Publications by authors named "Stephanie Zur Nedden"

10 Publications

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PKN1 Is a Novel Regulator of Hippocampal GluA1 Levels.

Front Synaptic Neurosci 2021 5;13:640495. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

CCB-Biocenter, Institute of Neurobiochemistry, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Alterations in the processes that control α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) expression, assembly and trafficking are closely linked to psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. We have recently shown that the serine/threonine kinase Protein kinase N1 (PKN1) is a developmentally active regulator of cerebellar synaptic maturation by inhibiting AKT and the neurogenic transcription factor neurogenic differentiation factor-2 (NeuroD2). NeuroD2 is involved in glutamatergic synaptic maturation by regulating expression levels of various synaptic proteins. Here we aimed to study the effect of knockout on AKT phosphorylation and NeuroD2 levels in the hippocampus and the subsequent expression levels of the NeuroD2 targets and AMPAR subunits: glutamate receptor 1 (GluA1) and GluA2/3. We show that PKN1 is expressed throughout the hippocampus. Interestingly, not only postnatal but also adult hippocampal phospho-AKT and NeuroD2 levels were significantly elevated upon knockout. Postnatal and adult hippocampi showed enhanced expression of the AMPAR subunit GluA1, particularly in area CA1. Surprisingly, GluA2/3 levels were not different between both genotypes. In addition to higher protein levels, we also found an enhanced GluA1 content in the membrane fraction of postnatal and adult animals, while GluA2/3 levels remained unchanged. This points toward a very specific regulation of GluA1 expression and/or trafficking by the novel PKN1-AKT-NeuroD2 axis. Considering the important role of GluA1 in hippocampal development as well as the pathophysiology of several disorders, ranging from Alzheimer's, to depression and schizophrenia, our results validate PKN1 for future studies into neurological disorders related to altered AMPAR subunit expression in the hippocampus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnsyn.2021.640495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7892898PMC
February 2021

Protein kinase N1 critically regulates cerebellar development and long-term function.

J Clin Invest 2018 05 16;128(5):2076-2088. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Biocenter, Division of Neurobiochemistry, and.

Increasing evidence suggests that synapse dysfunctions are a major determinant of several neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. Here we identify protein kinase N1 (PKN1) as a novel key player in fine-tuning the balance between axonal outgrowth and presynaptic differentiation in the parallel fiber-forming (PF-forming) cerebellar granule cells (Cgcs). Postnatal Pkn1-/- animals showed a defective PF-Purkinje cell (PF-PC) synapse formation. In vitro, Pkn1-/- Cgcs exhibited deregulated axonal outgrowth, elevated AKT phosphorylation, and higher levels of neuronal differentiation-2 (NeuroD2), a transcription factor preventing presynaptic maturation. Concomitantly, Pkn1-/- Cgcs had a reduced density of presynaptic sites. By inhibiting AKT with MK-2206 and siRNA-mediated knockdown, we found that AKT hyperactivation is responsible for the elongated axons, higher NeuroD2 levels, and reduced density of presynaptic specifications in Pkn1-/- Cgcs. In line with our in vitro data, Pkn1-/- mice showed AKT hyperactivation, elevated NeuroD2 levels, and reduced expression of PF-PC synaptic markers during stages of PF maturation in vivo. The long-term effect of Pkn1 knockout was further seen in cerebellar atrophy and mild ataxia. In summary, our results demonstrate that PKN1 functions as a developmentally active gatekeeper of AKT activity, thereby fine-tuning axonal outgrowth and presynaptic differentiation of Cgcs and subsequently the correct PF-PC synapse formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI96165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5919825PMC
May 2018

Protein Kinase C-Related Kinase (PKN/PRK). Potential Key-Role for PKN1 in Protection of Hypoxic Neurons.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2014 May;12(3):213-8

Medical University of Innsbruck, Biocenter/ Neurobiochemistry, Innrain 80-82, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

Serine/threonine protein kinase C-related kinase (PKN/PRK) is a family of three isoenzymes (PKN1, PKN2, PKN3), which are widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms and share the same overall domain structure. The Nterminal region encompasses a conserved repeated domain, termed HR1a-c as well as a HR2/C2 domain. The serine/threonine kinase domain is found in the C-terminal region of the protein and shows high sequence homology to other members of the PKC superfamily. In neurons, PKN1 is the most abundant isoform and has been implicated in a variety of functions including cytoskeletal organization and neuronal differentiation and its deregulation may contribute to neuropathological processes such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. We have recently identified a candidate role of PKN1 in the regulation of neuroprotective processes during hypoxic stress. Our key findings were that: 1) the activity of PKN1 was significantly increased by hypoxia (1% O2) and neurotrophins (nerve growth factor and purine nucleosides); 2) Neuronal cells, deficient of PKN1 showed a decrease of cell viability and neurite formation along with a disturbance of the F-actinassociated cytoskeleton; 3) Purine nucleoside-mediated neuroprotection during hypoxia was severely hampered in PKN1 deficient neuronal cells, altogether suggesting a potentially critical role of PKN1 in neuroprotective processes. This review gives an up-to-date overview of the PKN family with a special focus on the neuroprotective role of PKN1 in hypoxia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570159X11666131225000518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4023452PMC
May 2014

Modulation of intracellular ATP determines adenosine release and functional outcome in response to metabolic stress in rat hippocampal slices and cerebellar granule cells.

J Neurochem 2014 Jan 12;128(1):111-24. Epub 2013 Sep 12.

School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

Cerebral ischaemia rapidly depletes cellular ATP. Whilst this deprives brain tissue of a valuable energy source, the concomitant production of adenosine mitigates the damaging effects of energy failure by suppressing neuronal activity. However, the production of adenosine and other metabolites, and their loss across the blood-brain barrier, deprives the brain of substrates for the purine salvage pathway, the primary means by which the brain makes ATP. Because of this, cerebral ATP levels remain depressed after brain injury. To test whether manipulating cellular ATP levels in brain tissue could affect functional neuronal outcomes in response to oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD), we examined the effects of creatine and d-ribose and adenine (RibAde). In hippocampal slices creatine delayed ATP breakdown, reduced adenosine release, retarded both the depression of synaptic transmission and the anoxic depolarization caused by OGD, and improved the recovery of transmission. In contrast, RibAde increased cellular ATP, caused increased OGD-induced adenosine release and accelerated the depression of synaptic transmission, but did not improve functional recovery. However, RibAde improved the viability of cerebellar granule cells when administered after OGD. Our data indicate that RibAde may be effective in promoting recovery of brain tissue after injury, potentially via enhancement of salvage-mediated ATP production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnc.12397DOI Listing
January 2014

Purine nucleosides: endogenous neuroprotectants in hypoxic brain.

J Neurochem 2012 May 14;121(3):329-42. Epub 2012 Mar 14.

Division of Neurobiochemistry, Biocenter Department, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Even a short blockade of oxygen flow in brain may lead to the inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation and depletion of cellular ATP, which results in profound deficiencies in cellular function. Following ischemia, dying, injured, and hypoxic cells release soluble purine-nucleotide and -nucleoside pools. Growing evidence suggests that purine nucleosides might act as trophic factors in the CNS and PNS. In addition to equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) regulating purine nucleoside concentrations intra- and extracellularly, specific extracellular receptor subtypes for these compounds are expressed on neurons, glia, and endothelial cells, mediating stunningly diverse effects. Such effects range from induction of cell differentiation, apoptosis, mitogenesis, and morphogenetic changes, to stimulation of synthesis and/or release of cytokines and neurotrophic factors under both physiological and pathological conditions. Multiple signaling pathways regulate the critical balance between cell death and survival in hypoxia-ischemia. A convergent pathway for the regulation of multiple modalities involved in O₂ sensing is the mitogen activated protein kinase (p42/44 MAPK) or (ERK1/2 extracellular signal-regulated kinases) pathway terminating in a variety of transcription factors, for example, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α. In this review, the coherence of purine nucleoside-related pathways and MAPK activation in the endogenous neuroprotective regulation of the nervous system's development and neuroplasticity under hypoxic stress will be discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2012.07692.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3499684PMC
May 2012

Intracellular ATP influences synaptic plasticity in area CA1 of rat hippocampus via metabolism to adenosine and activity-dependent activation of adenosine A1 receptors.

J Neurosci 2011 Apr;31(16):6221-34

School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, United Kingdom.

The extent to which brain slices reflect the energetic status of the in vivo brain has been a subject of debate. We addressed this issue to investigate the recovery of energetic parameters and adenine nucleotides in rat hippocampal slices and the influence this has on synaptic transmission and plasticity. We show that, although adenine nucleotide levels recover appreciably within 10 min of incubation, it takes 3 h for a full recovery of the energy charge (to ≥ 0.93) and that incubation of brain slices at 34°C results in a significantly higher ATP/AMP ratio and a threefold lower activity of AMP-activated protein kinase compared with slices incubated at room temperature. Supplementation of artificial CSF with d-ribose and adenine (Rib/Ade) increased the total adenine nucleotide pool of brain slices, which, when corrected for the influence of the dead cut edges, closely approached in vivo values. Rib/Ade did not affect basal synaptic transmission or paired-pulse facilitation but did inhibit long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by tetanic or weak theta-burst stimulation. This decrease in LTP was reversed by strong theta-burst stimulation or antagonizing the inhibitory adenosine A(1) receptor suggesting that the elevated tissue ATP levels had resulted in greater activity-dependent adenosine release during LTP induction. This was confirmed by direct measurement of adenosine release with adenosine biosensors. These observations provide new insight into the recovery of adenine nucleotides after slice preparation, the sources of loss of such compounds in brain slices, the means by which to restore them, and the functional consequences of doing so.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4039-10.2011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6632980PMC
April 2011

Vital role of protein kinase C-related kinase in the formation and stability of neurites during hypoxia.

J Neurochem 2010 Apr 28;113(2):432-46. Epub 2010 Jan 28.

Med. University of Innsbruck, Biocenter, Division of Neurobiochemistry, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

Exposure of pheochromocytoma cells to hypoxia (1% O(2)) favors differentiation at the expense of cell viability. Additional incubation with nerve growth factor (NGF) and guanosine, a purine nucleoside with neurotrophin characteristics, rescued cell viability and further enhanced the extension of neurites. In parallel, an increase in the activity of protein kinase C-related kinase (PRK1), which is known to be involved in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, was observed in hypoxic cells. NGF and guanosine further enhanced PRK1 in normoxic and hypoxic cells. To study the role of PRK1 during cellular stress response and neurotrophin-mediated signaling, pheochromocytoma cells were transfected with small interfering RNA directed against PRK1. Loss of functional PRK1 initiated a significant loss of viability and inhibited neurite formation. SiRNA-mediated knockdown of PRK1 also completely stalled guanosine-mediated neuroprotective effects. Additionally, the F-actin-associated cytoskeleton and the expression of the plasticity protein growth associated protein-43 were disturbed upon PRK1 knockdown. A comparable dependency of neurite formation and growth associated protein-43 immunoreactivity on functional PRK1 expression was observed in cerebellar granule neurons. Based on these data, a putative role of PRK1 as a key-signaling element for the successive NGF- and purine nucleoside-mediated protection of hypoxic neuronal cells is hypothesized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2010.06624.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2967713PMC
April 2010

An ion-pair reversed-phase HPLC method for determination of fresh tissue adenine nucleotides avoiding freeze-thaw degradation of ATP.

Anal Biochem 2009 May 20;388(1):108-14. Epub 2009 Feb 20.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry CV47AL, UK.

Knowledge of the energetic state of tissue is required in a wide range of experimental studies, particularly those investigating the decline and recovery of cellular metabolism after metabolic stress. Such information can be obtained from high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination of tissue levels of adenine nucleotides (ATP, ADP, and AMP) and their interrelationship in the tissue energy charge (EC). Accordingly, a large range of techniques with which to measure these molecules and their downstream metabolites have been reported. However, the accurate determination of the tissue EC also depends on the nucleotide extraction procedure given that changes in adenine nucleotide levels take place very quickly when ATPases are not inactivated immediately. In this article, we describe an ion-pair reversed-phase HPLC method by which separation of adenine nucleotides can be performed rapidly, allowing multiple analyses in 1 day, with both high sensitivity and extraction efficiency and using fresh samples, thereby avoiding freeze-thaw degradation of nucleotides. We applied this method to hippocampal brain slice extracts and show that same-day extraction and analysis results in a more accurate determination of the in situ energetic state than does the commonly used snap-freezing in liquid nitrogen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2009.02.017DOI Listing
May 2009

p42/44 MAPK is an essential effector for purine nucleoside-mediated neuroprotection of hypoxic PC12 cells and primary cerebellar granule neurons.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2008 Aug 17;38(4):559-68. Epub 2008 May 17.

Biocenter, Division of Neurobiochemistry, Medical University of Innsbruck, Fritz Pregl Str.3, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

Purine nucleosides protect neurons against hypoxic insult, but the signaling mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. We studied the role of the p42/44 MAPK pathway in purine nucleoside-mediated protection of cultured PC12 cells and primary cerebellar granule neurons from hypoxia-induced cell death. Incubation with adenosine reduced hypoxia-evoked cell death morphology, and increased the activity of the MAPK pathway. Inosine, a metabolic derivative of adenosine was generally less potent in PC12 cells. Pharmacological inhibition of the MAPK pathways severely hampered adenosine-mediated induction of cell viability and neurite outgrowth. Consistently, siRNA-mediated knockdown of p42 and p44 MAPK completely blocked adenosine-mediated rescue of hypoxic PC12 cells. The role of MAPK activation was further studied in primary neurons. Cells were significantly rescued by adenosine and inosine and siRNA-mediated knockdown severely affected purine-mediated rescue of neuronal viability after hypoxic insult. Results point to the important role of p42/44 MAPK for adenosine receptor-mediated neuroprotection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcn.2008.05.004DOI Listing
August 2008

HIF-1 alpha is an essential effector for purine nucleoside-mediated neuroprotection against hypoxia in PC12 cells and primary cerebellar granule neurons.

J Neurochem 2008 Jun 4;105(5):1901-14. Epub 2008 Feb 4.

Division of Neurobiochemistry, Medical University of Innsbruck, Biocenter, Innsbruck, Austria.

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) and purine nucleosides adenosine and inosine are critical mediators of physiological responses to acute and chronic hypoxia. The specific aim of this paper was to evaluate the potential role of HIF-1alpha in purine-mediated neuroprotection. We show that adenosine and inosine efficiently rescued clonal rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells (up to 43.6%) as well as primary cerebellar granule neurons (up to 25.1%) from hypoxic insult, and furthermore, that HIF-1alpha is critical for purine-mediated neuroprotection. Next, we studied hypoxia or purine nucleoside increased nuclear accumulation of HIF-1alpha in PC12 cells. As a possible result of increased protein stabilization or synthesis an up to 2.5-fold induction of HIF-1alpha accumulation was detected. In cerebellar granule neurons, purine nucleosides induced an up to 3.1-fold HIF-1alpha accumulation in cell lysates. Concomitant with these results, small interfering RNA-mediated reduction of HIF-1alpha completely abolished adenosine- and inosine-mediated protection in PC12 cells and severely hampered purine nucleoside-mediated protection in primary neurons (up to 94.2%). Data presented in this paper thus clearly demonstrate that HIF-1alpha is a key regulator of purine nucleoside-mediated rescue of hypoxic neuronal cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05275.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2992945PMC
June 2008