Publications by authors named "Stephen Lindsay"

62 Publications

Can suggestions of non-occurrence lead to claims that witnessed events did not happen?

J Gen Psychol 2020 Dec 16:1-22. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Kent State University.

In three experiments, we examined whether general suggestions of non-occurrence -suggestions that experienced events did not occur- would lead participants to claim that events they witnessed never happened. Participants viewed a video depicting the investigation of a child kidnapping case and subsequently were exposed to suggestions of non-occurrence either once (Experiments 1 and 3) or three times (Experiments 2 and 3). The results provided no evidence that single suggestions of non-occurrence influenced participants' memories or belief (Experiments 1 and 3). However, in two experiments (E2 and E3) the results provided clear evidence that repeated elaboration of suggestions of non-occurrence led participants to claim that the events they witnessed never happened. The finding that participants were influenced by repeated, but not single elaboration of suggestions of non-occurrence shows that reflective elaboration processes played an important role in leading participants to disbelieve the events they had witnessed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00221309.2020.1860889DOI Listing
December 2020

Exploring the barriers to using assistive technology for individuals with chronic conditions: a meta-synthesis review.

Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol 2020 Jul 14:1-19. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Department of Psychology, College of Human and Health Sciences, Swansea University, Swansea, UK.

Purpose: Assistive technology can provide a key tool to enabling independence, greater inclusion and participation in society for individuals with chronic conditions. This potential is currently not always realized due to barriers to accessing and using assistive technology. This review aims to identify the common barriers to acquiring and using assistive technology for users with chronic conditions through a systematic meta-synthesis. This differs from other systematic reviews by applying a transdiagnostic approach to identify if barriers are common across chronic conditions.

Materials And Methods: A systematic literature search of five scientific databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Medline) was conducted to identify relevant qualitative studies. The search was conducted in November 2019. For the identified articles, thematic content analysis was conducted and the methodological quality was evaluated using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist for qualitative research.

Results: Forty papers met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Fifty-one descriptive themes grouped into six overarching analytical themes were identified from the studies. The analytical themes identified were: the design and function of the assistive technology, service provision, information and awareness, psychological barriers, support network and societal barriers.

Conclusions: The barriers are interconnected and common across different health conditions. More involvement in personalized care for developing strategies, adaptation of home technologies and provision of assistive technology could overcome the service provision and design barriers to assistive technology. Accessible information and providing greater awareness will be important to overcoming information, psychological and societal barriers to assistive technology. Implications for rehabilitation Individuals with chronic conditions face complex barriers to acquiring and using assistive technology as a result of the devices themselves, their individual context, the healthcare context where assistive technology is provided and wider societal barriers. The provision of assistive technology needs to change away from the traditional medical model of the "expert" clinician and instead focus on more user involvement to deliver personalised care that utilises the users lived knowledge and experiences. Assistive technology provision should be considered alongside how to adapt everyday mainstream technology to meet user needs; the provision of devices should encourage creative problem solving rather then relying on pre-defined prescription lists of assistive technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17483107.2020.1788181DOI Listing
July 2020

Construal beliefs moderate the usability and effectiveness of a novel healthy eating mobile app.

Physiol Behav 2020 08 11;222:112941. Epub 2020 May 11.

Computational Foundry, Swansea University, UK.

Reduced self-control is a strong predictor of overeating and obesity. Priming a high construal level mind-set has been shown to enhance self-control and reduce snack consumption in the lab but the long-term and real-world effects are not known. The use of digital technology is an efficient way to deliver priming cues in real-world settings. Many mobile apps claim to support healthy eating but few are grounded in psychological theories of self-control. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of a novel, construal-theory-based mobile app to promote self-control and healthy eating. In an exploratory analysis, the moderating influence of user characteristics was also examined. Using an iterative process involving users at every stage of the process, a prototype mobile app was developed. The final version included a high construal, self-control priming task, sent personalised reminder cues before each eating occasion, provided a just-in time 'crave-buster' for unanticipated eating opportunities and an optional food log. In a longitudinal trial the app was used over an eight-week period (N=71; 51 females; M (SD) Age = 33.34 (11.68) years; M (SD) BMI = 26.22 (4.94)) with pre-post measures of weight, percent body fat and dietary intake. The app received high usability ratings on the System Usability Scale (M=76.55; SD=11.35), however food intake, per cent body fat and weight pre- and post- app use showed no significant change (p>.05). Exploratory analyses showed that baseline construal belief moderated the extent to which engagement with the app predicted dietary changes (p<.05). These findings indicate that this novel app was user-friendly and effective but that this was dependent on the user's characteristics. Future development in this area should consider tailoring apps to the specific characteristics of the user for improved support and effectiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.112941DOI Listing
August 2020

Author Correction: A consensus-based transparency checklist.

Nat Hum Behav 2020 Jan;4(1):120

University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41562-019-0812-2DOI Listing
January 2020

Swan Song Editorial.

Psychol Sci 2019 12 3;30(12):1669-1673. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797619893653DOI Listing
December 2019

Different definitions of the nonrecollection-based response option(s) change how people use the "remember" response in the remember/know paradigm.

Mem Cognit 2019 10;47(7):1359-1374

University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.

In the remember/know paradigm, a "know" response can be defined to participants as a high-confidence state of certainty or as a low-confidence state based on a feeling of familiarity. To examine the effects of definition on use of responses, in two experiments, definitions of "remember" and "guess" were kept constant, but definitions of "know" and/or "familiar" were systematically varied to emphasize (a) a subjective experience of high confidence without recollection, (b) a feeling of familiarity, (c) both of these subjective experiences combined within one response option, or (d) both of these experiences as separate response options. The confidence expressed in "know" and/or "familiar" definitions affected how participants used response options. Importantly, this included use of the "remember" response, which tended to be used more frequently when the nonrecollection-based middle response option emphasized a feeling of familiarity rather than an experience of "just knowing." The influence of the definitions on response patterns was greater for items that had undergone deep rather than shallow processing, and was greater when deep-encoded and shallow-encoded items were mixed, rather than blocked, at test. Our findings fit with previous research suggesting that the mnemonic traces underlying subjective judgments are continuous and that the remember/know paradigm is not a pure measure of underlying processes. Findings also emphasize the importance of researchers publishing the exact definitions they have used to enable accurate comparisons across studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13421-019-00938-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800851PMC
October 2019

A smart curtailment approach for reducing bat fatalities and curtailment time at wind energy facilities.

Ecol Appl 2019 06 2;29(4):e01881. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California, 94304, USA.

The development and expansion of wind energy is considered a key global threat to bat populations. Bat carcasses are being found underneath wind turbines across North and South America, Eurasia, Africa, and the Austro-Pacific. However, relatively little is known about the comparative impacts of techniques designed to modify turbine operations in ways that reduce bat fatalities associated with wind energy facilities. This study tests a novel approach for reducing bat fatalities and curtailment time at a wind energy facility in the United States, then compares these results to operational mitigation techniques used at other study sites in North America and Europe. The study was conducted in Wisconsin during 2015 using a new system of tools for analyzing bat activity and wind speed data to make near real-time curtailment decisions when bats are detected in the area at control turbines (N = 10) vs. treatment turbines (N = 10). The results show that this smart curtailment approach (referred to as Turbine Integrated Mortality Reduction, TIMR) significantly reduced fatality estimates for treatment turbines relative to control turbines for pooled species data, and for each of five species observed at the study site: pooled data (-84.5%); eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis, -82.5%); hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus, -81.4%); silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans, -90.9%); big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus, -74.2%); and little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus, -91.4%). The approach reduced power generation and estimated annual revenue at the wind energy facility by ≤ 3.2% for treatment turbines relative to control turbines, and we estimate that the approach would have reduced curtailment time by 48% relative to turbines operated under a standard curtailment rule used in North America. This approach significantly reduced fatalities associated with all species evaluated, each of which has broad distributions in North America and different ecological affinities, several of which represent species most affected by wind development in North America. While we recognize that this approach needs to be validated in other areas experiencing rapid wind energy development, we anticipate that this approach has the potential to significantly reduce bat fatalities in other ecoregions and with other bat species assemblages in North America and beyond.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eap.1881DOI Listing
June 2019

The importance of decision bias for predicting eyewitness lineup choices: toward a Lineup Skills Test.

Cogn Res Princ Implic 2019 Jan 28;4(1). Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, PO Box 1700, STN CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W2Y2, Canada.

ᅟ: We report on research on individual-difference measures that could be used to assess the validity of eyewitness identification decisions.

Background: The predictive utility of face recognition tasks for eyewitness identification has received some attention from psychologists, but the previous research focused primarily on witnesses' likelihood of correctly choosing the culprit when present in a lineup. Far less discussed has been individual differences in witnesses' proclivity to choose from a lineup that does not contain the culprit. We designed a two-alternative non-forced-choice face recognition task (consisting of mini-lineup test pairs, half old/new and half new/new) to predict witnesses' proclivity to choose for a set of culprit-absent lineups associated with earlier-viewed crime videos.

Results: In two studies involving a total of 402 participants, proclivity to choose on new/new pairs predicted mistaken identifications on culprit-absent lineups, with r values averaging .43. The likelihood of choosing correctly on old/new pairs (a measure of face recognition skill) was only weakly predictive of correct identifications in culprit-present lineups (mean r of .22).

Conclusions: Our findings could be the basis for further research aimed at developing a standardized measure of proclivity to choose that could be used, along with other measures, to weigh eyewitnesses' lineup identification decisions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41235-018-0150-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6352739PMC
January 2019

Expression of Concern: The Decoy Effect as a Nudge: Boosting Hand Hygiene With a Worse Option.

Psychol Sci 2019 01 5;30(1):150-151. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797618816068DOI Listing
January 2019

Reasons to Doubt the Reliability of Eyewitness Memory: Commentary on Wixted, Mickes, and Fisher (2018).

Perspect Psychol Sci 2018 05;13(3):339-342

3 Department of Psychology, University of Victoria.

Wixted, Mickes, and Fisher (this issue) take issue with the common trope that eyewitness memory is inherently unreliable. They draw on a large body of mock-crime research and a small number of field studies, which indicate that high-confidence eyewitness reports are usually accurate, at least when memory is uncontaminated and suitable interviewing procedures are used. We agree with the thrust of Wixted et al.'s argument and welcome their invitation to confront the mass underselling of eyewitnesses' potential reliability. Nevertheless, we argue that there is a comparable risk of overselling eyewitnesses' reliability. Wixted et al.'s reasoning implies that near-pristine conditions or uncontaminated memories are normative, but there are at least two good reasons to doubt this. First, psychological science does not yet offer a good understanding of how often and when eyewitness interviews might deviate from best practice in ways that compromise the accuracy of witnesses' reports. Second, witnesses may frequently be exposed to preinterview influences that could corrupt reports obtained in best-practice interviews.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1745691618758261DOI Listing
May 2018

Constraints on generality statements are needed to define direct replication.

Behav Brain Sci 2018 01;41:e148

Department of Psychology,University of Victoria,Victoria, BC V8W

Whether or not a replication attempt counts as "direct" often cannot be determined definitively after the fact as a result of flexibility in how procedural differences are interpreted. Specifying constraints on generality in original articles can eliminate ambiguity in advance, thereby leading to a more cumulative science.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X18000845DOI Listing
January 2018

Constraints on Generality (COG): A Proposed Addition to All Empirical Papers.

Perspect Psychol Sci 2017 11 30;12(6):1123-1128. Epub 2017 Aug 30.

3 University of Victoria.

Psychological scientists draw inferences about populations based on samples-of people, situations, and stimuli-from those populations. Yet, few papers identify their target populations, and even fewer justify how or why the tested samples are representative of broader populations. A cumulative science depends on accurately characterizing the generality of findings, but current publishing standards do not require authors to constrain their inferences, leaving readers to assume the broadest possible generalizations. We propose that the discussion section of all primary research articles specify Constraints on Generality (i.e., a "COG" statement) that identify and justify target populations for the reported findings. Explicitly defining the target populations will help other researchers to sample from the same populations when conducting a direct replication, and it could encourage follow-up studies that test the boundary conditions of the original finding. Universal adoption of COG statements would change publishing incentives to favor a more cumulative science.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1745691617708630DOI Listing
November 2017

Preregistered Direct Replications in Psychological Science.

Psychol Sci 2017 09 9;28(9):1191-1192. Epub 2017 Aug 9.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797617718802DOI Listing
September 2017

Sharing Data and Materials in Psychological Science.

Psychol Sci 2017 06 17;28(6):699-702. Epub 2017 Apr 17.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797617704015DOI Listing
June 2017

A mega-analysis of memory reports from eight peer-reviewed false memory implantation studies.

Memory 2017 02 28;25(2):146-163. Epub 2016 Nov 28.

g Department of Psychology , Western Washington University , Bellingham , WA , USA.

Understanding that suggestive practices can promote false beliefs and false memories for childhood events is important in many settings (e.g., psychotherapeutic, medical, and legal). The generalisability of findings from memory implantation studies has been questioned due to variability in estimates across studies. Such variability is partly due to false memories having been operationalised differently across studies and to differences in memory induction techniques. We explored ways of defining false memory based on memory science and developed a reliable coding system that we applied to reports from eight published implantation studies (N = 423). Independent raters coded transcripts using seven criteria: accepting the suggestion, elaboration beyond the suggestion, imagery, coherence, emotion, memory statements, and not rejecting the suggestion. Using this scheme, 30.4% of cases were classified as false memories and another 23% were classified as having accepted the event to some degree. When the suggestion included self-relevant information, an imagination procedure, and was not accompanied by a photo depicting the event, the memory formation rate was 46.1%. Our research demonstrates a useful procedure for systematically combining data that are not amenable to meta-analysis, and provides the most valid estimate of false memory formation and associated moderating factors within the implantation literature to date.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09658211.2016.1260747DOI Listing
February 2017

Trauma-related versus positive involuntary thoughts with and without meta-awareness.

Conscious Cogn 2016 11 7;46:163-172. Epub 2016 Oct 7.

Flinders University, School of Psychology, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, 5001 SA, Australia. Electronic address:

In earlier work, we asked subjects to report involuntary thoughts relating to a trauma film and also probed subjects periodically. Subjects often reported involuntary thoughts in response to probes, suggesting they lacked meta-awareness of those thoughts. But it is possible that some or all probe-detected thoughts were continuations of thoughts subjects had spontaneously reported, leading us to overestimate involuntary thoughts lacking meta-awareness. It is also unclear whether failures in meta-awareness occur for other emotional events. We exposed subjects to a negative or positive film. Subsequently, they reported involuntary film-related thoughts and responded to probes that distinguished new from continuing thoughts. Many (54%) but not all probe-caught thoughts were thought continuations. This result supports our earlier finding that people can lack meta-awareness for trauma-related thoughts, but suggests caution in how meta-awareness is assessed. We also found that self-caught negative and positive involuntary thoughts occurred at a similar frequency, with different characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2016.09.019DOI Listing
November 2016

Evidence that photos promote rosiness for claims about the future.

Mem Cognit 2018 11;46(8):1223-1233

Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand.

When people rapidly judge the truth of claims about the present or the past, a related but nonprobative photo can produce "truthiness," an increase in the perceived truth of those claims (Newman, Garry, Bernstein, Kantner, & Lindsay, 2012). What we do not know is the extent to which nonprobative photos cause truthiness for the future. We addressed this issue in four experiments. In each experiment, people judged the truth of claims that the price of certain commodities (such as manganese) would increase (or decrease). Half of the time, subjects saw a photo of the commodity paired with the claim. Experiments 1A and 1B produced a "rosiness" bias: Photos led people to believe positive claims about the future but had very little effect on people's belief in negative claims. In Experiment 2, rosiness occurred for both close and distant future claims. In Experiments 3A and 3B, we tested whether rosiness was tied to the perceived positivity of a claim. Finally, in Experiments 4A and 4B, we tested the rosiness hypothesis and found that rosiness was unique to claims about the future: When people made the same judgments about the past, photos produced the usual truthiness pattern for both positive and negative claims. Considered all together, our data fit with the idea that photos may operate as hypothesis-confirming evidence for people's tendency to anticipate rosy future outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13421-016-0652-5DOI Listing
November 2018

Administering Cognitive Tests Through Touch Screen Tablet Devices: Potential Issues.

J Alzheimers Dis 2016 10;54(3):1169-1182

Department of Psychology, Swansea University, Swansea, UK.

Mobile technologies, such as tablet devices, open up new possibilities for health-related diagnosis, monitoring, and intervention for older adults and healthcare practitioners. Current evaluations of cognitive integrity typically occur within clinical settings, such as memory clinics, using pen and paper or computer-based tests. In the present study, we investigate the challenges associated with transferring such tests to touch-based, mobile technology platforms from an older adult perspective. Problems may include individual variability in technical familiarity and acceptance; various factors influencing usability; acceptability; response characteristics and thus validity per se of a given test. For the results of mobile technology-based tests of reaction time to be valid and related to disease status rather than extraneous variables, it is imperative the whole test process is investigated in order to determine potential effects before the test is fully developed. Researchers have emphasized the importance of including the 'user' in the evaluation of such devices; thus we performed a focus group-based qualitative assessment of the processes involved in the administration and performance of a tablet-based version of a typical test of attention and information processing speed (a multi-item localization task), to younger and older adults. We report that although the test was regarded positively, indicating that using a tablet for the delivery of such tests is feasible, it is important for developers to consider factors surrounding user expectations, performance feedback, and physical response requirements and to use this information to inform further research into such applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-160545DOI Listing
October 2016

Temperature gradients drive radial fluid flow in Petri dishes and multiwell plates.

AIChE J 2016 Jun 17;62(6):2227-2233. Epub 2016 Feb 17.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Systems Biology Theme, Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 330 N Orchard Street, Madison, WI 53715, United States.

Liquid in a Petri dish spontaneously circulates in a radial pattern, even when the dish is at rest. These fluid flows have been observed and utilized for biological research, but their origins have not been well-studied. Here we used particle-tracking to measure velocities of radial fluid flows, which are shown to be linked to evaporation. Infrared thermal imaging was used to identify thermal gradients at the air-liquid interface and at the bottom of the dish. Two-color ratiometric fluorescence confocal imaging was used to measure thermal gradients in the vertical direction within the fluid. A finite-element model of the fluid, incorporating the measured temperature profiles, shows that buoyancy forces are sufficient to produce flows consistent with the measured particle velocity results. Such flows may arise in other dish or plate formats, and may impact biological research in positive or negative ways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.15194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4856293PMC
June 2016

Replication in Psychological Science.

Psychol Sci 2015 Dec 9;26(12):1827-32. Epub 2015 Nov 9.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797615616374DOI Listing
December 2015

Long-Term Motor Recovery After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Beyond Established Limits.

J Head Trauma Rehabil 2016 Sep-Oct;31(5):E50-8

NeuroTech Lab, Surrey Memorial Hospital, Simon Fraser University and Fraser Health Authority, Metro Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (Drs D'Arcy and Song, Ms Greene, and Messrs Ghosh Hajra and Greene); Institute for Biodiagnostics (Atlantic), National Research Council, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada (Drs D'Arcy, Song, Gawryluk, and Mr Ghosh Hajra); Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada (Drs Lindsay and Gawryluk and Ms Mayo); Pacific Occupational Therapy Services, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada (Ms Mandziuk); and Department of Medical Imaging, Vancouver Island Health Authority, British Columbia, Canada (Dr Mathieson).

Objective: To report neural plasticity changes after severe traumatic brain injury.

Setting: Case-control study.

Participants: Canadian soldier, Captain Trevor Greene survived a severe open-traumatic brain injury during a 2006 combat tour in Afghanistan.

Design: Longitudinal follow-up for more than 6 years.

Main Measures: Twelve longitudinal functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) examinations were conducted to investigate lower limb activation changes in association with clinical examination. Trevor Greene's lower limb fMRI activation was compared with control fMRI activation of (1) mental imagery of similar movement and (2) matched control subject data.

Results: Trevor Greene's motor recovery and corresponding fMRI activation increased significantly over time (F = 32.54, P < .001). Clinical measures of functional recovery correlated strongly with fMRI motor activation changes (r = 0.81, P = .001). By comparison, while Trevor Greene's mental imagery activated similar motor regions, there was no evidence of fMRI activation change over time. While comparable, control motor activation did not change over time and there was no significant mental imagery activation.

Conclusion: Motor function recovery can occur beyond 6 years after severe traumatic brain injury, both in neural plasticity and clinical outcome. This demonstrates that continued benefits in physical function due to rehabilitative efforts can be achieved for many years following injury. The finding challenges current practices and assumptions in rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HTR.0000000000000185DOI Listing
March 2018

Meta-awareness and the involuntary memory spectrum: Reply to Meyer, Otgaar, and Smeets (2015).

Conscious Cogn 2015 Jul 30;34:1-3. Epub 2015 Mar 30.

John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY, Department of Psychology, 445 West 59th St, New York, NY 10019, USA. Electronic address:

In their commentary, Meyer, Otgaar, and Smeets (2015) raise several important issues about the definitions, characteristics and applications of various involuntary cognitive phenomena. Here we respond to the comments of Meyer et al. in ways that we hope will advance understanding of these issues, and inform future research. In particular, we have focused on the characteristics of involuntary phenomena-particularly in relation to meta-awareness-and the clinical relevance of mind-wandering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2015.03.009DOI Listing
July 2015

Truthiness and falsiness of trivia claims depend on judgmental contexts.

J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 2015 Sep 30;41(5):1337-48. Epub 2015 Mar 30.

Department of Psychology, University of Surrey.

When people rapidly judge the truth of claims presented with or without related but nonprobative photos, the photos tend to inflate the subjective truth of those claims--a "truthiness" effect (Newman et al., 2012). For example, people more often judged the claim "Macadamia nuts are in the same evolutionary family as peaches" to be true when the claim appeared with a photo of a bowl of macadamia nuts than when it appeared alone. We report several replications of that effect and 3 qualitatively new findings: (a) in a within-subjects design, when people judged claims paired with a mix of related, unrelated, or no photos, related photos produced truthiness but unrelated photos had no significant effect relative to no photos; (b) in a mixed design, when people judged claims paired with related (or unrelated) and no photos, related photos produced truthiness and unrelated photos produced "falseness;" and (c) in a fully between design, when people judged claims paired with either related, unrelated, or no photos, neither truthiness nor falsiness occurred. Our results suggest that photos influence people's judgments when a discrepancy arises in the expected ease of processing, and also support a mechanism in which-against a backdrop of an expected standard-related photos help people generate pseudoevidence to support claims.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xlm0000099DOI Listing
September 2015

Category exemplars normed in Canada.

Can J Exp Psychol 2014 Sep;68(3):163-5

University of Victoria.

Normative data on category exemplar generation are widely used by psychologists but vary across cultures such that well-known norm sets developed in the United States might not be appropriate for use in Canada. To date, no published set of category exemplars has been normed with a Canadian undergraduate population. We describe the creation of such a set using the popular Battig and Montague (1969) categories and provide a link to the full set of norms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cep0000023DOI Listing
September 2014

Self-report may underestimate trauma intrusions.

Conscious Cogn 2014 Jul 30;27:297-305. Epub 2014 Jun 30.

University of Victoria, Department of Psychology, P.O. Box 1700 STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 2Y2, Canada. Electronic address:

Research examining maladaptive responses to trauma routinely relies on spontaneous self-report to index intrusive thoughts, which assumes people accurately recognize and report their intrusive thoughts. However, "mind-wandering" research reveals people are not always meta-aware of their thought content: they often fail to notice shifts in their attention. In two experiments, we exposed subjects to trauma films, then instructed them to report intrusive thoughts during an unrelated reading task. Intermittently, we asked whether they were thinking about the trauma. As expected, subjects often spontaneously reported intrusive thoughts. However, they were also "caught" engaging in unreported trauma-oriented thoughts. The presence and frequency of intermittent probes did not influence self-caught intrusions. Both self-caught and probe-caught intrusions were related to an existing tendency toward intrusive cognition, film-related distress, and thought suppression attempts. Our data suggest people may lack meta-awareness of trauma-related thoughts, which has implications for theory, research and treatment relating to trauma-related psychopathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2014.06.002DOI Listing
July 2014

Cross-situational consistency in recognition memory response bias.

Psychon Bull Rev 2014 Oct;21(5):1272-80

University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada,

Individuals taking an old-new recognition memory test differ widely in their bias to respond "old," ranging from strongly conservative to strongly liberal, even without any manipulation intended to affect bias. Kantner and Lindsay (2012) found stability of bias across study-test cycles, suggesting that bias is a cognitive trait. That consistency, however, could have arisen because participants perceived the two tests as being part of the same experiment in the same context. In the present study, we tested for stability across two recognition study-test procedures embedded in markedly different experiments, held weeks apart, that participants did not know were connected. Bias showed substantial cross-situational stability. Moreover, bias weakly predicted identifications on an eyewitness memory task and accuracy on a go-no-go task. Although we found little in the way of relationships between bias and five personality measures, these findings suggest that response bias is a stable and broadly influential characteristic of recognizers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13423-014-0608-3DOI Listing
October 2014

Investigating industrial investigation: examining the impact of a priori knowledge and tunnel vision education.

Law Hum Behav 2013 Dec;37(6):441-53

Department of Psychology, Kwantlen Polytechnic University.

The current study addressed tunnel vision in industrial incident investigation by experimentally testing how a priori information and a human bias (generated via the fundamental attribution error or correspondence bias) affected participants' investigative behavior as well as the effectiveness of a debiasing intervention. Undergraduates and professional investigators engaged in a simulated industrial investigation exercise. We found that participants' judgments were biased by knowledge about the safety history of either a worker or piece of equipment and that a human bias was evident in participants' decision making. However, bias was successfully reduced with "tunnel vision education." Professional investigators demonstrated a greater sophistication in their investigative decision making compared to undergraduates. The similarities and differences between these two populations are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/lhb0000056DOI Listing
December 2013

Top-down constraint on recognition memory.

Mem Cognit 2013 Apr;41(3):465-79

Department of Psychology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 1700 STN CSC, Victoria, British Columbia, V8W 2Y2, Canada.

Can recognition memory be constrained "at the front end," such that people are more likely to retrieve information about studying a recognition-test probe from a specified target source than they are to retrieve such information about a probe from a nontarget source? We adapted a procedure developed by Jacoby, Shimizu, Daniels, and Rhodes (Psychonomic bulletin & review 12:852-857, 2005) to address this question. Experiment 1 yielded evidence of source-constrained retrieval, but that pattern was not significant in Experiments 2, 3, and 4 (nor in several unpublished pilot experiments). In experiment 5, in which items from the two studied sources were perceptibly different, a pattern consistent with front-end constraint of recognition emerged, but this constraint was likely exercised via visual attention rather than memory. Experiment 6 replicated both the absence of a significant constrained-retrieval pattern when the sources did not differ perceptibly (as in exps. 2, 3 and 4) and the presence of that pattern when they did differ perceptibly (as in exp. 5). Our results suggest that people can easily constrain recognition when items from the to-be-recognized source differ perceptibly from items from other sources (presumably via visual attention), but that it is difficult to constrain retrieval solely on the basis of source memory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13421-012-0265-6DOI Listing
April 2013

Identifying the bad guy in a lineup using confidence judgments under deadline pressure.

Psychol Sci 2012 Oct 28;23(10):1208-14. Epub 2012 Aug 28.

School of Psychology, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Eyewitness-identification tests often culminate in witnesses not picking the culprit or identifying innocent suspects. We tested a radical alternative to the traditional lineup procedure used in such tests. Rather than making a positive identification, witnesses made confidence judgments under a short deadline about whether each lineup member was the culprit. We compared this deadline procedure with the traditional sequential-lineup procedure in three experiments with retention intervals ranging from 5 min to 1 week. A classification algorithm that identified confidence criteria that optimally discriminated accurate from inaccurate decisions revealed that decision accuracy was 24% to 66% higher under the deadline procedure than under the traditional procedure. Confidence profiles across lineup stimuli were more informative than were identification decisions about the likelihood that an individual witness recognized the culprit or correctly recognized that the culprit was not present. Large differences between the maximum and the next-highest confidence value signaled very high accuracy. Future support for this procedure across varied conditions would highlight a viable alternative to the problematic lineup procedures that have traditionally been used by law enforcement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797612441217DOI Listing
October 2012