Publications by authors named "Steven A Groene"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Roux-En-Y gastric bypass following failed fundoplication.

Surg Endosc 2018 08 23;32(8):3517-3524. Epub 2018 Jan 23.

Division of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC, USA.

Introduction: Roux-En-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an alternative to reoperative fundoplication. The aim of this study was to expand long-term outcomes of patients undergoing RYGB after failed fundoplication and assess symptom resolution.

Methods: A single institution prospective study was performed of patients undergoing fundoplication takedown and RYGB between March 2007 and September 2016. Demographics, body mass index (BMI), preoperative symptoms, operative duration and findings, and postoperative outcomes were recorded. Data were assessed using standard statistical methods.

Results: 87 patients with failed antireflux surgery underwent RYGB. Median age 58 years (range 25-79 years). Median preoperative BMI 32.4 kg/m (range 21.6-50.6 kg/m). Comorbidities included hypertension (48.3%) and diabetes (11.5%). Sixty-six patients had undergone 1 prior fundoplication, 18 had 2 prior fundoplications, and 3 had 3 prior fundoplications. At least one previous open antireflux procedure had been performed in 16.1% of patients. The most common recurrent symptoms were reflux (85.1%), dysphagia (36.7%), pain (35.6%), and regurgitation (29.9%). Median symptom-free interval from last antireflux surgery was 3 years (range 0-25 years). RYGB was performed laparoscopically in 47.1% of cases, robotically in 44.8% of cases, and open in 5.9%. Operative duration was longer in the robotic group (p = 0.04). During RYGB, 85.1% patients were found to have an associated hiatal hernia, 34.5% had intrathoracic migration of the fundoplication, 32.2% a slipped fundoplication onto proximal stomach, and 13.8% had wrap disruption. Median length of stay (LOS) was 4 days (range 1-33 days). Median follow-up was 35.8 months, 11 patients (12.6%) had recurrent reflux symptoms. Excess body weight loss (%EWL) was 80.4%. There was no mortality but 8 patients required reoperation during follow-up.

Conclusions: Fundoplication takedown with RYGB was successful for long-term reflux resolution. Most can be performed via a minimally invasive approach with acceptable perioperative morbidity, symptom resolution, and the additional benefit of %EWL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-018-6072-9DOI Listing
August 2018

The effect of component separation technique on quality of life (QOL) and surgical outcomes in complex open ventral hernia repair (OVHR).

Surg Endosc 2017 09 30;31(9):3539-3546. Epub 2016 Dec 30.

Division of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, 1025 Morehead Medical Drive, Suite 300, Charlotte, NC, 28204, USA.

Introduction: Outcomes following OVHR may be affected by type of component separation. In this study, outcomes including QOL of patients undergoing OVHR were evaluated based on the utilization of transversus abdominis release (TAR), posterior rectus sheath release (PRSR) alone or in combination with external oblique release (EOR + PRSR).

Methods: A prospective, single-institution study following open ventral hernia repair involving component separation was performed from May 2005 to April 2015. Self-reported QOL outcomes were obtained preoperatively and at 1, 6 and 12 months postoperatively using the Carolinas Comfort Scale (CCS). A CCS of 2 (mild but bothersome discomfort) or greater was considered symptomatic. Comorbidities, complications, outcomes and CCS scores were reviewed. Univariate group comparisons were performed using Chi-square and Wilcoxon two-sample tests with statistical significance set at p < 0.05.

Results: During the study period, 292 OVHRs with CST met inclusion criteria. Single-sided, different releases on opposite sides, etc., were eliminated. Demographics included: average age-57.9 ± 11.9 years, BMI-34.0 ± 7.9 kgm, 53.2% female, 69% at least one prior hernia repair and average defect size-291.2 ± 236.2 cm. Preoperative discomfort (82 vs. 75 vs. 79%, p = 0.77) and movement limitation (94 vs. 70 vs. 78%, p = 0.1) in TAR, PRSR and EOR + PRSR were similar. Average follow-up was 16.4 months. At 1, 6 and 12 months postoperatively, there was no difference in reported CCS pain scores, movement limitation or mesh sensation among the groups (p > 0.05). Comparing OVHR patients outcomes by CST type, TAR was associated with decreased wound infections compared to others (3.2 vs. 16.1 vs. 20%, p = 0.07) while recurrence rates were increased in EOR + PRSR compared to TAR and PRSR alone(8.4 vs. 3 vs. 1.8%, p = 0.03). Eighty percent of recurrences had a biologic mesh secondary to contaminated field during hernia repair. The other two recurrences were one which occurred superior to the mesh at a suture site and one who developed a wound infection postoperatively. Mesh infection rates were low (0 vs. 1.5 vs. 2.6%, p > 0.05) even including contaminated cases (0 vs. 2 vs. 3.6%, p > 0.05) and were statistically equivalent among all three techniques.

Conclusion: While QOL is not impacted by type of component separation on short- or long-term follow-up, the TAR may provide benefits such as decreased wound infection rates. Overall QOL had a significant improvement from preoperative regardless of type of component separation. When controlling for field contamination, there were no differences in recurrence or infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-016-5382-zDOI Listing
September 2017

Does peritoneal flap closure technique following transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) inguinal hernia repair make a difference in postoperative pain? A long-term quality of life comparison.

Surg Endosc 2017 06 6;31(6):2548-2559. Epub 2016 Dec 6.

Carolinas Hernia Center, Division of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, 1025 Morehead Medical Dr., Suite 300, Charlotte, NC, 28204, USA.

Background: Transabdominal, preperitoneal (TAPP), laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair (IHR) requires the creation of a peritoneal flap (PF) that must be closed after mesh placement. Our previous study indicated that sutured PF closure resulted in less short-term postoperative pain at 2 and 4 weeks compared to tacks and staples. Therefore, the aim of this follow-up study was to compare short-term QOL with a greater sample size and long-term QOL at 2 years by method of PF closure.

Materials And Methods: A prospective institutional hernia-specific database was assessed for all adult TAPP IHRs from July 2012 to May 2015. QOL outcomes were compared by PF closure method at 2 and 4 weeks and 6, 12, and 24 months as measured by the Carolinas Comfort Scale. Standard statistical tests were used for the whole population and then the Bonferroni Correction was used to compare groups (p < 0.0167). Multivariate analysis controlling for age, gender, recurrent hernias, and preoperative symptomatic pain was used to compare QOL by PF closure method.

Results: A total of 679 TAPP IHRs in 466 patients were analyzed; 253 were unilateral, and 213 were bilateral. PF closure was performed using tacks in 36.7 %, suture in 24.3 %, and staples in 39.0 %. There was no difference in hernia recurrence (only 1 patient at 36 months). There were no statistical differences in QOL between 2 and 4 weeks and 6- to 24-month follow-up. When resolution of symptoms from preoperative levels was examined, there was no difference in the three groups at any time point (p > 0.05). After controlling for confounding variables on multivariate analysis, there was no difference in QOL by PF closure method at any time point (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Tacked, sutured, and stapled techniques for peritoneal flap closure following TAPP have no significant differences in operative outcomes, postoperative quality of life, or resolution of symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-016-5258-2DOI Listing
June 2017

Prospective, multi-institutional surgical and quality-of-life outcomes comparison of heavyweight, midweight, and lightweight mesh in open ventral hernia repair.

Am J Surg 2016 Dec 28;212(6):1054-1062. Epub 2016 Sep 28.

Carolinas Laparoscopic and Advanced Surgery Program, Division of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC 28204, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Mesh choice in open ventral hernia repair (OVHR) remains controversial. Our aim was to analyze prospective outcomes among heavyweight, midweight, and lightweight (LW) mesh.

Methods: A study of the International Hernia Mesh Registry was performed for OVHR. Operative details, complications, recurrence, and quality of life (QOL) at 1, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months were evaluated.

Results: There were 549 OVHRs, 99 using heavyweight, 262 midweight, and 188 LW mesh. Heavyweight group had larger defects (P ≤ .008). Midweight patients had fewer superficial surgical site infections (P = .04) and shorter LOS (P < .0001). Recurrence rates were equal (6.1% vs 6.1% vs 8.0%; P = .71). After controlling for surgical location, component separation, and preoperative pain with multivariate analysis, LW mesh was associated with an overall worse QOL at 6 months and pain at 1 year.

Conclusions: MW mesh had fewer superficial surgical site infections and shorter LOS. After controlling for potential confounding variables, LW mesh had a worse QOL at 6 and 12 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2016.09.003DOI Listing
December 2016

Identifying Effectors of Outcomes in Patients with Large Umbilical Hernias.

Am Surg 2016 Jul;82(7):613-21

Carolinas Laparoscopic and Advanced Surgery Program, Division of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA.

Quality of life (QOL) has become an important focus of hernia repair outcomes. This study aims to identify factors which lead to ideal outcomes (asymptomatic and without recurrence) in large umbilical hernias (defect size ≥9 cm(2)). Review of the prospective International Hernia Mesh Registry was performed. The Carolinas Comfort Scale was used to measure QOL at 1-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. Demographics, operative details, complications, and QOL data were evaluated using standard statistical methods. Forty-four large umbilical hernia repairs were analyzed. Demographics included: average age 53.6 ± 12.0 and body mass index 34.9 ± 7.2 kg/m(2). The mean defect size was 21.7 ± 16.9 cm(2), and 72.7 per cent were performed laparoscopically. Complications included hematoma (2.3%), seroma (12.6%), and recurrence (9.1%). Follow-up and ideal outcomes were one month = 28.2 per cent, six months = 42.9 per cent, one year = 55.6 per cent. All patients who remained symptomatic at one and two years were significantly symptomatic before surgery. Symptomatic preoperative activity limitation was a significant predictor of nonideal outcomes at one year (P = 0.02). Symptomatic preoperative pain was associated with nonideal outcomes at one year, though the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.06). Operative technique, mesh choice, and fixation technique did not impact recurrence or QOL. Repair of umbilical hernia with defects ≥9 cm(2) had a surprising low rate of ideal outcomes (asymptomatic and no recurrence). All patients with nonideal long-term outcomes had preoperative pain and activity limitations. These data may suggest that umbilical hernia should be repaired when they are small and asymptomatic.
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July 2016

Right Versus Left-Sided Colectomies: A Comparison of Outcomes.

Am Surg 2016 Jul;82(7):580-7

Division of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Carolinas Laparoscopic and Advanced Surgery Program, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, North Carolina, USA.

Surgeons often consider that a right colectomy (RC) carries less risk than a left or sigmoid colectomy (L/SC). Our aim was to compare outcomes between RC and L/SC. Review of the Carolinas Medical Center National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data from 2013 to February 2015 was performed. Procedures were categorized as RC Versus L/SC based on current procedural terminology codes for both open and laparoscopic colectomies. Demographics and minor and major complications were evaluated using standard statistical methods. A total of 164 RC and 211 L/SC were studied. RC patients were older (63.9 ± 14.2 vs 59.4 ± 13.0, P < 0.001). Patients undergoing RC had more comorbidities, and 64.6 per cent had an American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) Class III or above Versus 51.7 per cent of those undergoing L/SC (P = 0.02). RC had significantly higher rates of postop urinary tract infection (7.3% vs 2.8%, P = 0.04) and postop transfusions (P = 0.01). Average length of stay was longer for RC (10.1 ± 8.6 days vs 8.3 ± 7.0 days, P < 0.01). After controlling for ASA class, preoperative hematocrit and surgical technique (lap Versus open), multivariate analysis indicated that there were no longer any significant differences in outcomes between RC and L/SC. There were no differences between the group complications including superficial or deep surgical site infections, anastomotic leak, myocardial infarction (MI), pneumonia, or 30-day mortality. RC patients tended to be sicker and had more medical complications postop with initial evaluation of the data. However, when controlling for ASA, hematocrit, and techniques, there were no differences in complications when RC was compared to L/SC. The belief that L/SC has a higher rate of complications compared to RC is not supported.
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July 2016