unnecessary post-operative healthcare encounters after lumbar spine surgery.

Spine J 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Norton Leatherman Spine Center, 210 East Gray Street, Suite 900, Louisville, Kentucky 40202.

Background Context: Excessive use of post-operative imaging after lumbar surgery has been documented, becoming a target for cutting costs. This must be balanced with the patient's need for information and allay their post-operative concerns.

Purpose: To determine the incidence and associated costs of patient interactions with the healthcare system, outside the standard follow up routine, in the first post-operative year.

Study Design: Retrospective longitudinal cohort PATIENT SAMPLE: Consecutive series of 200 patients who underwent lumbar fusions from 2018-2019 from a multi-surgeon single tertiary spine center.

Outcome Measures: All healthcare encounters: phone calls, office and emergency department visits, and additional testing METHODS: A consecutive series of 200 patients who underwent lumbar fusions from 2018-2019 were identified. All non-routine healthcare encounters: phone calls, office and emergency department visits, and additional testing were collected. Direct costs for all healthcare services were determined using the Medicare Allowable rates. Indirect costs were determined using local, median income, length of office visits, and distance from the clinic to the patient's home.

Results: Of 200 patients, 14 with thoracic fusion were excluded. The mean age of the 186 included patients was 58.26 years and 85 (46%) were male. Forty-seven percent (87/186) had only routine post-operative visits and 24 had revision surgery. Seventy-five patients made a total of 102 phone calls, 55 office visits, leading to 38 diagnostic studies none of which led to an additional intervention. Using Medicare Allowable rates, the mean direct cost was $776 per patient and the using a median income of $16/hour the mean indirect cost was $124 per patient. There were no differences in the baseline characteristics among the patients who only had routine post-op encounters, had non-routine encounters or had a repeat surgery.

Conclusion: Forty percent of the patients undergoing lumbar surgery had a healthcare encounter outside their routine follow up that did not result in additional intervention after their index operation. These potentially unnecessary encounters create additional cost and inconvenience to both the patient and healthcare system. Providing patient reassurance is important and providers should identify ways to reduce associated costs through patient education, virtual visits, or new technologies to monitor patient's post- operative progress.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2021.08.009DOI Listing
September 2021

Reaching the medicare allowable threshold in adult spinal deformity surgery: multicenter cost analysis comparing actual direct hospital costs versus what the government will pay.

Spine Deform 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Presbyterian/St. Luke's Medical Center, Rocky Mountain Hospital for Children, Denver, CO, USA.

Study Design: Retrospective multicenter cost analysis.

Objective: To (1) determine if index episode of care (iEOC) costs of Adult Spinal Deformity (ASD) surgeries are below the Medicare Allowable (MA) threshold, and (2) identify variables that can predict iEOC cases that are below MA. Previous studies have suggested that actual direct hospital cost of Adult Spinal Deformity (ASD) surgery is higher than Medicare Allowable (MA) rates, which has become the benchmark reimbursement target for hospital accounting systems.

Methods: From a prospective, multicenter ASD surgical database, patients undergoing long instrumented fusions (> 5 level) with cost data were identified. iEOC cost was calculated utilizing actual direct hospital cost. MA rates were calculated using hospital specific, year-appropriate CMS Inpatient Pricer Payment System. Recursive partitioning identified potentially modifiable variables that can predict iEOC cost < MA.

Results: Administrative direct cost data from 210 patients were obtained from 4 of 11 centers. Ninety-five (45%) patients had iEOC cost < MA. There was significant variation across the four centers in both iEOC cost ($56,788-$78,878, p < 0.0001) and reimbursement ($40,623-$91,351, p < 0.0001) across deformity-specific DRGs (453,454,456,457). Academic centers were more likely to have iEOC costs < MA (67.2% vs 8.9%, p < 0.0001). Recursive partitioning (r = 0.309) identified rhBMP-2 use of < 24 mg, sagittal plane deformity, a combined anterior/posterior approach, and an SF36-MCS < 39 as predictive for iEOC cost < MA. Performing an anterior/posterior approach reimburses between 14.7% and 121.1% more (2.2-fold) than posterior-only approach. This change in DRG allows iEOC cost to be more likely below the MA threshold.

Conclusion: There is significant institutional (private vs academic) variation in ASD reimbursement. BMP use, deformity type, approach, and baseline mental health impact ASD surgery cost being below Medicare reimbursement. ASD surgeries with anterior/posterior approaches are in DRGs that can potentially reimburse 2.2-fold the posterior-only surgery, making it more likely to fall below the MA threshold.

Level Of Evidence: III.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-021-00405-4DOI Listing
September 2021

Return to work in patients with lumbar disc herniation undergoing fusion.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Aug 27;16(1):534. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Norton Leatherman Spine Center, 210 East Gray Street, Suite #900, Louisville, KY, 40202, USA.

Background: Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is a common problem. When surgical treatment is required, the intervention is typically decompression without fusion. Successful return-to-work (RTW) is a standard expectation with these limited procedures. Occasionally, the size or location of the disc herniation suggests the need for fusion, but the inability to RTW is a significant concern in these cases. The purpose of this study is to determine if the addition of lumbar fusion, as compared to decompression alone, will substantially diminish RTW in patients with lumbar disc herniation.

Methods: This is a longitudinal cohort study using prospectively collected data from the Quality and Outcomes Database (QOD). Patients with LDH, eligible to RTW (not retired, a student, or on disability) with complete 12-month follow-up data, were identified. Standard demographic and surgical variables, patient-reported outcomes (PROs), and RTW status at 3 and 12 months were collected.

Results: Of the 5062 patients identified, 4560 (90%) had decompression alone and 502 (10%) had a concurrent fusion. Age and gender were similar in the two groups. The fusion group had worse back pain (NRS 6.52 vs. 5.96) and less leg pain (6.31 vs. 7.01) at baseline compared to the no fusion group. Statistically significant improvement in all PROs was seen in both groups. RTW at 3 months post-op was seen in 85% of decompression cases and 66% of cases with supplemental fusion. At 12 months post-op, RTW increased to 93% and 82%, respectively.

Conclusion: The need for fusion in LDH cases is unusual, seen in only 10% of cases in this series. The addition of fusion decreased the RTW rate from 85 to 66% at 3 months and from 93 to 82% at 12 months post-op. While the difference is significant, the ultimate deterioration in RTW may be less than anticipated. A reasonable RTW rate can still be expected in the rare patient who requires fusion as part of their treatment for LDH.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-021-02682-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8393463PMC
August 2021

Dual pitch screw design provides equivalent fixation to upsized screw diameter in revision pedicle screw instrumentation: a cadaveric biomechanical study.

Spine J 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Norton Leatherman Spine Center, 210 East Gray Street, Suite 900, Louisville, KY, USA; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 550 S. Jackson Street, 1st Floor ACB, Louisville, KY, USA.

Background Context: There are situations that require the replacement of pedicle screws. They are often exchanged when loose or broken or to accommodate a different sized rod or pedicle screw system. Traditionally, pedicle screws are replaced by up-sizing the core diameter until an interference fit is obtained. However, this method carries a risk of pedicle screw breach.

Purpose: To determine if dual pitch screws, with cancellous pitch in the vertebral body and cortical pitch throughout the pedicle, allows for in-line screw revision without upsizing screw diameter.

Study Design: Cadaveric biomechanical Study PATIENT SAMPLE: Not applicable OUTCOME MEASURES: Not applicable METHODS: Pedicle screws were tested in the lumbar vertebrae from eleven cadavers. Standard pitch 5.5 mm screws were inserted and loaded using a "break-in" protocol. Screws were removed and replaced with one of four screw types: 5.5 mm Standard Pitch, 5.5 mm Dual Pitch, 6.0 mm Standard Pitch, or 6.0 mm Dual Pitch. Failure testing was done using a stepwise increasing cyclic loading protocol for 100 cycles at each increasing load level. The loading consisted of a combined axial and bending load simulating the load seen by the most inferior screw.

Results: Failure was consistent, with the tip of the screw displacing inferiorly into the vertebral body while simultaneously pulling out. Failure strength was lowest in the 5.5mm Standard (135.8±29.4N) followed by 6.0mm Standard (141.8±38.6N), 5.5mm Dual (158.1±53.8N), and 6.0mm Dual (173.6±52.1N, p=.023). There was no difference in the failure strength between the 5.5mm Dual and 6.0mm Standard. Lumbar level (p=.701) and donor spine (p=.062) were not associated with failure strength.

Conclusions: After pedicle screw removal, screws with a larger core diameter or with a dual pitch have similar failure strengths. Dual pitch screws may allow for in-line revision of screws without upsizing screw diameter, minimizing the risk of pedicle breach or fracture.

Clinical Significance: Dual pitch screws, with cancellous pitch in the vertebral body and cortical pitch through the pedicle, allows for in-line revision of pedicle screws without upsizing screw diameter; reducing the risk of pedicle breach or fracture when exchanging screws.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2021.07.010DOI Listing
July 2021

Combination of Side-Bending and Traction Radiographs Do Not Influence Selection of Fusion Levels Compared to Either One Alone in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

Global Spine J 2021 May 12:21925682211015193. Epub 2021 May 12.

Norton Leatherman Spine Center, Louisville, KY, USA.

Study Design: A retrospective study.

Objectives: Curve flexibility in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) can be evaluated using different techniques. This study aimed to determine whether the combination of side-bending (SB) and traction (TX) radiographs influences preoperative planning for AIS than either radiograph alone.

Methods: Thirty-two spine surgeons were asked to review 30 AIS Lenke type 1 cases and select an upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) and lower instrumented vertebra (LIV) for the posterior spinal instrumentation of each case. Each rater reviewed the cases 3 times in each round. The raters were provided with the full-length posteroanterior (PA) and lateral standing and SB radiographs for round 1; PA, lateral, and TX radiographs for round 2; and PA, lateral, SB, and TX radiographs for round 3. Intra- and inter-rater reliabilities were evaluated using Kappa statistics.

Results: The intra-rater reliability for UIV and LIV was 0.657 and 0.612 between rounds 1 and 2, 0.634 and 0.692 between rounds 1 and 3, and 0.659 and 0.638 between rounds 2 and 3, respectively, which indicated substantial agreement between rounds. The inter-rater kappa reliabilities for UIV and LIV selection were 0.103 and 0.412 for round 1, 0.121 and 0.380 for round 2, and 0.125 and 0.368 for round 3, indicating slight to moderate agreement between raters.

Conclusions: Whether raters used either SB or TX radiography, or both in addition to PA and lateral standing radiographs, did not influence the decision making for UIV or LIV of AIS Lenke type 1 surgery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/21925682211015193DOI Listing
May 2021

Operative versus nonoperative treatment for adult symptomatic lumbar scoliosis at 5-year follow-up: durability of outcomes and impact of treatment-related serious adverse events.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 Apr 30:1-13. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Objective: Although short-term adult symptomatic lumbar scoliosis (ASLS) studies favor operative over nonoperative treatment, longer outcomes are critical for assessment of treatment durability, especially for operative treatment, because the majority of implant failures and nonunions present between 2 and 5 years after surgery. The objectives of this study were to assess the durability of treatment outcomes for operative versus nonoperative treatment of ASLS, to report the rates and types of associated serious adverse events (SAEs), and to determine the potential impact of treatment-related SAEs on outcomes.

Methods: The ASLS-1 (Adult Symptomatic Lumbar Scoliosis-1) trial is an NIH-sponsored multicenter prospective study to assess operative versus nonoperative ASLS treatment. Patients were 40-80 years of age and had ASLS (Cobb angle ≥ 30° and Oswestry Disability Index [ODI] ≥ 20 or Scoliosis Research Society [SRS]-22 subscore ≤ 4.0 in the Pain, Function, and/or Self-Image domains). Patients receiving operative and nonoperative treatment were compared using as-treated analysis, and the impact of related SAEs was assessed. Primary outcome measures were ODI and SRS-22.

Results: The 286 patients with ASLS (107 with nonoperative treatment, 179 with operative treatment) had 2-year and 5-year follow-up rates of 90% (n = 256) and 74% (n = 211), respectively. At 5 years, compared with patients treated nonoperatively, those who underwent surgery had greater improvement in ODI (mean difference -15.2 [95% CI -18.7 to -11.7]) and SRS-22 subscore (mean difference 0.63 [95% CI 0.48-0.78]) (p < 0.001), with treatment effects (TEs) exceeding the minimum detectable measurement difference (MDMD) for ODI (7) and SRS-22 subscore (0.4). TEs at 5 years remained as favorable as 2-year TEs (ODI -13.9, SRS-22 0.52). For patients in the operative group, the incidence rates of treatment-related SAEs during the first 2 years and 2-5 years after surgery were 22.38 and 8.17 per 100 person-years, respectively. At 5 years, patients in the operative group who had 1 treatment-related SAE still had significantly greater improvement, with TEs (ODI -12.2, SRS-22 0.53; p < 0.001) exceeding the MDMD. Twelve patients who received surgery and who had 2 or more treatment-related SAEs had greater improvement than nonsurgically treated patients based on ODI (TE -8.34, p = 0.017) and SRS-22 (TE 0.32, p = 0.029), but the SRS-22 TE did not exceed the MDMD.

Conclusions: The significantly greater improvement of operative versus nonoperative treatment for ASLS at 2 years was durably maintained at the 5-year follow-up. Patients in the operative cohort with a treatment-related SAE still had greater improvement than patients in the nonoperative cohort. These findings have important implications for patient counseling and future cost-effectiveness assessments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.9.SPINE201472DOI Listing
April 2021

Microneedling as an Adjuvant to Local Therapies for Vitiligo: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Dermatol Surg 2021 Sep;47(9):1314-1316

Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DSS.0000000000003048DOI Listing
September 2021

Patient-reported outcome improvements at 24-month follow-up after fusion added to decompression for grade I degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis: a multicenter study using the Quality Outcomes Database.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 Apr 16:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

16Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, California.

Objective: The ideal surgical management of grade I lumbar spondylolisthesis has not been determined despite extensive prior investigations. In this cohort study, the authors used data from the large, multicenter, prospectively collected Quality Outcomes Database to bridge the gap between the findings in previous randomized trials and those in a more heterogeneous population treated in a typical practice. The objective was to assess the difference in patient-reported outcomes among patients undergoing decompression alone or decompression plus fusion.

Methods: The primary outcome measure was change in 24-month Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores. The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in ODI score change and 30% change in ODI score at 24 months were also evaluated. After adjusting for patient-specific and clinical factors, multivariable linear and logistic regressions were employed to evaluate the impact of fusion on outcomes. To account for differences in age, sex, body mass index, and baseline listhesis, a sensitivity analysis was performed using propensity score analysis to match patients undergoing decompression only with those undergoing decompression and fusion.

Results: In total, 608 patients who had grade I lumbar spondylolisthesis were identified (85.5% with at least 24 months of follow-up); 140 (23.0%) underwent decompression alone and 468 (77.0%) underwent decompression and fusion. The 24-month change in ODI score was significantly greater in the fusion plus decompression group than in the decompression-only group (-25.8 ± 20.0 vs -15.2 ± 19.8, p < 0.001). Fusion remained independently associated with 24-month ODI score change (B = -7.05, 95% CI -10.70 to -3.39, p ≤ 0.001) in multivariable regression analysis, as well as with achieving the MCID for the ODI score (OR 1.767, 95% CI 1.058-2.944, p = 0.029) and 30% change in ODI score (OR 2.371, 95% CI 1.286-4.371, p = 0.005). Propensity score analysis resulted in 94 patients in the decompression-only group matched 1 to 1 with 94 patients in the fusion group. The addition of fusion to decompression remained a significant predictor of 24-month change in the ODI score (B = 2.796, 95% CI 2.228-13.275, p = 0.006) and of achieving the 24-month MCID ODI score (OR 2.898, 95% CI 1.214-6.914, p = 0.016) and 24-month 30% change in ODI score (OR 2.300, 95% CI 1.014-5.216, p = 0.046).

Conclusions: These results suggest that decompression plus fusion in patients with grade I lumbar spondylolisthesis may be associated with superior outcomes at 24 months compared with decompression alone, both in reduction of disability and in achieving clinically meaningful improvement. Longer-term follow-up is warranted to assess whether this effect is sustained.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.9.SPINE201082DOI Listing
April 2021

Drivers of in-hospital opioid consumption in patients undergoing lumbar fusion surgery.

J Spine Surg 2021 Mar;7(1):19-25

Norton Leatherman Spine Center, Louisville, KY, USA.

Background: With the current opioid crisis, as many as 38% of patients are still on opioids one year after elective spine surgery. Identifying drivers of in-hospital opioid consumption may decrease subsequent opioid dependence. We aimed to identify the drivers of in-hospital opioid consumption in patients undergoing 1-2-level instrumented lumbar fusions.

Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study. Electronic medical record analysts identified consecutive patients undergoing 1-2 level instrumented lumbar fusions for degenerative lumbar conditions from 2016 to 2018 from a single-center hospital administrative database. Oral, intravenous, and transdermal opioid dose administrations were converted to morphine milligram equivalents (MME). Linear regression analysis was used to determine associations between postoperative day (POD) 4 cumulative in-hospital MMEs and the patients' baseline characteristics including body mass index (BMI), race, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade, smoking status, marital status, insurance type, zip code, number of fused levels, approach and preoperative opioid use.

Results: A total of 1,502 patients were included. The mean cumulative MMEs at POD 4 was 251.5. Linear regression analysis yielded four drivers including younger age, preoperative opioid use, current smokers and more levels fused. There were no associations with surgical approach, zip code, ASA grade, marital status, BMI, race or insurance type.

Conclusions: Use of preoperative opioids and smoking are modifiable risk factors for higher in-hospital opioid consumption and can be targets for intervention prior to surgery in order to decrease in-hospital opioid use.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jss-20-626DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024760PMC
March 2021

The Scoliosis Research Society adult spinal deformity standard outcome set.

Spine Deform 2021 Sep 6;9(5):1211-1221. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Norton Leatherman Spine Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.

Purpose: Symptomatic adult spinal deformity (ASD) with an extremely variable presentation with pain, with and without neurogenic leg pain, and/or disturbed sagittal and coronal balance, causes a significant societal burden of disease. It is an important consequence of the aging adult population, generating a plethora of spine-related interventions with variable treatment efficacy and consistently high costs. Recent years have witnessed more than a threefold increase in the prevalence and treatment of ASD, and further increases over the coming decades are expected with the growing elderly population worldwide. The ability to monitor and assess clinical outcomes has not kept pace with these developments. This paper addresses the pressing need to provide a set of common outcome metrics for this growing group of patients with back pain and other disabilities due to an adult spinal deformity.

Methods: The standard outcome set was created by a panel with global representation, using a thorough modified Delphi procedure. The three-tiered outcome hierarchy (Porter) was used as a framework to capture full cycle of care. The standardized language of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (WHO-ICF) was used.

Results: Consensus was reached on a core set of 25 WHO-ICF outcome domains ('What to measure'); on the accompanying globally available clinician and patient reported measurement instruments and definitions ('How to measure'), and on the timing of the measurements ('When to measure'). The current work has brought to light domains not routinely reported in the spinal literature (such as pulmonary function, return to work, social participation), and domains for which no adequate instruments have yet been identified (such as how to clinically quantify in routine practice lumbar spinal stenosis, neurogenic claudication, radicular pain, and loss of lower extremity motor function).

Conclusion: A standard outcome set was developed for patients undergoing treatment for adult spinal deformity using globally available outcome metrics. The current framework can be considered a reference for further work, and may provide a starting point for routine methodical and systematic monitoring of outcomes. Post-COVID e-health may accelerate the routine capture of these types of data.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-021-00334-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8363534PMC
September 2021

Improvement of coronal alignment in fractional low lumbar curves with the use of anterior interbody devices.

Spine Deform 2021 Sep 19;9(5):1443-1447. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Norton Leatherman Spine Center, Louisville, KY, USA.

Study Design: Retrospective chart review.

Objectives: To determine if the addition of an anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) improves the fractional curve in adult spinal deformity correction when compared to posterior surgery alone. ALIF is commonly advocated to improve lordosis and fusion in adult deformity surgery. Improved fractional curve correction may help level the pelvis and minimize proximal malalignment.

Methods: Patients undergoing thoracolumbar fusion to the pelvis with S2AI screws for deformity were identified and stratified into patients who had an ALIF as part of their deformity correction procedure (ALIF + PSF), and those who had a posterior approach alone. The posterior approach (PSF) includes patients who had a posterolateral fusion with or without a transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). Radiographic parameters measured included pre-op and post-op fractional coronal curve Cobb angle, lumbar lordosis, pelvic tilt, pelvic incidence and sacral slope, major Cobb angle, coronal and sagittal SVA.

Results: There were 31 cases in the ALIF + PSF group and 28 in the PSF group. Baseline demographic characteristics of the two groups were similar. Mean pre-op fractional coronal Cobb (18.3° vs 13.4°, p = 0.027) was larger in the ALIF + PSF group, whereas lumbar lordosis (31.0° vs 33.6°, p = 0.487) and pelvic parameters were similar between the two groups. Post-op lumbar lordosis was similar (48.2° vs 43.0°, p = 0.092). Greater fractional coronal curve correction was achieved in the ALIF + PSF group (67%) compared to the PSF group (36%) with a smaller post-op fractional coronal curve in the ALIF + PSF group (6.1°) compared to the PSF group (8.6°, p = 0.053).

Conclusion: There is a greater correction of the fractional curve in the ALIF + PSF group compared with the PSF group. While this may not be the primary indication for ALIF, it is a benefit which may facilitate overall deformity correction and leveling of the pelvis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-021-00328-0DOI Listing
September 2021

Impact of surgeon and hospital factors on surgical decision-making for grade 1 degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis: a Quality Outcomes Database analysis.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 Feb 19:1-11. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

1Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Miami, Florida.

Objective: Surgical treatment for degenerative spondylolisthesis has been proven to be clinically challenging and cost-effective. However, there is a range of thresholds that surgeons utilize for incorporating fusion in addition to decompressive laminectomy in these cases. This study investigates these surgeon- and site-specific factors by using the Quality Outcomes Database (QOD).

Methods: The QOD was queried for all cases that had undergone surgery for grade 1 spondylolisthesis from database inception to February 2019. In addition to patient-specific covariates, surgeon-specific covariates included age, sex, race, years in practice (0-10, 11-20, 21-30, > 30 years), and fellowship training. Site-specific variables included hospital location (rural, suburban, urban), teaching versus nonteaching status, and hospital type (government, nonfederal; private, nonprofit; private, investor owned). Multivariable regression and predictor importance analyses were performed to identify predictors of the treatment performed (decompression alone vs decompression and fusion). The model was clustered by site to account for site-specific heterogeneity in treatment selection.

Results: A total of 12,322 cases were included with 1988 (16.1%) that had undergone decompression alone. On multivariable regression analysis clustered by site, adjusting for patient-level clinical covariates, no surgeon-specific factors were found to be significantly associated with the odds of selecting decompression alone as the surgery performed. However, sites located in suburban areas (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.09-4.84, p = 0.03) were more likely to perform decompression alone (reference = urban). Sites located in rural areas had higher odds of performing decompression alone than hospitals located in urban areas, although the results were not statistically significant (OR 1.33, 95% CI 0.59-2.61, p = 0.49). Nonteaching status was independently associated with lower odds of performing decompression alone (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.19-0.97, p = 0.04). Predictor importance analysis revealed that the most important determinants of treatment selection were dominant symptom (Wald χ2 = 34.7, accounting for 13.6% of total χ2) and concurrent diagnosis of disc herniation (Wald χ2 = 31.7, accounting for 12.4% of total χ2). Hospital teaching status was also found to be relatively important (Wald χ2 = 4.2, accounting for 1.6% of total χ2) but less important than other patient-level predictors.

Conclusions: Nonteaching centers were more likely to perform decompressive laminectomy with supplemental fusion for spondylolisthesis. Suburban hospitals were more likely to perform decompression only. Surgeon characteristics were not found to influence treatment selection after adjustment for clinical covariates. Further large database registry experience from surgeons at high-volume academic centers at which surgically and medically complex patients are treated may provide additional insight into factors associated with treatment preference for degenerative spondylolisthesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.8.SPINE201015DOI Listing
February 2021

Multi-modal pain control regimen for anterior lumbar fusion drastically reduces in-hospital opioid consumption.

J Spine Surg 2020 Dec;6(4):681-687

Norton Leatherman Spine Center, Louisville, KY, USA.

Background: The opioid epidemic is at epic proportions currently in the United States. Exposure to opioids for surgery and subsequent postoperative pain management is a known risk factor for opioid dependence. In addition, opioids can have a negative impact on multiple aspects including clinical outcomes, length of hospital stay, and overall cost of care. Thus, the greatest effort to reduce perioperative opioid use is necessary and a multimodal pain control (MMPC) has been gaining popularity. However, its efficacy in spine surgery is not well known. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a MMPC protocol in patients undergoing lumbar single-level anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF).

Methods: This is a retrospective comparative study. From a prospective, single-surgeon, surgical database, consecutive patients undergoing single-level ALIF with or without subsequent posterior fusion for degenerative lumbar conditions were identified before and after initiation of the MMPC protocol. The MMPC protocol consisted of a preoperative oral regimen of cyclobenzaprine (10 mg), gabapentin (600 mg), acetaminophen (1 g), and methadone (10 mg). Postoperatively they received a bilateral transverse abdominis plane block with 0.5% Ropivacaine prior to extubation. We compared in-hospital opioid consumption between the MMPC and non-MMPC cohorts as well as baseline demographic, the length of hospital stay, cost, and rate of postoperative ileus. Opioid consumption was calculated and normalized to the morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs).

Results: In total, 68 patients in the MMPC cohort and 39 in the non-MMPC cohort were identified. There was no difference in baseline demographics including sex, body mass index, smoking status, or preoperative opioid use between the two groups. Although there was no difference in the MMEs on the day of surgery (58.5 66.9, P=0.387), cumulative MMEs each day after surgery was significantly lower in the MMPC cohort, with final cumulative MMEs being reduced by 62% (120.2 314.8, P<0.001). There was no difference in postoperative ileus, length of stay, and hospital costs.

Conclusions: The use of a MMPC protocol in patients undergoing single-level ALIF for degenerative conditions reduced opioid consumption starting on the first day after surgery, resulting in a cumulative reduction of 62%.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jss-20-629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7797802PMC
December 2020

Cannabinoids and orthopedic surgery: a systematic review of therapeutic studies.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 Jan 14;16(1):57. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Norton Leatherman Spine Center, 210 E Gray Street, Suite 900, Louisville, KY, USA.

Background: Recent work has shed light on the potential benefits of cannabinoids for multimodal pain control following orthopedic procedures. The objective of this review was to summarize the available evidence of analgesic and opioid-sparing effects cannabinoids have in orthopedic surgery and identify adverse events associated with their use.

Methods: A systematic review of the literature using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines including PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar was performed to include all primary, therapeutic studies published on the use of cannabis, and cannabis-derived products in orthopedic surgery.

Results: The literature review returned 4292 citations. Thirteen publications were found to meet inclusion criteria. Four randomized controlled trials were evaluated while the remaining studies were of quasi-experimental design.

Conclusion: Research on cannabinoids in orthopedic surgery is mostly of a quasi-experimental nature and is mainly derived from studies where orthopedics was not the primary focus. The overall results demonstrate potential usefulness of cannabinoids as adjunctive analgesics and in mitigating opioid use. However, the current evidence is far from convincing. There is a need to produce rigorous evidence with well-designed randomized controlled trials specific to orthopedic surgery to further establish these effects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-021-02205-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7809869PMC
January 2021

"July Effect" Revisited: July Surgeries at Residency Training Programs are Associated with Equivalent Long-term Clinical Outcomes Following Lumbar Spondylolisthesis Surgery.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Jun;46(12):836-843

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, Ca.

Study Design: Retrospective analysis of a prospective registry.

Objective: We utilized the Quality Outcomes Database (QOD) registry to investigate the "July Effect" at QOD spondylolisthesis module sites with residency trainees.

Summary Of Background Data: There is a paucity of investigation on the long-term outcomes following surgeries involving new trainees utilizing high-quality, prospectively collected data.

Methods: This was an analysis of 608 patients who underwent single-segment surgery for grade 1 degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis at 12 high-enrolling sites. Surgeries were classified as occurring in July or not in July (non-July). Outcomes collected included estimated blood loss, length of stay, operative time, discharge disposition, complications, reoperation and readmission rates, and patient-reported outcomes (Oswestry Disability Index [ODI], Numeric Rating Scale [NRS] Back Pain, NRS Leg Pain, EuroQol-5D [EQ-5D] and the North American Spine Society [NASS] Satisfaction Questionnaire). Propensity score-matched analyses were utilized to compare postoperative outcomes and complication rates between the July and non-July groups.

Results: Three hundred seventy-one surgeries occurred at centers with a residency training program with 21 (5.7%) taking place in July. In propensity score-matched analyses, July surgeries were associated with longer operative times ( average treatment effect = 22.4 minutes longer, 95% confidence interval 0.9-449.0, P = 0.041). Otherwise, July surgeries were not associated with significantly different outcomes for the remaining perioperative parameters (estimated blood loss, length of stay, discharge disposition, postoperative complications), overall reoperation rates, 3-month readmission rates, and 24-month ODI, NRS back pain, NRS leg pain, EQ-5D, and NASS satisfaction score (P > 0.05, all comparisons).

Conclusion: Although July surgeries were associated with longer operative times, there were no associations with other clinical outcomes compared to non-July surgeries following lumbar spondylolisthesis surgery. These findings may be due to the increased attending supervision and intraoperative education during the beginning of the academic year. There is no evidence that the influx of new trainees in July significantly affects long-term patient-centered outcomes.Level of Evidence: 3.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003903DOI Listing
June 2021

Is There Additional Value to Flexion-Extension Radiographs for Degenerative Spondylolisthesis?

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Apr;46(7):E458-E462

Norton Leatherman Spine Center, Louisville, KY.

Study Design: Multicenter retrospective study.

Objective: Flexion-extension radiographs are frequently used to assess motion in patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis. However, they expose patients to additional radiation and increase cost. The aim of this study is to determine if flexion-extension radiographs provide additional information not seen on upright neutral radiographs and supine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that may guide surgical decision making.

Summary Of Background Data: Supine MRI and upright neutral radiographs are routinely performed in patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis. It is unclear whether additional flexion-extension views play a significant role in surgical planning for this patient population.

Methods: From the Quality Outcomes Database, patients who had surgery for grade 1 degenerative spondylolisthesis were identified. Magnitude of slip on pre-op supine MRI, upright neutral, flexion, and extension radiographs were measured. Additional motion was defined as 3 mm or more slip difference between radiographs. For the purpose of this analysis, patients with a slip of 7 mm or more on upright neutral radiographs were assumed to require a fusion.

Results: A total of 191 patients were identified. Mean age was 61.6 years (114 females, 60%). Only 31 patients (16%) had additional motion on flexion-extension views not seen on upright neutral x-rays versus supine MRI. Of these 31 patients, 19 had slips less than 7 mm on upright x-ray, generating equipoise for fusion.

Conclusion: Flexion-extension radiographs may play a limited role in management of degenerative spondylolisthesis. The subset of patients for which flexion-extension views were most likely to provide value were patients with smaller slips (<7 mm) with no evidence of motion on standing radiographs versus MRI. In 90% of spondylolisthesis cases, information used for surgical planning may be ascertained by comparing motion between supine MRI and upright lateral radiographs.Level of Evidence: 3.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003809DOI Listing
April 2021

Differences in Functional Treadmill Tests in Patients With Adult Symptomatic Lumbar Scoliosis Treated Operatively and Nonoperatively.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020 Nov;45(22):E1476-E1482

Departments of Medicine and Orthopaedics, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon.

Study Design: Prospective longitudinal cohort.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether functional treadmill testing (FTT) demonstrates differences between patients treated operatively and nonoperatively for adult symptomatic lumbar scoliosis (ASLS).

Summary Of Background Data: ASLS has become increasingly prevalent as the population ages. ASLS can be accompanied by neurogenic claudication, leading to difficulty walking. FTT may provide a functional tool to evaluate patients with ASLS.

Methods: One hundred and eighty-seven patients who underwent nonoperative (n = 88) or operative treatment (n = 99) of ASLS with complete baseline and 2-year post-treatment FTTs and concurrent patient-reported outcomes were identified. FTT parameters included maximum speed, time to onset of symptoms, distance ambulated, time ambulated, and Back and Leg pain severity before and after testing.

Results: At baseline, patients treated operatively reported worse post-FTT back pain (4.39 vs. 3.45, P = 0.032) than those treated nonoperatively, despite similar ODI, SRS-22 Pain and Activity domain scores. Mean time ambulated (+2.15 vs. -1.20 P = 0.001), pre-FTT back pain (+0.19 vs. -1.60, P < 0.000) and leg pain (+0.25 vs. -0.54, P = 0.024) improved in the operative group but deteriorated in the nonoperative group. On the 2-year follow-up FTT, both groups showed improvement in post-FTT back pain (-0.53 vs. -2.64, P < 0.000) and leg pain (-0.13 vs. -1.54, P = 0.001) severity but the improvement was statistically significantly greater in the operative compared to the nonoperative group.

Conclusion: FTT results at baseline were worse in patients treated operatively than those treated non-operatively. FTT may be a useful adjunct to assess treatment outcomes in patients with ASLS and may help surgeons counsel patients regarding expectations 2 years after operative or nonoperative treatment for ASLS. At 2-year follow-up, time ambulated deteriorated in patients treated nonoperatively but improved in patients treated operatively. Although both groups showed improvement in post-FTT Back and Leg pain at 2 years, the improvement was greater in the operative compared to the nonoperative group.

Level Of Evidence: 2.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003640DOI Listing
November 2020

State-of-the-art: outcome assessment in adult spinal deformity.

Spine Deform 2021 Jan 9;9(1):1-11. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Norton Leatherman Spine Center, 210 East Gray Street, Suite 900, Louisville, KY, 40202, USA.

Adult spinal deformity (ASD) is a diagnosis that encompasses heterogeneous disorders with an increasing prevalence. This increasing prevalence may be due to greater patient longevity or greater awareness of available treatments. Outcome assessment in ASD has evolved over the last 3 decades from physician-based assessments to a patient-centered perception of improvement. Outcome assessment that is reliable, accurate and responsive to change is especially important in ASD, as surgical treatment is known to carry a high cost and complication rate Glassman (Spine Deform 3:199-203, 2015); Glassman (Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 32: 2764-2770, 2007); Smith (J Neurosurg Spine 25:1-14, 2016). In an era of value-based care, diagnosis associated with such heterogeneity and high cost must provide sound evidence to support the cost versus outcome ratio. Numerous general health and disease specific patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) have been utilized in ASD. We discuss these instruments in detail in the following state-of-the-art review.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-020-00220-3DOI Listing
January 2021

Economic analysis of 90-day return to the emergency room and readmission after elective lumbar spine surgery: a single-center analysis of 5444 patients.

J Neurosurg Spine 2020 Oct 2:1-7. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Objective: In the future, payers may not cover unplanned 90-day emergency room (ER) visits or readmissions after elective lumbar spine surgery. Prior studies using large administrative databases lack granularity and/or use a proxy for actual cost. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors and subsequent costs associated with 90-day ER visits and readmissions after elective lumbar spine surgery.

Methods: A prospective, multisurgeon, single-center electronic medical record was queried for elective lumbar spine fusion surgeries from 2013 to 2017. Predictive models were created for 90-day ER visits and readmissions.

Results: Of 5444 patients, 729 (13%) returned to the ER, most often for pain (n = 213, 29%). Predictors of an ER visit were prior ER visit (OR 2.5), underserved zip code (OR 1.4), and number of chronic medical conditions (OR 1.4). In total, 421 (8%) patients were readmitted, most frequently for wound infection (n = 123, 2%), exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 24, 0.4%), and sepsis (n = 23, 0.4%). Predictors for readmission were prior ER visit (OR 1.96), multiple chronic conditions (OR 1.69), obesity (nonobese, OR 0.49), race (African American, OR 1.43), admission status (ER admission, OR 2.29), and elevated hemoglobin A1c (OR 1.80). The mean direct hospital cost for an ER visit was $1971, with 75% of visits costing less than $1890, and the average readmission cost was $7347, with 75% of readmissions costing less than $8820. Over the 5-year study period, the cost to the institution for 90-day return ER visits was $5.1 million.

Conclusions: Risk factors for 90-day ER visit and readmission after elective lumbar spine surgery include medical comorbidities and socioeconomic factors. Proper patient counseling, appropriate postoperative pain management, and optimization of modifiable risk factors prior to surgery are areas to focus future efforts to lower 90-day ER visits and readmissions and reduce healthcare costs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.6.SPINE191477DOI Listing
October 2020

Clinical Outcomes of Decompression Alone Versus and Decompression and Fusion for First Episode Recurrent Disc Herniation.

Global Spine J 2020 Oct 25;10(7):832-836. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Norton Leatherman Spine Center, Louisville, KY, USA.

Study Design: Longitudinal cohort.

Objective: It is unclear if patients with a recurrent disc herniation benefit from a concurrent fusion compared with a repeat decompression alone. We compared outcomes of decompression alone (D0) versus decompression and fusion (DF) for recurrent disc herniation.

Methods: Patients enrolled in the Quality and Outcomes Database from 3 sites with a first episode of recurrent disc herniation were identified. Demographic, surgical, and radiographic data including the presence of listhesis and extent of facet resection on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging prior to the index surgery were collected. Patient-reported outcomes were collected preoperatively and at 3 and 12 months postoperatively.

Results: Of 94 cases identified, 55 had D0 and 39 had DF. Patients were similar in age, sex distribution, smoking status, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade and surgical levels. Presence of listhesis (D0 = 7, DF = 5, = .800) and extent of facet resection (D0 = 19%, DF = 16%, = .309) prior to index surgery were similar between the 2 groups. Estimated blood loss (D0 = 26 cm, DF = 329 cm, < .001), operating room time (D0 = 79 minutes, DF = 241 minutes, < .001) and length of stay (D0 <1 day, DF = 4 days, < .001) were significantly less in the D0 group. Preoperative and 1-year postoperative patient-reported outcomes were similar in both groups. Three patients in the D0 group and 2 patients in the DF group required revision. Regression analysis showed that presence of listhesis, extent of facet resection and fusion were not associated with the 12-month Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score.

Conclusion: For a first episode recurrent disc herniation, surgeons can expect similar outcomes whether patients are treated with decompression alone or decompression and fusion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2192568219878132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7485072PMC
October 2020

Health-related quality-of-life improvement with lumbar fusion in patients with lower-extremity arthritis.

J Neurosurg Spine 2020 Sep 4:1-6. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Objective: Lumbar fusion can lead to significant improvements in patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with degenerative conditions. It is unknown whether the presence of hip or knee arthritis confounds the responses of patients to low-back-specific PROs. This study examined PROs with lumbar fusion in patients with concomitant lower-extremity arthritis. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether patients with significant lower-extremity arthritis who undergo lumbar fusion achieve similar improvements in low-back-specific PROs compared to patients without lower-extremity arthritis.

Methods: Patients were identified from a prospectively enrolled multicenter registry of patients undergoing lumbar fusion surgery for degenerative conditions. Two hundred thirty patients identified with lumbar fusion and who also had concomitant lower-extremity arthritis were propensity matched to 233 patients who did not have lower-extremity arthritis based on age, BMI, sex, smoking status, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, number of levels fused, and surgical approach. One-year improvement in PROs, numeric rating scales (0-10) for back and leg pain, and the Oswestry Disability Index and EuroQol-5D scores were compared for patients with and without lower-extremity arthritis.

Results: Baseline demographics and preoperative outcome measures did not differ between the two propensity-matched groups with 110 cases each. Patients with concomitant lower-extremity arthritis achieved similar improvement in health-related quality-of-life measures to patients without lower-extremity arthritis, with no significant differences between the groups (p > 0.10).

Conclusions: The presence of lower-extremity arthritis does not adversely affect the results of lumbar fusion in properly selected patients. Patients with lower-extremity arthritis who undergo lumbar fusion can achieve meaningful improvement in PROs similar to patients without arthritis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.6.SPINE20759DOI Listing
September 2020

The Institute for Healthcare Improvement-NeuroPoint Alliance collaboration to decrease length of stay and readmission after lumbar spine fusion: using national registries to design quality improvement protocols.

J Neurosurg Spine 2020 Aug 21:1-10. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

4Carolina Neurosurgery & Spine Associates, Neuroscience and Musculoskeletal Institutes, Atrium Health Charlotte, North Carolina.

Objective: National databases collect large amounts of clinical information, yet application of these data can be challenging. The authors present the NeuroPoint Alliance and Institute for Healthcare Improvement (NPA-IHI) program as a novel attempt to create a quality improvement (QI) tool informed through registry data to improve the quality of care delivered. Reducing the length of stay (LOS) and readmission after elective lumbar fusion was chosen as the pilot module.

Methods: The NPA-IHI program prospectively enrolled patients undergoing elective 1- to 3-level lumbar fusions across 8 institutions. A three-pronged approach was taken that included the following phases: 1) Research Phase, 2) Development Phase, and 3) Implementation Phase. Primary outcomes were LOS and readmission. From January to June 2017, a learning system was created utilizing monthly conference calls, weekly data submission, and continuous refinement of the proposed QI tool. Nonparametric tests were used to assess the impact of the QI intervention.

Results: The novel QI tool included the following three areas of intervention: 1) preoperative discharge assessment (location, date, and instructions), 2) inpatient changes (LOS rounding checklist, daily huddle, and pain assessments), and 3) postdischarge calls (pain, primary care follow-up, and satisfaction). A total of 209 patients were enrolled, and the most common procedure was a posterior laminectomy/fusion (60.2%). Seven patients (3.3%) were readmitted during the study period. Preoperative discharge planning was completed for 129 patients (61.7%). A shorter median LOS was seen in those with a known preoperative discharge date (67 vs 80 hours, p = 0.018) and clear discharge instructions (71 vs 81 hours, p = 0.030). Patients with a known preoperative discharge plan also reported significantly increased satisfaction (8.0 vs 7.0, p = 0.028), and patients with increased discharge readiness (scale 0-10) also reported higher satisfaction (r = 0.474, p < 0.001). Those receiving postdischarge calls (76%) had a significantly shorter LOS than those without postdischarge calls (75 vs 99 hours, p = 0.020), although no significant relationship was seen between postdischarge calls and readmission (p = 0.342).

Conclusions: The NPA-IHI program showed that preoperative discharge planning and postdischarge calls have the potential to reduce LOS and improve satisfaction after elective lumbar fusion. It is our hope that neurosurgical providers can recognize how registries can be used to both develop and implement a QI tool and appreciate the importance of QI implementation as a separate process from data collection/analysis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.5.SPINE20457DOI Listing
August 2020

Development and Validation of Cervical Prediction Models for Patient-Reported Outcomes at 1 Year After Cervical Spine Surgery for Radiculopathy and Myelopathy.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020 Nov;45(22):1541-1552

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Center for Musculoskeletal Research, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee.

Study Design: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected registry data.

Objective: To develop and validate prediction models for 12-month patient-reported outcomes of disability, pain, and myelopathy in patients undergoing elective cervical spine surgery.

Summary Of Background Data: Predictive models have the potential to be utilized preoperatively to set expectations, adjust modifiable characteristics, and provide a patient-centered model of care.

Methods: This study was conducted using data from the cervical module of the Quality Outcomes Database. The outcomes of interest were disability (Neck Disability Index:), pain (Numeric Rating Scale), and modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association score for myelopathy. Multivariable proportional odds ordinal regression models were developed for patients with cervical radiculopathy and myelopathy. Patient demographic, clinical, and surgical covariates as well as baseline patient-reported outcomes scores were included in all models. The models were internally validated using bootstrap resampling to estimate the likely performance on a new sample of patients.

Results: Four thousand nine hundred eighty-eight patients underwent surgery for radiculopathy and 2641 patients for myelopathy. The most important predictor of poor postoperative outcomes at 12-months was the baseline Neck Disability Index score for patients with radiculopathy and modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association score for patients with myelopathy. In addition, symptom duration, workers' compensation, age, employment, and ambulatory and smoking status had a statistically significant impact on all outcomes (P < 0.001). Clinical and surgical variables contributed very little to predictive models, with posterior approach being associated with higher odds of having worse 12-month outcome scores in both the radiculopathy and myelopathy cohorts (P < 0.001). The full models overall discriminative performance ranged from 0.654 to 0.725.

Conclusions: These predictive models provide individualized risk-adjusted estimates of 12-month disability, pain, and myelopathy outcomes for patients undergoing spine surgery for degenerative cervical disease. Predictive models have the potential to be used as a shared decision-making tool for evidence-based preoperative counselling.

Level Of Evidence: 2.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003610DOI Listing
November 2020

Drivers for nonhome discharge in a consecutive series of 1502 patients undergoing 1- or 2-level lumbar fusion.

J Neurosurg Spine 2020 Jul 31:1-6. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Objective: Unexpected nonhome discharge causes additional costs in the current reimbursement models, especially to the payor. Nonhome discharge is also related to longer length of hospital stay and therefore higher healthcare costs to society. With increasing demand for spine surgery, it is important to minimize costs by streamlining discharges and reducing length of hospital stay. Identifying factors associated with nonhome discharge can be useful for early intervention for discharge planning. The authors aimed to identify the drivers of nonhome discharge in patients undergoing 1- or 2-level instrumented lumbar fusion.

Methods: The electronic medical records from a single-center hospital administrative database were analyzed for consecutive patients who underwent 1- to 2-level instrumented lumbar fusion for degenerative lumbar conditions during the period from 2016 to 2018. Discharge disposition was determined as home or nonhome. A logistic regression analysis was used to determine associations between nonhome discharge and age, sex, body mass index (BMI), race, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, smoking status, marital status, insurance type, residence in an underserved zip code, and operative factors.

Results: A total of 1502 patients were included. The majority (81%) were discharged home. Factors associated with a nonhome discharge were older age, higher BMI, living in an underserved zip code, not being married, being on government insurance, and having more levels fused. Patients discharged to a nonhome facility had longer lengths of hospital stay (5.6 vs 3.0 days, p < 0.001) and significantly increased hospital costs ($21,204 vs $17,518, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Increased age, greater BMI, residence in an underserved zip code, not being married, and government insurance are drivers for discharge to a nonhome facility after a 1- to 2-level instrumented lumbar fusion. Early identification and intervention for these patients, even before admission, may decrease the length of hospital stay and medical costs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.5.SPINE20410DOI Listing
July 2020

Patients with a depressive and/or anxiety disorder can achieve optimum Long term outcomes after surgery for grade 1 spondylolisthesis: Analysis from the quality outcomes database (QOD).

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2020 10 17;197:106098. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Neurologic Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States.

Introduction: In the current study, we sought to compare baseline demographic, clinical, and operative characteristics, as well as baseline and follow-up patient reported outcomes (PROs) of patients with any depressive and/or anxiety disorder undergoing surgery for low-grade spondylolisthesis using a national spine registry.

Patients And Methods: The Quality Outcomes Database (QOD) was queried for patients undergoing surgery for Meyerding grade 1 lumbar spondylolisthesis undergoing 1-2 level decompression or 1 level fusion at 12 sites with the highest number of patients enrolled in QOD with 2-year follow-up data.

Results: Of the 608 patients identified, 25.6 % (n = 156) had any depressive and/or anxiety disorder. Patients with a depressive/anxiety disorder were less likely to be discharged home (p < 0.001). At 3=months, patients with a depressive/anxiety disorder had higher back pain (p < 0.001), lower quality of life (p < 0.001) and higher disability (p = 0.013); at 2 year patients with depression and/or anxiety had lower quality of life compared to those without (p < 0.001). On multivariable regression, depression was associated with significantly lower odds of achieving 20 % or less ODI (OR 0.44, 95 % CI 0.21-0.94,p = 0.03). Presence of an anxiety disorder was not associated with decreased odds of achieving that milestone at 3 months. The presence of depressive-disorder, anxiety-disorder or both did not have an impact on ODI at 2 years. Finally, patient satisfaction at 2-years did not differ between the two groups (79.8 % vs 82.7 %,p = 0.503).

Conclusion: We found that presence of a depressive-disorder may impact short-term outcomes among patients undergoing surgery for low grade spondylolisthesis but longer term outcomes are not affected by either a depressive or anxiety disorder.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2020.106098DOI Listing
October 2020

Effects of preoperative obesity and psychiatric comorbidities on minimum clinically important differences for lumbar fusion in grade 1 degenerative spondylolisthesis: analysis from the prospective Quality Outcomes Database registry.

J Neurosurg Spine 2020 Jul 24:1-8. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

1Norton Leatherman Spine Center, Louisville, Kentucky.

Objective: Medical comorbidities, particularly preoperatively diagnosed anxiety, depression, and obesity, may influence how patients perceive and measure clinical benefit after a surgical intervention. The current study was performed to define and compare the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) thresholds in patients with and without preoperative diagnoses of anxiety or depression and obesity who underwent spinal fusion for grade 1 degenerative spondylolisthesis.

Methods: The Quality Outcomes Database (QOD) was queried for patients who underwent lumbar fusion for grade 1 degenerative spondylolisthesis during the period from January 2014 to August 2017. Collected patient-reported outcomes (PROs) included the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), health status (EQ-5D), and numeric rating scale (NRS) scores for back pain (NRS-BP) and leg pain (NRS-LP). Both anchor-based and distribution-based methods for MCID calculation were employed.

Results: Of 462 patients included in the prospective registry who underwent a decompression and fusion procedure, 356 patients (77.1%) had complete baseline and 12-month PRO data and were included in the study. The MCID values for ODI scores did not significantly differ in patients with and those without a preoperative diagnosis of obesity (20.58 and 20.69, respectively). In addition, the MCID values for ODI scores did not differ in patients with and without a preoperative diagnosis of anxiety or depression (24.72 and 22.56, respectively). Similarly, the threshold MCID values for NRS-BP, NRS-LP, and EQ-5D scores were not statistically different between all groups. Based on both anchor-based and distribution-based methods for determination of MCID thresholds, there were no statistically significant differences between all cohorts.

Conclusions: MCID thresholds were similar for ODI, EQ-5D, NRS-BP, and NRS-LP in patients with and without preoperative diagnoses of anxiety or depression and obesity undergoing spinal fusion for grade 1 degenerative spondylolisthesis. Preoperative clinical and shared decision-making may be improved by understanding that preoperative medical comorbidities may not affect the way patients experience and assess important clinical changes postoperatively.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.4.SPINE20296DOI Listing
July 2020

Incidence of Proximal Junctional Kyphosis With Pedicle Screws at Upper Instrumented Vertebrae in Posterior Spinal Fusion for Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

Global Spine J 2021 Sep 7;11(7):1019-1024. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

483075Norton Leatherman Spine Center, Louisville, KY, USA.

Study Design: Longitudinal cohort.

Objectives: Posterior spinal fusion (PSF) using all-pedicle screw constructs has become the standard procedure in the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). However, there have been several reports that all-pedicle screw constructs or the use of pedicle screws at the upper instrumented vertebrae (UIV) increases the incidence of proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK). We aimed to evaluate the impact of instrumentation type on the incidence of PJK following PSF for AIS.

Methods: We performed a stratified random sampling from 3654 patients enrolled in a multicenter database of surgically treated AIS to obtain a representative sample from all Lenke types. Patients were then allocated into 3 groups based on the instrumentation type: all-pedicle screw (PS), hook at UIV with pedicle screws distally (HT), and hybrid constructs (HB). We measured proximal junctional angle (PJA) and defined PJK as PJA ≥ 10° and PJA progression of >10° at the final follow-up.

Results: Fifteen (4.3%) of 345 cases had PJK. PJK was significantly more common in PS (11%) compared with HB (1%) and HT (0%) ( < .001). PJK patients were similar to non-PJK patients regarding age, sex, curve type, UIV, and preoperative coronal Cobb angle. Thoracic kyphosis was significantly higher in the PJK group before surgery. Patients who developed PJK had a statistically significantly larger negative sagittal balance compared with the non-PJK group.

Conclusion: The incidence of PJK was 4.3% and was more common in all-pedicle screw constructs. Using hooks at UIV might be a treatment strategy to limit PJK.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2192568220935107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8351071PMC
September 2021

Cost-effectiveness of adult lumbar scoliosis surgery: an as-treated analysis from the adult symptomatic scoliosis surgery trial with 5-year follow-up.

Spine Deform 2020 12 6;8(6):1333-1339. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Duke University Duke Spine Center-Clinic 1B/1C, 40 Duke Medicine Circle, Durham, NC, 27710-400, USA.

Study Design: Longitudinal comparative cohort.

Objective: The purpose of this study is to report on the cost-effectiveness of surgical versus non-surgical treatment for Adult Symptomatic Lumbar Scoliosis (ASLS) using the as-treated data and provide a comparison to previously reported intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis. Adult spinal deformity is a relatively prevalent condition for which surgical treatment has become increasingly common but concerns surrounding complications, revision rates and cost-effectiveness remain unresolved. Of these issues, cost-effectiveness is perhaps the most difficult to quantify as the requisite data is difficult to obtain. The purpose of this study is to report on the cost-effectiveness of surgical versus non-surgical treatment for ASLS using the as-treated data and provide a comparison to previously reported ITT analysis.

Methods: Patients with at least 5-year follow-up data within the same treatment arm were included. Data collected every 3 months included use of nonoperative modalities, medications and employment status. Costs for surgeries and non-operative modalities were determined using Medicare Allowable rates. Medication costs were determined using the RedBook and indirect costs were calculated based on the reported employment status and income. Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALY) was determined using the SF-6D.

Results: Of 226 patients, 195 patients (73 Non-op, 122 Op) met inclusion criteria. At 5 years, 29 (24%) patients in the Op group had a revision surgery of whom two had two revisions and one had three revisions. The cumulative cost for the Op group was $111,451 with a cumulative QALY gain of 2.3. The cumulative cost for the Non-Op group was $29,124 with a cumulative QALY gain of 0.4. This results in an ICER of $44,033 in favor of Op treatment.

Conclusion: This as-treated cost-effectiveness analysis demonstrates that surgical treatment for adult lumbar scoliosis becomes favorable at year-three, 1 year earlier than suggested by a previous intent-to-treat analysis.

Level Of Evidence: II.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-020-00154-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7708503PMC
December 2020
-->