Publications by authors named "Steve Parks"

4 Publications

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Periventricular White Matter Alterations From Explosive Blast in a Large Animal Model: Mild Traumatic Brain Injury or "Subconcussive" Injury?

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2020 06;79(6):605-617

Department of Neurosurgery.

The neuropathology of mild traumatic brain injury in humans resulting from exposure to explosive blast is poorly understood as this condition is rarely fatal. A large animal model may better reflect the injury patterns in humans. We investigated the effect of explosive blasts on the constrained head minimizing the effects of whole head motion. Anesthetized Yucatan minipigs, with body and head restrained, were placed in a 3-walled test structure and exposed to 1, 2, or 3 explosive blast shock waves of the same intensity. Axonal injury was studied 3 weeks to 8 months postblast using β-amyloid precursor protein immunohistochemistry. Injury was confined to the periventricular white matter as early as 3-5 weeks after exposure to a single blast. The pattern was also present at 8 months postblast. Animals exposed to 2 and 3 blasts had more axonal injury than those exposed to a single blast. Although such increases in axonal injury may relate to the longer postblast survival time, it may also be due to the increased number of blast exposures. It is possible that the injury observed is due to a condition akin to mild traumatic brain injury or subconcussive injury in humans, and that periventricular injury may have neuropsychiatric implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nlaa026DOI Listing
June 2020

Primary Blast Causes Delayed Effects without Cell Death in Shell-Encased Brain Cell Aggregates.

J Neurotrauma 2018 01 14;35(1):174-186. Epub 2017 Sep 14.

1 Defence Research and Development Canada, Suffield Research Center , Medicine Hat, Alberta, Canada .

Previous work in this laboratory used underwater explosive exposures to isolate the effects of shock-induced principle stress without shear on rat brain aggregate cultures. The current study has utilized simulated air blast to expose aggregates in suspension and enclosed within a spherical shell, enabling the examination of a much more complex biomechanical insult. Culture medium-filled spheres were exposed to single pulse overpressures of 15-30 psi (∼6-7 msec duration) and measurements within the sphere at defined sites showed complex and spatially dependent pressure changes. When brain aggregates were exposed to similar conditions, no cell death was observed and no changes in several commonly used biomarkers of traumatic brain injury (TBI) were noted. However, similarly to underwater blast, immediate and transient increases in the protein kinase B signaling pathway were observed at early time-points (3 days). In contrast, the oligodendrocyte marker 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor, both displayed markedly delayed (14-28 days) and pressure-dependent responses. The imposition of a spherical shell between the single pulse shock wave and the target brain tissue introduces greatly increased complexity to the insult. This work shows that brain tissue can not only discriminate the nature of the pressure changes it experiences, but that a portion of its response is significantly delayed. These results have mechanistic implications for the study of primary blast-induced TBI and also highlight the importance of rigorously characterizing the actual pressure variations experienced by target tissue in primary blast studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2016.4961DOI Listing
January 2018

Time-dependent changes of protein biomarker levels in the cerebrospinal fluid after blast traumatic brain injury.

Electrophoresis 2012 Dec;33(24):3705-11

Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Genetics, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA.

Time-dependent changes of protein biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can be used to identify the pathological processes in traumatic brain injury (TBI) as well as to follow the progression of the disease. We obtained CSF from a large animal model (swine) of blast-induced traumatic brain injury prior to and at 6, 24, 72 h, and 2 wk after a single exposure to blast overpressure, and determined changes in the CSF levels of neurofilament-heavy chain, neuron-specific enolase, brain-specific creatine kinase, glial fibrillary acidic protein, calcium-binding protein β (S100β), Claudin-5, vascular endothelial growth factor, and von Willebrand factor using reverse phase protein microarray. We detected biphasic temporal patterns in the CSF concentrations of all tested protein markers except S100β. The CSF levels of all markers were significantly increased 6 h after the injury compared to preinjury levels. Values were then decreased at 24 h, prior to a second increase in all markers but S100β at 72 h. At 2 wk postinjury, the CSF concentrations of all biomarkers were decreased once again; brain-specific creatine kinase, Claudin-5, von Willebrand factor, and S100β levels were no longer significantly higher than their preinjury values while neurofilament-heavy chain, neuron-specific enolase, vascular endothelial growth factor, and glial fibrillary acidic protein levels remained significantly elevated compared to baseline. Our findings implicate neuronal and glial cell damage, compromised vascular permeability, and inflammation in blast-induced traumatic brain injury, as well as demonstrate the value of determining the temporal pattern of biomarker changes that may be of diagnostic value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.201200299DOI Listing
December 2012

Time-dependent changes in serum biomarker levels after blast traumatic brain injury.

J Neurotrauma 2011 Jun 25;28(6):1121-6. Epub 2011 May 25.

Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Genetics, Uniformed Services University (USU), School of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland 20814, USA.

Neuronal and glial proteins detected in the peripheral circulating blood after injury can reflect the extent of the damage caused by blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI). The temporal pattern of their serum levels can further predict the severity and outcome of the injury. As part of characterizing a large-animal model of bTBI, we determined the changes in the serum levels of S100B, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), myelin basic protein (MBP), and neurofilament heavy chain (NF-H). Blood samples were obtained prior to injury and at 6, 24, 72 h, and 2 weeks post-injury from animals with different severities of bTBI; protein levels were determined using reverse phase protein microarray (RPPM) technology. Serum levels of S100B, MBP, and NF-H, but not NSE, showed a time-dependent increase following injury. The detected changes in S100B and MBP levels showed no correlation with the severity of the injury. However, serum NF-H levels increased in a unique, rapid manner, peaking at 6 h post-injury only in animals exposed to severe blast with poor clinical and pathological outcomes. We conclude that the sudden increase in serum NF-H levels following bTBI may be a useful indicator of injury severity. If additional studies verify our findings, the observed early peak of serum NF-H levels can be developed into a useful diagnostic tool for predicting the extent of damage following bTBI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2010.1561DOI Listing
June 2011
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