Publications by authors named "Stephen Sidney"

335 Publications

Moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity from young adulthood to middle age and metabolic disease: a 30-year population-based cohort study.

Br J Sports Med 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Objectives: To determine the association between moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) trajectories (course over age and time) through the adult life course and onset of metabolic disease (diabetes and dyslipidaemia).

Methods: We analysed prospective community-based cohort data of 5115 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, who were black and white men and women aged 18-30 years at baseline (1985-1986) at four urban sites, collected through 30 years of follow-up. Individualised MVPA trajectories were developed for each participant using linear mixed models.

Results: Lower estimated MVPA score at age 18 was associated with a 12% (95% CI 6% to 18%) higher odds of incident diabetes, a 4% (95% CI 1% to 7%) higher odds of incident low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and a 6% (95% CI 2% to 11%) higher odds of incident high triglycerides. Each additional annual 1-unit reduction in the MVPA score was associated with a 6% (95% CI 4% to 9%) higher annual odds of diabetes incidence and a 4% (95% CI 2% to 6%) higher annual odds of high triglyceride incidence. Analysing various MVPA trajectory groups, participants who were in the most active group at age 18 (over 300 min/week), but with sharp declines in midlife, had higher odds of high low-density lipoprotein and low HDL incidence, compared with those in the most active group at age 18 with subsequent gains.

Conclusion: Given recent trends in declining MVPA across the life course and associated metabolic disease risk, young adulthood is an important time period for interventions to increase and begin the maintenance of MVPA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2021-104231DOI Listing
September 2021

Long-term television viewing patterns and gray matter brain volume in midlife.

Brain Imaging Behav 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

San Francisco VA Health Care System, San Francisco, CA, USA.

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether long-term television viewing patterns, a common sedentary behavior, in early to mid-adulthood is associated with gray matter brain volume in midlife and if this is independent of physical activity. We evaluated 599 participants (51% female, 44% black, mean age 30.3 ± 3.5 at baseline and 50.2 ± 3.5 years at follow-up and MRI) from the prospective Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. We assessed television patterns with repeated interviewer-administered questionnaire spanning 20 years. Structural MRI (3T) measures of frontal cortex, entorhinal cortex, hippocampal, and total gray matter volumes were assessed at midlife. Over the 20 years, participants reported viewing an average of 2.5 ± 1.7 h of television per day (range: 0-10 h). After multivariable adjustment, greater television viewing was negatively associated with gray matter volume in the frontal (β = - 0.77; p = 0.01) and entorhinal cortex (β = - 23.83; p = 0.05) as well as total gray matter (β = - 2.09; p = 0.003) but not hippocampus. These results remained unchanged after additional adjustment for physical activity. For each one standard deviation increase in television viewing, the difference in gray matter volume z-score was approximately 0.06 less for each of the three regions (p < 0.05). Among middle-aged adults, greater television viewing in early to mid-adulthood was associated with lower gray matter volume. Sedentariness or other facets of television viewing may be important for brain aging even in middle age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11682-021-00534-4DOI Listing
September 2021

Steps per Day and All-Cause Mortality in Middle-aged Adults in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Sep 1;4(9):e2124516. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.

Importance: Steps per day is a meaningful metric for physical activity promotion in clinical and population settings. To guide promotion strategies of step goals, it is important to understand the association of steps with clinical end points, including mortality.

Objective: To estimate the association of steps per day with premature (age 41-65 years) all-cause mortality among Black and White men and women.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This prospective cohort study was part of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Participants were aged 38 to 50 years and wore an accelerometer from 2005 to 2006. Participants were followed for a mean (SD) of 10.8 (0.9) years. Data were analyzed in 2020 and 2021.

Exposure: Daily steps volume, classified as low (<7000 steps/d), moderate (7000-9999 steps/d), and high (≥10 000 steps/d) and stepping intensity, classified as peak 30-minute stepping rate and time spent at 100 steps/min or more.

Main Outcomes And Measures: All-cause mortality.

Results: A total of 2110 participants from the CARDIA study were included, with a mean (SD) age of 45.2 (3.6) years, 1205 (57.1%) women, 888 (42.1%) Black participants, and a median (interquartile range [IQR]) of 9146 (7307-11 162) steps/d. During 22 845 person years of follow-up, 72 participants (3.4%) died. Using multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, compared with participants in the low step group, there was significantly lower risk of mortality in the moderate (hazard ratio [HR], 0.28 [95% CI, 0.15-0.54]; risk difference [RD], 53 [95% CI, 27-78] events per 1000 people) and high (HR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.25-0.81]; RD, 41 [95% CI, 15-68] events per 1000 people) step groups. Compared with the low step group, moderate/high step rate was associated with reduced risk of mortality in Black participants (HR, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.14-0.63]) and in White participants (HR, 0.37 [95% CI, 0.17-0.81]). Similarly, compared with the low step group, moderate/high step rate was associated with reduce risk of mortality in women (HR, 0.28 [95% CI, 0.12-0.63]) and men (HR, 0.42 [95% CI, 0.20-0.88]). There was no significant association between peak 30-minute intensity (lowest vs highest tertile: HR, 0.98 [95% CI, 0.54-1.77]) or time at 100 steps/min or more (lowest vs highest tertile: HR, 1.38 [95% CI, 0.73-2.61]) with risk of mortality.

Conclusions And Relevance: This cohort study found that among Black and White men and women in middle adulthood, participants who took approximately 7000 steps/d or more experienced lower mortality rates compared with participants taking fewer than 7000 steps/d. There was no association of step intensity with mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.24516DOI Listing
September 2021

Pre-Statistical Considerations for Harmonization of Cognitive Instruments: Harmonization of ARIC, CARDIA, CHS, FHS, MESA, and NOMAS.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Aug 24. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Cognitive Health Services Research Program, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Background: Meta-analyses of individuals' cognitive data are increasing to investigate the biomedical, lifestyle, and sociocultural factors that influence cognitive decline and dementia risk. Pre-statistical harmonization of cognitive instruments is a critical methodological step for accurate cognitive data harmonization, yet specific approaches for this process are unclear.

Objective: To describe pre-statistical harmonization of cognitive instruments for an individual-level meta-analysis in the blood pressure and cognition (BP COG) study.

Methods: We identified cognitive instruments from six cohorts (the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, Cardiovascular Health Study, Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, Framingham Offspring Study, Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, and Northern Manhattan Study) and conducted an extensive review of each item's administration and scoring procedures, and score distributions.

Results: We included 153 cognitive instrument items from 34 instruments across the six cohorts. Of these items, 42%were common across ≥2 cohorts. 86%of common items showed differences across cohorts. We found administration, scoring, and coding differences for seemingly equivalent items. These differences corresponded to variability across cohorts in score distributions and ranges. We performed data augmentation to adjust for differences.

Conclusion: Cross-cohort administration, scoring, and procedural differences for cognitive instruments are frequent and need to be assessed to address potential impact on meta-analyses and cognitive data interpretation. Detecting and accounting for these differences is critical for accurate attributions of cognitive health across cohort studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-210459DOI Listing
August 2021

Epigenetic Age Acceleration Reflects Long-Term Cardiovascular Health.

Circ Res 2021 Aug 25. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, UNITED STATES.

Epigenetic aging is a novel measure of biological age, reflecting exposures and disease risks independent of chronological age. It may serve as a useful biomarker of cardiovascular health (CVH) and/or cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk for early detection or prevention. To examine associations between GrimAge acceleration (GrimAA), a measure of epigenetic aging calculated from the residuals of GrimAge regressed on chronological age, and two repeated CVH measures: a full score for the AHA "Life's Simple 7" (diet, smoking, physical activity, BMI, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and glucose) and a clinical CVH score (BMI, blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose). We used Illumina array DNA methylation data from two prospective cohort studies: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study and Framingham Heart Study (FHS), to calculate GrimAA and model associations with CVH. CARDIA randomly selected 1,118 participants for assays at Y15 (2000-2001; mean age 40) and/or Y20 (2005-2006); in FHS, 2,106 Offspring participants had DNA methylation measured at exam 8 (2005-2008; mean age 66). We examined multiple cross-sectional and longitudinal models of GrimAA and each CVH score measured at CARDIA Y0-Y20 and FHS exams 7-8. In CARDIA clinical CVH score from Y0-Y20 was associated with Y15 and Y20 GrimAA (β range -0.41 to -0.21 years per 1-point increase in CVH; p range <0.01 to 0.01), as was full score (β range -0.65 to -0.67 years; p<0.01 for all). These findings were validated in FHS (clinical score β range -0.51 to -0.54 years; full score β range -0.76 to -0.83 years; p<0.01 for all). Our data demonstrate that faster GrimAA is associated with the loss of CVH from young age. Epigenetic age may be a useful biomarker of CVD risk and provides biological insight into the role of epigenetic mechanisms linking age-related CVH loss and CVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.121.318965DOI Listing
August 2021

Cardiovascular Health Trajectories and Elevated C-Reactive Protein: The CARDIA Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Sep 21;10(17):e019725. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Department of Exercise Science Arnold School of Public Health University of South Carolina Columbia SC.

Background The relationship between long-term cardiovascular health (CVH) patterns and elevated CRP (C-reactive protein) in late middle age has yet to be investigated. We aimed to assess this relationship. Methods and Results Individual CVH components were measured in 4405 Black and White men and women (aged 18-30 years at baseline) in the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study at 8 examinations over 25 years. CRP was measured at 4 examinations (years 7, 15, 20, and 25). Latent class modeling was used to identify individuals with similar trajectories in CVH from young adulthood to middle age. Multivariable Poisson regression models were used to assess the association between race-specific CVH trajectories and prevalence of elevated CRP levels (>3.0 mg/L) after 25 years of follow-up. Five distinct CVH trajectories were identified for each race. Lower and decreasing trajectories had higher prevalence of elevated CRP relative to the highest trajectory. Prevalence ratios for elevated CRP in lowest trajectory groups at year 25 were 2.58 (95% CI, 1.89-3.51) and 7.20 (95% CI, 5.09-10.18) among Black and White people, respectively. Prevalence ratios for chronically elevated CRP (elevated CRP at 3 or more of the examinations) in the lowest trajectory groups were 8.37 (95% CI, 4.37-16.00) and 15.89 (95% CI, 9.01-28.02) among Black and White people, respectively. Conclusions Lower and decreasing CVH trajectories are associated with higher prevalence of elevated CRP during the transition from young adulthood to middle age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.019725DOI Listing
September 2021

Longitudinal bidirectional associations of physical activity and depressive symptoms: The CARDIA study.

Prev Med Rep 2021 Sep 12;23:101489. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

University of Iowa, USA.

Depression affects many aspects of health and may be attenuated through increases in physical activity. While bidirectional associations between physical activity (PA) and depressive symptoms have been examined, few studies have examined these associations using both self-reported and accelerometer-estimated measures. Using data from Years 20 (2005-06, age 38-50) and 30 of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study (N = 2,871), the bidirectional associations between moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and depressive symptoms were examined using a cross-lagged panel model. Differences in the observed associations by physical activity assessment method were also examined. An inverse bidirectional association between self-reported MVPA and depressive symptoms was found. In subsequent analyses stratified by intensity category, higher levels of vigorous intensity physical activity at baseline, but not moderate intensity physical activity were associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms at the 10-year follow-up (ϕ = -0.04, p < 0.01; ϕ = -0.03, p = 0.15, respectively). A 10-year increase in self-reported MVPA was associated with a 10-year decrease in depressive symptoms. No associations were observed between accelerometer MVPA estimates and depressive symptoms. These findings may support the notion that each assessment method captures related, but also unique, aspects of physical activity behavior. When possible, future studies should explore measures of association by each physical activity assessment method to gain a better understanding of the complex relationship between physical activity and health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2021.101489DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8318903PMC
September 2021

The Coronary Artery Risk Development In Young Adults (CARDIA) Study: JACC Focus Seminar 8/8.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Jul;78(3):260-277

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

The CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study began in 1985 to 1986 with enrollment of 5,115 Black or White men and women ages 18 to 30 years from 4 US communities. Over 35 years, CARDIA has contributed fundamentally to our understanding of the contemporary epidemiology and life course of cardiovascular health and disease, as well as pulmonary, renal, neurological, and other manifestations of aging. CARDIA has established associations between the neighborhood environment and the evolution of lifestyle behaviors with biological risk factors, subclinical disease, and early clinical events. CARDIA has also identified the nature and major determinants of Black-White differences in the development of cardiovascular risk. CARDIA will continue to be a unique resource for understanding determinants, mechanisms, and outcomes of cardiovascular health and disease across the life course, leveraging ongoing pan-omics work from genomics to metabolomics that will define mechanistic pathways involved in cardiometabolic aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.05.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8285563PMC
July 2021

Relative-Intensity Physical Activity and Its Association With Cardiometabolic Disease.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Jul 14;10(14):e019174. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Division of Research Kaiser Permanente Northern California Oakland CA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.019174DOI Listing
July 2021

Associations between menopause, cardiac remodeling, and diastolic function: the CARDIA study.

Menopause 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD Department of Epidemiology, Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, MN Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Public Health, Birmingham, AL National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, CA.

Objectives: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) affects more women than men. Menopause may influence HFpEF development in women. We assessed cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between menopause and echocardiographic measures of left ventricular (LV) function and cardiac remodeling.

Methods: We studied 1,723 women with available echo data from at least two of: year 5 (Y5) (1990-1991), Y25 (2010-2011), or Y30 (2015-2016) in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study. Cardiac structure and function were measured using 2D and Doppler echocardiography. Cross-sectional associations between menopausal status and repeated echo measures at Y25 and Y30 were analyzed using linear mixed models. Two-segmented models were used to compare longitudinal changes in echocardiographic measures in the premenopausal period to changes in the postmenopausal period.

Results: Mean ± SD age (years) at enrollment was 27 ± 3 in those with menopause by Y25, 25 ± 3 in those with menopause between Y25 and Y30, and 21 ± 3 in those premenopausal at Y30. There were no significant differences in race, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, or diabetes between the groups. Postmenopausal women had higher early diastolic mitral inflow (E) to annular (e') velocity ratio than premenopausal after adjusting for demographics and risk factors (P < 0.05). Menopause was associated with relative increases in the rates of change in LV mass and left atrial volume, even after adjustment. Change in E/e' ratio was similar before and after menopause.

Conclusions: Menopause is associated cross-sectionally with worse diastolic function and longitudinally with adverse LV and left atrial remodeling. This may contribute to the increased HFpEF risk in postmenopausal women.

Video Summary:http://links.lww.com/MENO/A787.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GME.0000000000001815DOI Listing
June 2021

Bidirectional associations of accelerometer-derived physical activity and stationary behavior with self-reported mental and physical health during midlife.

Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2021 06 6;18(1):74. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, USA.

Background: Moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) is associated with favorable self-rated mental and physical health. Conversely, poor self-rated health in these domains could precede unfavorable shifts in activity. We evaluated bidirectional associations of accelerometer-estimated time spent in stationary behavior (SB), light intensity physical activity (LPA), and MVPA with self-rated health over 10 years in in the CARDIA longitudinal cohort study.

Methods: Participants (n = 894, age: 45.1 ± 3.5; 63% female; 38% black) with valid accelerometry wear and self-rated health at baseline (2005-6) and 10-year follow-up (2015-6) were included. Accelerometry data were harmonized between exams and measured mean total activity and duration (min/day) in SB, LPA, and MVPA; duration (min/day) in long-bout and short-bout SB (≥30 min vs. < 30 min) and MVPA (≥10 min vs. < 10 min) were also quantified. The Short-Form 12 Questionnaire measured both a mental component score (MCS) and physical component score (PCS) of self-rated health (points). Multivariable linear regression associated baseline accelerometry variables with 10-year changes in MCS and PCS. Similar models associated baseline MCS and PCS with 10-year changes in accelerometry measures.

Results: Over 10-years, average (SD) MCS increased 1.05 (9.07) points, PCS decreased by 1.54 (7.30) points, and activity shifted toward greater SB and less mean total activity, LPA, and MVPA (all p < 0.001). Only baseline short-bout MVPA was associated with greater 10-year increases in MCS (+ 0.92 points, p = 0.021), while baseline mean total activity, MVPA, and long-bout MVPA were associated with greater 10-year changes in PCS (+ 0.53 to + 1.47 points, all p < 0.005). In the reverse direction, higher baseline MCS and PCS were associated with favorable 10-year changes in mean total activity (+ 9.75 cpm, p = 0.040, and + 15.66 cpm, p < 0.001, respectively) and other accelerometry measures; for example, higher baseline MCS was associated with - 13.57 min/day of long-bout SB (p < 0.001) and higher baseline PCS was associated with + 2.83 min/day of MVPA (p < 0.001) in fully adjusted models.

Conclusions: The presence of bidirectional associations between SB and activity with self-rated health suggests that individuals with low overall activity levels and poor self-rated health are at high risk for further declines and supports intervention programming that aims to dually increase activity levels and improve self-rated health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12966-021-01145-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8180096PMC
June 2021

Characterizing the Spectrum of Bladder Health and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) Among Women: Results From the CARDIA Study.

Urology 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

School of Public Health, Birmingham, AL.

Objectives: To operationalize a new definition for bladder health, we examined the distribution of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and impact, along with associated factors, among women in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.

Methods: We performed cluster analyses using validated LUTS symptom burden and impact scales collected between 2005-2006 and 2010-2011. We performed multinomial logistic regression analyses to evaluate cardiovascular factors (metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular health behaviors, and inflammation) between clusters after adjusting for covariates (demographic, obstetric/gynecologic, co-morbidities).

Results: Among CARDIA women (median age 51, range 42-59) with complete LUTS data (n = 1302), we identified and compared 4 cluster groups: women who reported no or very mild symptoms and no impact on well-being (bladder health, 44%, n = 569), versus women with LUTS and negative impact on well-being ranging from mild (31%, n = 407), moderate (20%, n = 259), to severe (5%, n = 67). With each 1-point lower BMI (kg/m), odds of membership in mild (OR 0.97, CI 0.95-0.99), moderate (OR 0.95, CI 0.93-0.98), and severe (OR 0.90, CI 0.88-0.94) LUTS cluster groups versus the bladder health group were lower. Compared to women with metabolic syndrome, women without metabolic syndrome had lower odds of membership in mild (OR 0.67, CI 0.45-0.99), moderate (OR 0.51, CI 0.33-0.79), and severe (OR 0.48, CI 0.24-0.94) LUTS cluster groups versus the bladder health group.

Conclusion: Two out of 5 midlife women met our definition of bladder health. Bladder health and cardiovascular health among women may share common factors, including lower BMI and the absence of metabolic syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2021.05.032DOI Listing
June 2021

Temporal trends in heart failure mortality in an integrated healthcare delivery system, California, and the US, 2001-2017.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 05 26;21(1):261. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Research and Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, 100 S Los Robles Ave, 2nd Floor, Pasadena, CA, 91101, USA.

Background: In recent years, decreases in mortality rates attributable to cardiovascular diseases have slowed but mortality attributable to heart failure (HF) has increased.

Methods: Between 2001-2017, trends in age-adjusted mortality with HF as an underlying cause for Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) members were derived through linkage with state death files and compared with trends among California residents and the US. Average annual percent change (AAPC) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Joinpoint regression. Analyses were repeated examining HF as a contributing cause of death.

Results: In KPSC, the age-adjusted HF mortality rates were comparable to California but lower than the US, increasing from 23.9 per 100,000 person-years (PY) in 2001 to 44.7 per 100,000 PY in 2017, representing an AAPC of 1.3% (95% CI 0.0%, 2.6%). HF mortality also increased in California from 33.9 to 46.5 per 100,000 PY (AAPC 1.5%, 95% CI 0.3%, 2.7%), while remaining unchanged in the US at 57.9 per 100,000 PY in 2001 and 2017 (AAPC 0.0%, 95% CI - 0.5%, 0.5%). Trends among KPSC members ≥ 65 years old were similar to the overall population, while trends among members 45-64 years old were flat between 2001-2017. Small changes in mortality with HF as a contributing cause were observed in KPSC members between 2001 and 2017, which differed from California and the US.

Conclusion: Lower rates of HF mortality were observed in KPSC compared to the US. Given the aging of the US population and increasing prevalence of HF, it will be important to examine individual and care-related factors driving susceptibility to HF mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-021-02075-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8157708PMC
May 2021

Cardiovascular risk and functional burden at midlife: Prospective associations of isotemporal reallocations of accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time in the CARDIA study.

Prev Med 2021 09 19;150:106626. Epub 2021 May 19.

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, MN, United States of America.

Cardiovascular risk and functional burden, or the accumulation of cardiovascular risk factors coupled with functional decline, may be an important risk state analogy to multimorbidity. We investigated prospective associations of sedentary time (ST), light intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) with cardiovascular risk and functional burden at midlife. Participants were 1648 adults (mean ± SD age = 45 ± 4 years, 61% female, 39% Black) from Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) who wore accelerometers in 2005-2006 and 2015-2016. Cardiovascular risk and functional burden was defined as ≥2 cardiovascular risk factors (untreated/uncontrolled hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes, reduced kidney function) and/or functional decline conditions (reduced physical functioning and depressive symptoms). Prospective logistic regression models tested single activity, partition, and isotemporal substitution associations of accelerometer-measured ST, LPA, and MVPA with cardiovascular risk and functional burden 10 years later. In isotemporal models of baseline activity, reallocating 24 min of ST to MVPA was associated with 15% lower odds of cardiovascular risk and functional burden (OR: 0.85; CI: 0.75, 0.96). Reallocating 24 min of LPA to MVPA was associated with a 14% lower odds of cardiovascular risk and functional burden (OR: 0.86; CI: 0.75, 0.99). In longitudinal isotemporal models, similar beneficial associations were observed when 10-year increases in MVPA replaced time in ST or LPA. Findings suggest that maintaining an MVPA dose reflecting daily physical activity recommendations in early midlife is associated with lower odds of cardiovascular risk and functional burden later in midlife.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2021.106626DOI Listing
September 2021

Particulate Air Pollution and Risk of Cardiovascular Events Among Adults With a History of Stroke or Acute Myocardial Infarction.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 05 4;10(10):e019758. Epub 2021 May 4.

Kaiser Permanente Division of Research Oakland CA.

Background Previous studies have found associations between fine particulate matter <2.5 µm in diameter (PM) and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among populations with no CVD history. Less is understood about susceptibility of adults with a history of CVD and subsequent PM-related CVD events and whether current regulation levels for PM are protective for this population. Methods and Results This retrospective cohort study included 96 582 Kaiser Permanente Northern California adults with a history of stroke or acute myocardial infarction. Outcome, covariate, and address data obtained from electronic health records were linked to time-varying 1-year mean PM exposure estimates based on residential locations. Cox proportional hazard models estimated risks of stroke, acute myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular mortality associated with PM exposure, adjusting for multiple covariates. Secondary analyses estimated risks below federal and state regulation levels (12 µg/m for 1-year mean PM). A 10-µg/m increase in 1-year mean PM exposure was associated with an increase in risk of cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.20; 95% CI, 1.11-1.30), but no increase in risk of stroke or acute myocardial infarction. Analyses of <12 µg/m showed increased risk for CVD mortality (HR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.96-2.71), stroke (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.09-1.83]), and acute myocardial infarction (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.21-1.89) per 10-µg/m increase in 1-year mean PM. Conclusions Adults with a history of CVD are susceptible to the effects of PM exposure, particularly on CVD mortality. Increased risks observed at exposure levels <12 µg/m highlight that current PM regulation levels may not be protective for this susceptible population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.019758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200700PMC
May 2021

Physical Activity and Hypertension From Young Adulthood to Middle Age.

Am J Prev Med 2021 06 15;60(6):757-765. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Introduction: The optimum physical activity dose to achieve during young adulthood to prevent hypertension using the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines remains undefined. This study aims to determine the association between level and change in physical activity through the adult life course and the onset of hypertension using these 2017 definitions.

Methods: In 2020, prospective community-based cohort data of 5,115 Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study participants were analyzed. The cohort included Black and White men and women aged 18-30 years at baseline (1985-1986) at 4 urban sites, collected through 30 years of follow-up (2015-2016). Individualized physical activity trajectories were developed for each participant using linear mixed models.

Results: Black women reported the lowest physical activity levels from young adulthood through middle age. Lower physical activity score (per 100 units) at age 18 years was associated with 4% (95% CI=1%, 7%, p=0.002) higher odds of hypertension incidence. Each additional 1-unit reduction per year in physical activity score was associated with 2% (95% CI=1%, 3%, p=0.001) higher annual odds of hypertension incidence. Meeting approximately the current minimum physical activity guideline levels at age 18 years and through follow-up was not protective of hypertension incidence; however, meeting approximately twice the current minimum physical activity guideline level at age 18 years and through follow-up was protective of hypertension incidence.

Conclusions: Moderate physical activity levels may need to exceed current minimum guidelines to prevent hypertension onset using 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association definitions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2020.12.018DOI Listing
June 2021

Multi-ancestry genome-wide gene-sleep interactions identify novel loci for blood pressure.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Long and short sleep duration are associated with elevated blood pressure (BP), possibly through effects on molecular pathways that influence neuroendocrine and vascular systems. To gain new insights into the genetic basis of sleep-related BP variation, we performed genome-wide gene by short or long sleep duration interaction analyses on four BP traits (systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure) across five ancestry groups in two stages using 2 degree of freedom (df) joint test followed by 1df test of interaction effects. Primary multi-ancestry analysis in 62,969 individuals in stage 1 identified three novel gene by sleep interactions that were replicated in an additional 59,296 individuals in stage 2 (stage 1 + 2 P < 5 × 10), including rs7955964 (FIGNL2/ANKRD33) that increases BP among long sleepers, and rs73493041 (SNORA26/C9orf170) and rs10406644 (KCTD15/LSM14A) that increase BP among short sleepers (P < 5 × 10). Secondary ancestry-specific analysis identified another novel gene by long sleep interaction at rs111887471 (TRPC3/KIAA1109) in individuals of African ancestry (P = 2 × 10). Combined stage 1 and 2 analyses additionally identified significant gene by long sleep interactions at 10 loci including MKLN1 and RGL3/ELAVL3 previously associated with BP, and significant gene by short sleep interactions at 10 loci including C2orf43 previously associated with BP (P < 10). 2df test also identified novel loci for BP after modeling sleep that has known functions in sleep-wake regulation, nervous and cardiometabolic systems. This study indicates that sleep and primary mechanisms regulating BP may interact to elevate BP level, suggesting novel insights into sleep-related BP regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-021-01087-0DOI Listing
April 2021

Bidirectional associations of accelerometer measured sedentary behavior and physical activity with knee pain, stiffness, and physical function: The CARDIA study.

Prev Med Rep 2021 Jun 9;22:101348. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

The objective was to examine bidirectional associations of accelerometer estimated sedentary time and physical activity with reported knee symptoms. Participants were 2,034 adults (mean age 45.3 ± 3.6 years, 58.7% female) from CARDIA. Generalized estimating equations for logistic regression and linear mixed regression models examined associations of accelerometer estimated sedentary time, light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) at baseline (2005-06) with knee discomfort, pain, stiffness, and physical function (yes/no and continuous scores from short-form WOMAC function scale) at the 5- and 10-year follow-up exams. Linear regression models examined associations between knee symptoms at the 5-year follow-up with accelerometer estimates at the 10-year follow-up. Models were adjusted for confounders; individuals with comorbidities were excluded in sensitivity analyses. A 30 min/day increment in sedentary time at baseline was associated with lower odds of knee symptoms at the 5- and 10-year follow-up (OR: 0.95, 95% CI range: 0.92-0.98), while LPA and MVPA were associated with greater odds of knee symptoms (LPA OR range: 1.04-1.05, 95% CI range: 1.01-1.09; MVPA OR range: 1.17-1.19, 95% CI range: 1.06-1.32). Report of knee symptoms at the 5-year follow-up was associated with 13.52-17.51 (95% CI range: -29.90, -0.56) fewer minutes/day of sedentary time and 14.58-17.51 (95% CI range: 2.48, 29.38) more minutes/day of LPA at the 10-year follow-up, compared to those reporting no symptoms. Many associations were no longer statistically significant when excluding individuals with comorbidities. Findings support a bidirectional association of accelerometer estimated sedentary time and physical activity with knee symptoms across midlife.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2021.101348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005813PMC
June 2021

Blood Pressure Levels in Young Adulthood and Midlife Stroke Incidence in a Diverse Cohort.

Hypertension 2021 May 29;77(5):1683-1693. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland (Y.G., J.S.R., M.N.N.-H., S.S.).

[Figure: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.16535DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8035276PMC
May 2021

Longitudinal Associations of Fitness and Obesity in Young Adulthood With Right Ventricular Function and Pulmonary Artery Systolic Pressure in Middle Age: The CARDIA Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 04 28;10(7):e016968. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Division of Cardiology Department of Internal Medicine University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center Dallas TX.

Background Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and obesity are risk factors for heart failure but their associations with right ventricular (RV) systolic function and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) are not well understood. Methods and Results Participants in the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study who underwent maximal treadmill testing at baseline and had a follow-up echocardiographic examination at year 25 were included. A subset of participants had repeat CRF and body mass index (BMI) assessment at year 20. The associations of baseline and changes in CRF and BMI on follow-up (baseline to year 20) with RV systolic function parameters (tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, RV Doppler systolic velocity of the lateral tricuspid annulus), and PASP were assessed using multivariable-adjusted linear regression models. The study included 3433 participants. In adjusted analysis, higher baseline BMI but not CRF was significantly associated with higher PASP. Among RV systolic function parameters, higher baseline CRF and BMI were significantly associated with higher tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and RV systolic velocity of the lateral tricuspid annulus. In the subgroup of participants with follow-up assessment of CRF or BMI at year 20, less decline in CRF was associated with higher RV systolic velocity of the lateral tricuspid annulus and lower PASP, while greater increase in BMI was significantly associated with higher PASP in middle age. Conclusions Higher CRF in young adulthood and less decline in CRF over time are each significantly associated with better RV systolic function. Higher baseline BMI and greater age-related increases in BMI are each significantly associated with higher PASP in middle age. These findings provide insights into possible mechanisms through which low fitness and obesity may contribute toward risk of heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.016968DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8174339PMC
April 2021

Particulate Matter and Cardiovascular Risk in Adults with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 07;204(2):159-167

Kaiser Permanente Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, California; and.

People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and may be more susceptible to air pollution exposure. However, no study has examined the association between long-term fine particulate matter exposure (≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) and risk of cardiovascular events in this potentially vulnerable population. To estimate the association between long-term fine particulate matter and risk of cardiovascular events among adults with COPD. This retrospective cohort study included 169,714 adults with COPD who were members of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health plan during 2007-2016. Electronic health record data were linked to 1 km modeled particulate matter ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter exposure estimates. We fit Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, calendar year, smoking, body mass index, comorbidities, medications, and socioeconomic status. In low exposure analyses, we examined effects below the current regulation limit (12 μg/m). Among adults with COPD, a 10-μg/m increase in 1-year mean fine particulate matter exposure was associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.20). Effects were stronger in low exposure analyses (hazard ratio, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.56-2.27). Fine particulate matter exposure was not associated with acute myocardial infarction or stroke in overall analyses. Long-term fine particulate matter exposure was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality among adults with COPD. Current regulations may not sufficiently protect those with COPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202007-2901OCDOI Listing
July 2021

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and cognitive function in middle-aged adults: the CARDIA study.

BMC Gastroenterol 2021 Mar 2;21(1):96. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA, USA.

Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors that have been linked to cognitive decline. Whether NAFLD is associated with cognitive performance in midlife remains uncertain.

Methods: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study participants with CT examination and cognitive assessment at Y25 (2010-2011; n = 2809) were included. Cognitive function was reassessed at Y30. NAFLD was defined according to liver attenuation and treated both continuously and categorically (using ≤ 40 and ≤ 51 Hounsfield units to define severity) after exclusion for other causes of liver fat. Cognitive tests including the Digit Symbol Substitution (processing speed), Rey Auditory Verbal Learning (verbal memory), and Stroop (executive function) were analyzed with standardized z-scores. Linear models were constructed to (a) examine the cross-sectional associations of NAFLD with cognitive scores and (b) evaluate its predictive role in 5-year change in cognitive performance.

Results: Participants' mean age (Y25) was 50.1 (SD 3.6) years (57% female; 48% black), with 392 (14%) having mild NAFLD and 281 (10%) having severe NAFLD. NAFLD was positively associated with CVD risk factors and inversely associated with cognitive scores. However, after adjustment for CVD risk factors, no associations were shown between NAFLD and cognitive scores (all βs ≈ 0). Similarly, no associations were observed with 5-year cognitive decline. CVD history, hypertension, smoking, diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia showed stronger associations with baseline cognitive scores and were predictive of subsequent cognitive decline (all P ≤ .05).

Conclusion: Among middle-aged adults, inverse associations between NAFLD and cognitive scores were attenuated after adjustment for CVD risk factors, with the latter predictive of poorer cognitive performance both at baseline and follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12876-021-01681-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927393PMC
March 2021

Sex Differences in Cognitive Decline Among US Adults.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 02 1;4(2):e210169. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Cognitive Health Services Research Program, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Importance: Sex differences in dementia risk are unclear, but some studies have found greater risk for women.

Objective: To determine associations between sex and cognitive decline in order to better understand sex differences in dementia risk.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study used pooled analysis of individual participant data from 5 cohort studies for years 1971 to 2017: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study, Cardiovascular Health Study, Framingham Offspring Study, and Northern Manhattan Study. Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate changes in each continuous cognitive outcome over time by sex. Data analysis was completed from March 2019 to October 2020.

Exposure: Sex.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was change in global cognition. Secondary outcomes were change in memory and executive function. Outcomes were standardized as t scores (mean [SD], 50 [10]); a 1-point difference represents a 0.1-SD difference in cognition.

Results: Among 34 349 participants, 26 088 who self-reported Black or White race, were free of stroke and dementia, and had covariate data at or before the first cognitive assessment were included for analysis. Median (interquartile range) follow-up was 7.9 (5.3-20.5) years. There were 11 775 (44.7%) men (median [interquartile range] age, 58 [51-66] years at first cognitive assessment; 2229 [18.9%] Black) and 14 313 women (median [interquartile range] age, 58 [51-67] years at first cognitive assessment; 3636 [25.4%] Black). Women had significantly higher baseline performance than men in global cognition (2.20 points higher; 95% CI, 2.04 to 2.35 points; P < .001), executive function (2.13 points higher; 95% CI, 1.98 to 2.29 points; P < .001), and memory (1.89 points higher; 95% CI, 1.72 to 2.06 points; P < .001). Compared with men, women had significantly faster declines in global cognition (-0.07 points/y faster; 95% CI, -0.08 to -0.05 points/y; P < .001) and executive function (-0.06 points/y faster; 95% CI, -0.07 to -0.05 points/y; P < .001). Men and women had similar declines in memory (-0.004 points/y faster; 95% CI, -0.023 to 0.014; P = .61).

Conclusions And Relevance: The results of this cohort study suggest that women may have greater cognitive reserve but faster cognitive decline than men, which could contribute to sex differences in late-life dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.0169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7907956PMC
February 2021

Bending the Curve in Cardiovascular Disease Mortality: Bethesda + 40 and Beyond.

Circulation 2021 Feb 22;143(8):837-851. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Office of the Surgeon General, US Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC (J.S.W.).

More than 40 years after the 1978 Bethesda Conference on the Declining Mortality from Coronary Heart Disease provided the scientific community with a blueprint for systematic analysis to understand declining rates of coronary heart disease, there are indications the decline has ended or even reversed despite advances in our knowledge about the condition and treatment. Recent data show a more complex situation, with mortality rates for overall cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease and stroke, decelerating, whereas those for heart failure are increasing. To mark the 40th anniversary of the Bethesda Conference, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the American Heart Association cosponsored the "Bending the Curve in Cardiovascular Disease Mortality: Bethesda + 40" symposium. The objective was to examine the immediate and long-term outcomes of the 1978 conference and understand the current environment. Symposium themes included trends and future projections in cardiovascular disease (in the United States and internationally), the evolving obesity and diabetes epidemics, and harnessing emerging and innovative opportunities to preserve and promote cardiovascular health and prevent cardiovascular disease. In addition, participant-led discussion explored the challenges and barriers in promoting cardiovascular health across the lifespan and established a potential framework for observational research and interventions that would begin in early childhood (or ideally in utero). This report summarizes the relevant research, policy, and practice opportunities discussed at the symposium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.046501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7905830PMC
February 2021

Long-Term Levels of LDL-C and Cognitive Function: The CARDIA Study.

J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2021 Feb 10:1-10. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Objectives: It is uncertain if long-term levels of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) affect cognition in middle age. We examined the association of LDL-C levels over 25 years with cognitive function in a prospective cohort of black and white US adults.

Methods: Lipids were measured at baseline (1985-1986; age: 18-30 years) and at serial examinations conducted over 25 years. Time-averaged cumulative LDL-C was calculated using the area under the curve for 3,328 participants with ≥3 LDL-C measurements and a cognitive function assessment. Cognitive function was assessed at the Year 25 examination with the Digit Symbol Substitution Test [DSST], Rey Auditory Visual Learning Test [RAVLT], and Stroop Test. A brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sub-study (N = 707) was also completed at Year 25 to assess abnormal white matter tissue volume (AWMV) and gray matter cerebral blood flow volume (GM-CBFV) as secondary outcomes.

Results: There were 15.6%, 32.9%, 28.9%, and 22.6% participants with time-averaged cumulative LDL-C <100 mg/dL, 101-129 mg/dL, 130-159 mg/dL, and ≥160 mg/dL, respectively. Standardized differences in all cognitive function test scores ranged from 0.16 SD lower to 0.09 SD higher across time-averaged LDL-C categories in comparison to those with LDL-C < 100 mg/dL. After covariate adjustment, participants with higher versus lower time-averaged LDL-C had a lower RAVLT score (p-trend = 0.02) but no differences were present for DSST, Stroop Test, AWMV, or GM-CBFV.

Conclusion: Cumulative LDL-C was associated with small differences in memory, as assessed by RAVLT scores, but not other cognitive or brain MRI measures over 25 years of follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1355617721000059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8353005PMC
February 2021

The Association of Lactation Duration with Visceral and Pericardial Fat Volumes in Parous Women: The CARDIA Study.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 May;106(6):1821-1831

Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA, USA.

Background: Lactation is associated with lower risks for cardiovascular disease in women. Organ-related adiposity, which plays significant roles in the development of cardiometabolic diseases, could help explain this observation. We evaluated the association of lactation duration with visceral (VAT) and pericardial (PAT) fat volumes in women.

Methods: Data were obtained from 910 women enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study (1985-1986) without diabetes prior to pregnancy who had ≥1 birth during 25 years of follow-up and had VAT and PAT measured from computed tomographic scans in 2010-2011. Cumulative lactation duration across all births since baseline was calculated from self-reports collected at periodic exams.

Results: At baseline, the average age of women (48% black, 52% white) was 24 ± 3.7 years. After controlling for baseline age, race, smoking status, body mass index, fasting glucose, family history of diabetes, fat intake, total cholesterol, physical activity, and follow-up covariates (parity, gestational diabetes), the mean fat volumes across categories of lactation [none (n = 221), 1-5 months (n = 306), 6-11 months (n = 210), and ≥12 months (n = 173)] were 122.0, 113.7 105.0, and 110.1 cm3 for VAT and 52.2, 46.7, 44.5, and 43.4 cm3 for PAT, respectively. Changes in body weight from the first post-baseline birth to the end of follow-up mediated 21% and 18% of the associations of lactation with VAT and PAT, respectively.

Conclusions: In this prospective study, longer cumulative lactation duration was associated with lower VAT and PAT volumes, with weight gain partially mediating these associations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa980DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8118361PMC
May 2021

Gestational Diabetes History and Glucose Tolerance After Pregnancy Associated With Coronary Artery Calcium in Women During Midlife: The CARDIA Study.

Circulation 2021 Mar 1;143(10):974-987. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Vanderbilt University, Memphis, TN (M.W., J.J.C.).

Background: Gestational diabetes (GD) leads to earlier onset and heightened risk of type 2 diabetes, a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, it is unclear whether attaining normoglycemia can ameliorate the excess CVD risk associated with GD history. This study sought to evaluate GD history and glucose tolerance after pregnancy associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) in women, a manifestation of atherosclerotic CVD and a predictor of CVD clinical events.

Methods: Data were obtained from the CARDIA study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults), a US multicenter, community-based prospective cohort of young Black (50%) and White adults aged 18 to 30 years at baseline (1985-1986). The sample included 1133 women without diabetes at baseline, who had ≥1 singleton births (n=2066) during follow-up, glucose tolerance testing at baseline and up to 5 times during 25 years (1986-2011), GD status, and CAC measurements obtained from 1 or more follow up examinations at years 15, 20, and 25 (2001-2011). CAC was measured by noncontrast cardiac computed tomography; dichotomized as Any CAC (score>0) or No CAC (score=0). Complementary log-log models for interval-censored data estimated adjusted hazard ratios of CAC and 95% confidence intervals for GD history and subsequent glucose tolerance groups (normoglycemia, prediabetes, or incident diabetes) on average 14.7 years after the last birth adjusted for prepregnancy and follow-up covariates.

Results: Of 1133 women, 139 (12.3%) reported GD and were 47.6 years of age (4.8 SD) at follow-up. CAC was present in 25% (34/139) of women with GD and 15% (149/994) of women with no GD. In comparison with no GD/normoglycemia, adjusted hazard ratios (95% CIs) were 1.54 (1.06-2.24) for no GD/prediabetes and 2.17 (1.30-3.62) for no GD/incident diabetes, and 2.34 (1.34-4.09), 2.13 (1.09-4.17), and 2.02 (0.98-4.19) for GD/normoglycemia, GD/prediabetes, and GD/incident diabetes, respectively (overall =0.003).

Conclusions: Women without previous GD showed a graded increase in the risk of CAC associated with worsening glucose tolerance. Women with a history of GD had a 2-fold higher risk of CAC across all subsequent levels of glucose tolerance. Midlife atherosclerotic CVD risk among women with previous GD is not diminished by attaining normoglycemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.047320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7940578PMC
March 2021

Early to Midlife Smoking Trajectories and Cognitive Function in Middle-Aged US Adults: the CARDIA Study.

J Gen Intern Med 2021 Jan 26. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Smoking starts in early adulthood and persists throughout the life course, but the association between these trajectories and midlife cognition remains unclear.

Objective: Determine the association between early to midlife smoking trajectories and midlife cognition.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Participants: Participants were 3364 adults (mean age = 50.1 ± 3.6, 56% female, 46% Black) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study: 1638 ever smokers and 1726 never smokers.

Main Measures: Smoking trajectories were identified in latent class analysis among 1638 ever smokers using smoking measures every 2-5 years from baseline (age 18-30 in 1985-1986) through year 25 (2010-2011). Poor cognition was based on cognitive domain scores ≥ 1 SD below the mean on tests of processing speed (Digit Symbol Substitution Test), executive function (Stroop), and memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test) at year 25.

Results: Five smoking trajectories emerged over 25 years: quitters (19%), and minimal stable (40%), moderate stable (20%), heavy stable (15%), and heavy declining smokers (5%). Heavy stable smokers showed poor cognition on all 3 domains compared to never smoking (processing speed AOR = 2.22 95% CI 1.53-3.22; executive function AOR = 1.58 95% CI 1.05-2.36; memory AOR = 1.48 95% CI 1.05-2.10). Compared to never smoking, both heavy declining (AOR = 1.95 95% CI 1.06-3.68) and moderate stable smokers (AOR = 1.56 95% CI 1.11-2.19) exhibited slower processing speed, and heavy declining smokers additionally had poor executive function. For minimal stable smokers (processing speed AOR = 1.12 95% CI 0.85-1.51; executive function AOR = 0.97 95% CI 0.71-1.31; memory AOR = 1.21 95% CI 0.94-1.55) and quitters (processing speed AOR = 0.96 95% CI 0.63-1.48; executive function AOR = 0.98 95% CI 0.63-1.52; memory AOR = 0.97 95% CI 0.67-1.39), no association was observed.

Conclusions: The association between early to midlife smoking trajectories and midlife cognition was dose-dependent. Results underscore the cognitive health risk of moderate and heavy smoking and the potential benefits of quitting on cognition, even in midlife.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-020-06450-5DOI Listing
January 2021

Longitudinal Associations of Midlife Accelerometer Determined Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity With Cognitive Function: The CARDIA Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 02 20;10(3):e018350. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

University of California San Francisco CA.

Background To determine if accelerometer measured sedentary behavior (SED), light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) in midlife is prospectively associated with cognitive function. Methods and Results Participants were 1970 adults enrolled in the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study who wore an accelerometer in 2005 to 2006 (ages 38-50 years) and had cognitive function assessments completed 5 and/or 10 years later. SED, LPA, and MVPA were measured by an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer. Cognitive function tests included the Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and Stroop Test. Compositional isotemporal substitution analysis examined associations of SED, LPA, and MVPA with repeated measures of the cognitive function standardized scores. In men, statistical reallocation of 30 minutes of LPA with 30 minutes of MVPA resulted in an estimated difference of SD 0.07 (95% CI, 0.01-0.14), SD 0.09 (95% CI, 0.02-0.17), and SD -0.11 (95% CI, -0.19 to -0.04) in the Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and Stroop scores, respectively, indicating better performance. Associations were similar when reallocating time in SED with MVPA, but results were less robust. Reallocation of time in SED with LPA resulted in an estimated difference of SD -0.05 (95% CI, -0.06 to -0.03), SD -0.03 (95% CI, -0.05 to -0.01), and SD 0.05 (95% CI, 0.03- 0.07) in the Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and Stroop scores, respectively, indicating worse performance. Associations were largely nonsignificant among women. Conclusions Our findings support the idea that for men, higher-intensity activities (MVPA) may be necessary in midlife to observe beneficial associations with cognition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.018350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955419PMC
February 2021
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