Publications by authors named "Stephanie Turner"

38 Publications

Towards Bioleaching of a Vanadium Containing Magnetite for Metal Recovery.

Front Microbiol 2021 30;12:693615. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.

Vanadium - a transition metal - is found in the ferrous-ferric mineral, magnetite. Vanadium has many industrial applications, such as in the production of high-strength low-alloy steels, and its increasing global industrial consumption requires new primary sources. Bioleaching is a biotechnological process for microbially catalyzed dissolution of minerals and wastes for metal recovery such as biogenic organic acid dissolution of bauxite residues. In this study, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to identify microorganisms in Nordic mining environments influenced by vanadium containing sources. These data identified gene sequences that aligned to the genus that produce gluconic acid. Several strategies for magnetite dissolution were tested including oxidative and reductive bioleaching by acidophilic microbes along with dissimilatory reduction by spp. that did not yield significant metal release. In addition, abiotic dissolution of the magnetite was tested with gluconic and oxalic acids, and yielded 3.99 and 81.31% iron release as a proxy for vanadium release, respectively. As a proof of principle, leaching via gluconic acid production by resulted in a maximum yield of 9.8% of the available iron and 3.3% of the vanadium. Addition of an increased concentration of glucose as electron donor for gluconic acid production alone, or in combination with calcium carbonate to buffer the pH, increased the rate of iron dissolution and final vanadium recoveries. These data suggest a strategy of biogenic organic acid mediated vanadium recovery from magnetite and point the way to testing additional microbial species to optimize the recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.693615DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8278310PMC
June 2021

Changes in urinary kidney injury molecule-1 levels after blood transfusions in preterm infants.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 3;11(1):11690. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, 38163, USA.

Literature supports an association between transfusions and gut injury in preterm infants. We hypothesized that packed red blood (PRBC) transfusions are associated with kidney inflammation marked by a rise in urinary levels of Kidney Injury Molecule 1 (KIM-1). Prospectively, KIM-1 levels were measured before and then at 6, 12 and 24 h after a PRBC transfusion. Results are presented as mean (± SD) and median (IQR). Thirty-four infants, birth weight 865 (± 375) g, had higher pretransfusion KIM-1 levels of 2270 (830, 3250) pg/mg than what is normal for age. These were not associated with hematocrit levels. KIM-1 levels peaked between 6 and 12 h after the transfusion. Levels peaked to 3300 (1990, 6830) pg/mg; levels returned to pretransfusion levels of 2240 (1240, 3870) pg/mg by 24 h, p < 0.01. The 24-h post-transfusion KIM-1 levels were similar to pretransfusion levels, p = 0.63. PRBC transfusions in preterm infants are associated with an elevation in urinary KIM-1 levels. The mechanism of this association may be important in studying transfusion associated organ injury. KIM-1, as an inflammatory marker, may be helpful in assessing the effect of different transfusion volumes or in evaluating operational thresholds of anemia in premature infants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91209-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8175397PMC
June 2021

Molecular and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Biomarkers of Traumatic Brain Injury: Principles for Investigation and Integration.

J Neurotrauma 2021 Jun 22;38(13):1762-1782. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.

The last 20 years have seen the advent of new technologies that enhance the diagnosis and prognosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI). There is recognition that TBI affects the brain beyond initial injury, in some cases inciting a progressive neuropathology that leads to chronic impairments. Medical researchers are now searching for biomarkers to detect and monitor this condition. Perhaps the most promising developments are in the biomolecular and neuroimaging domains. Molecular assays can identify proteins indicative of neuronal injury and/or degeneration. Diffusion imaging now allows sensitive evaluations of the brain's cellular microstructure. As the pace of discovery accelerates, it is important to survey the research landscape and identify promising avenues of investigation. In this review, we discuss the potential of molecular and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) biomarkers in TBI research. Integration of these technologies could advance models of disease prognosis, ultimately improving care. To date, however, few studies have explored relationships between molecular and DTI variables in patients with TBI. Here, we provide a short primer on each technology, review the latest research, and discuss how these biomarkers may be incorporated in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2020.7259DOI Listing
June 2021

Microbial and abiotic controls on mineral-associated organic matter in soil profiles along an ecosystem gradient.

Sci Rep 2019 07 16;9(1):10294. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Leibniz Universität Hannover, Institut für Bodenkunde, Herrenhäuser Str. 2, 30419, Hannover, Germany.

Formation of mineral-organic associations is a key process in the global carbon cycle. Recent concepts propose litter quality-controlled microbial assimilation and direct sorption processes as main factors in transferring carbon from plant litter into mineral-organic associations. We explored the pathways of the formation of mineral-associated organic matter (MOM) in soil profiles along a 120-ky ecosystem gradient that developed under humid climate from the retreating Franz Josef Glacier in New Zealand. We determined the stocks of particulate and mineral-associated carbon, the isotope signature and microbial decomposability of organic matter, and plant and microbial biomarkers (lignin phenols, amino sugars and acids) in MOM. Results revealed that litter quality had little effect on the accumulation of mineral-associated carbon and that plant-derived carbon bypassed microbial assimilation at all soil depths. Seemingly, MOM forms by sorption of microbial as well as plant-derived compounds to minerals. The MOM in carbon-saturated topsoil was characterized by the steady exchange of older for recent carbon, while subsoil MOM arises from retention of organic matter transported with percolating water. Overall, MOM formation is not monocausal but involves various mechanisms and processes, with reactive minerals being effective filters capable of erasing chemical differences in organic matter inputs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-46501-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6635608PMC
July 2019

Walking the Walk: Integrating Evidence Into Clinical Experiences.

Creat Nurs 2019 May;25(2):148-153

Professional nurses are called to provide nursing care using an evidence-based approach. Health-care professionals are challenged to break away from old traditions and search for ways to improve health. Evidence-based practice (EBP) must be threaded throughout nursing curricula to produce critically-thinking professional nurses who will be meeting new and significant health-care challenges. Nursing education must be grounded in the translation of current evidence into practice. Nurse educators must acknowledge the obstacles faced when teaching concepts of research to students who have chosen a practice-focused career. The words may be intimidating to nursing students. Nurse educators must shift this paradigm to invite students to realize that EBP is an integral component of modern health care that bridges the gap between health-care practices and improved patient outcomes. Faculty in a baccalaureate Adult Health course developed a unique approach inviting students to apply evidence to their student clinical experiences. Survey results showed that this innovative approach increased students' "excellent" or "good" understanding toward EBP concepts from pre-implementation scores of 46% to post-implementation scores of 94%. This active learning strategy allows students to "walk the walk" of EBP rather than simply listen to the "talk."
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1078-4535.25.2.148DOI Listing
May 2019

Systematic review with meta-analysis: ultra-thin gastroscopy compared to conventional gastroscopy for the diagnosis of oesophageal varices in people with cirrhosis.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2019 06 6;49(12):1464-1473. Epub 2019 May 6.

Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Sunshine Coast University Hospital, Birtinya, Qld, Australia.

Background: Haemorrhage from ruptured oesophageal varices is a common cause of death in people with cirrhosis. Guidelines recommend screening for varices at time of cirrhosis diagnosis and throughout the course of the disease. Conventional gastroscopy is the criterion standard for variceal screening; however, is invasive, costly, and carries risks related to use of sedation. Ultra-thin gastroscopy (using endoscopes with a shaft diameter ≤6 mm) has been proposed as an alternative method of variceal screening that mitigates these risks.

Aim: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of ultra-thin gastroscopy compared to conventional gastroscopy for the diagnosis of varices in people with cirrhosis.

Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane library databases were searched for studies that evaluated the accuracy of ultra-thin gastroscopy compared to conventional gastroscopy in the diagnosis of oesophageal varices.

Results: Ten studies, 7 in known cirrhosis, with 752 participants were included in this systematic review. The overall prevalence of oesophageal varices was 42%. On bivariate modelling, pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity were 98% (95% CI 93%-99%) and 96% (95% CI 91%-99%) respectively. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 28 (95% CI 10.7-73.2) and 0.02 (95% CI 0.01-0.72) respectively. Kappa coefficient for inter-observer agreement for any varices ranged from 0.45 to 0.90. No serious adverse events related to ultra-thin gastroscopy were reported.

Conclusions: Ultra-thin gastroscopy is accurate in the diagnosis of oesophageal varices, safe and well tolerated. It is a valid alternative to conventional gastroscopy for the screening and surveillance of varices in people with cirrhosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.15282DOI Listing
June 2019

Blood Biomarkers of Sports-Related Concussion in Pediatric Athletes.

Clin J Sport Med 2021 May;31(3):250-256

Sport Science Center, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, Texas.

Objective: To examine changes in blood biomarkers, serum neurofilament light (Nf-L), and plasma tau, as well as the relationship between blood biomarkers and symptom reports, in athletes with a sports-related concussion.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Setting: Private community-based concussion clinic.

Participants: Athletes aged 13 to 18 years old with a diagnosed sports-related concussion presenting to a concussion clinic within 7 days of injury and noninjured athletes with no history of concussion aged 13 to 23 years old.

Assessment And Main Outcome Measures: Injured athletes provided a blood sample at the initial clinical evaluation and again at least 6 months after injury. Noninjured athletes provided a single blood sample. All participants completed symptom reports during each visit. Statistical comparisons of biomarker concentrations and symptom reports were conducted.

Results: The mean rank for tau was significantly lower for concussed athletes compared with nonconcussed athletes. In contrast, the mean rank of Nf-L was higher for concussed athletes than for nonconcussed athletes, although the difference was nonsignificant. Plasma tau was significantly lower postinjury compared with 6 months after injury, whereas serum Nf-L was significantly higher postinjury. There was a weak but significant inverse relationship observed between tau and the number of symptoms reported, but no relationship was observed between Nf-L and the number of symptoms reported.

Conclusions: These data indicate that in the days following a sports-related concussion, the blood biomarkers tau and Nf-L display contrasting patterns of change but may not be related to self-reported symptom scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JSM.0000000000000735DOI Listing
May 2021

A Novel Inorganic Sulfur Compound Metabolizing -Like Population Is Suggested to Mediate Extracellular Electron Transfer.

Front Microbiol 2018 5;9:2945. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.

Mining and processing of metal sulfide ores produces waters containing metals and inorganic sulfur compounds such as tetrathionate and thiosulfate. If released untreated, these sulfur compounds can be oxidized to generate highly acidic wastewaters [termed 'acid mine drainage (AMD)'] that cause severe environmental pollution. One potential method to remediate mining wastewaters is the maturing biotechnology of 'microbial fuel cells' that offers the sustainable removal of acid generating inorganic sulfur compounds alongside producing an electrical current. Microbial fuel cells exploit the ability of bacterial cells to transfer electrons to a mineral as the terminal electron acceptor during anaerobic respiration by replacing the mineral with a solid anode. In consequence, by substituting natural minerals with electrodes, microbial fuel cells also provide an excellent platform to understand environmental microbe-mineral interactions that are fundamental to element cycling. Previously, tetrathionate degradation coupled to the generation of an electrical current has been demonstrated and here we report a metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis of the microbial community. Reconstruction of inorganic sulfur compound metabolism suggested the substrate tetrathionate was metabolized by the -like and -like populations via multiple pathways. Characterized species do not utilize inorganic sulfur compounds, suggesting a novel -like population had been selected. Oxidation of intermediate sulfide, sulfur, thiosulfate, and adenylyl-sulfate released electrons and the extracellular electron transfer to the anode was suggested to be dominated by candidate soluble electron shuttles produced by the -like population. However, as the soluble electron shuttle compounds also have alternative functions within the cell, it cannot be ruled out that acidophiles use novel, uncharacterized mechanisms to mediate extracellular electron transfer. Several populations within the community were suggested to metabolize intermediate inorganic sulfur compounds by multiple pathways, which highlights the potential for mutualistic or symbiotic relationships. This study provided the genetic base for acidophilic microbial fuel cells utilized for the remediation of inorganic sulfur compounds from AMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.02945DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6289977PMC
December 2018

Investigation of viable taxa in the deep terrestrial biosphere suggests high rates of nutrient recycling.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2018 08;94(8)

Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Barlastgatan 11, Kalmar, Sweden.

The deep biosphere is the largest 'bioreactor' on earth, and microbes inhabiting this biome profoundly influence global nutrient and energy cycles. An important question for deep biosphere microbiology is whether or not specific populations are viable. To address this, we used quantitative PCR and high throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of total and viable cells (i.e. with an intact cellular membrane) from three groundwaters with different ages and chemical constituents. There were no statistically significant differences in 16S rRNA gene abundances and microbial diversity between total and viable communities. This suggests that populations were adapted to prevailing oligotrophic conditions and that non-viable cells are rapidly degraded and recycled into new biomass. With higher concentrations of organic carbon, the modern marine and undefined mixed waters hosted a community with a larger range of predicted growth strategies than the ultra-oligotrophic old saline water. These strategies included fermentative and potentially symbiotic lifestyles by candidate phyla that typically have streamlined genomes. In contrast, the old saline waters had more 16S rRNA gene sequences in previously cultured lineages able to oxidize hydrogen and fix carbon dioxide. This matches the paradigm of a hydrogen and carbon dioxide-fed chemolithoautotrophic deep biosphere.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiy121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6030916PMC
August 2018

Fluctuations in blood biomarkers of head trauma in NCAA football athletes over the course of a season.

J Neurosurg 2018 May 29:1-8. Epub 2018 May 29.

4Exercise & Sport Science Department and.

OBJECTIVERepetitive subconcussive head trauma is a consequence of participation in contact sports and may be linked to neurodegenerative diseases. The degree of neurological injury caused by subconcussive head trauma is not easily detectible, and this injury does not induce readily identifiable clinical signs or symptoms. Recent advancements in immunoassays make possible the detection and quantification of blood biomarkers linked to head trauma. Identification of a blood biomarker that can identify the extent of neurological injury associated with subconcussive head trauma may provide an objective measure for informed decisions concerning cumulative exposure to subconcussive head trauma. The purpose of the current study was to examine changes in the blood biomarkers of subconcussive head trauma over the course of an American football season.METHODSThirty-five National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) American football athletes underwent blood sampling throughout the course of a football season. Serial samples were obtained throughout the 2016 season, during which the number and magnitude of head impacts changed. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma concentrations of tau and serum concentrations of neurofilament light polypeptide (NF-L). Athletes were grouped based on their starter status, because athletes identified as starters are known to sustain a greater number of impacts. Between-group differences and time-course differences were assessed.RESULTSIn nonstarters, plasma concentrations of tau decreased over the course of the season, with lower values observed in starters; this resulted in a lower area under the curve (AUC) (starters: 416.78 ± 129.17 pg/ml/day; nonstarters: 520.84 ± 163.19 pg/ml/day; p = 0.050). Plasma concentrations of tau could not be used to discern between starters and nonstarters. In contrast, serum concentrations of NF-L increased throughout the season as head impacts accumulated, specifically in those athletes categorized as starters. The higher serum concentrations of NF-L observed in starters resulted in a larger AUC (starters: 1605.03 ± 655.09 pg/ml/day; nonstarters: 1067.29 ± 272.33 pg/ml/day; p = 0.007). The AUC of the receiver operating characteristic curve analyses displayed fair to modest accuracy to identify athletes who were starters with the use of serum NF-L following periods of repetitive impacts.CONCLUSIONSThe different patterns observed in serum NF-L and plasma tau concentrations provide preliminary evidence for the use of blood biomarkers to detect the neurological injury associated with repetitive subconcussive head trauma. Although further investigation is necessary, such findings might lay the foundation for the further development of an objective measure for the detection of neurological injury caused by subconcussive head trauma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2017.12.JNS172035DOI Listing
May 2018

Temperature response of permafrost soil carbon is attenuated by mineral protection.

Glob Chang Biol 2018 08 1;24(8):3401-3415. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Institute of Soil Science, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Hannover, Germany.

Climate change in Arctic ecosystems fosters permafrost thaw and makes massive amounts of ancient soil organic carbon (OC) available to microbial breakdown. However, fractions of the organic matter (OM) may be protected from rapid decomposition by their association with minerals. Little is known about the effects of mineral-organic associations (MOA) on the microbial accessibility of OM in permafrost soils and it is not clear which factors control its temperature sensitivity. In order to investigate if and how permafrost soil OC turnover is affected by mineral controls, the heavy fraction (HF) representing mostly MOA was obtained by density fractionation from 27 permafrost soil profiles of the Siberian Arctic. In parallel laboratory incubations, the unfractionated soils (bulk) and their HF were comparatively incubated for 175 days at 5 and 15°C. The HF was equivalent to 70 ± 9% of the bulk CO respiration as compared to a share of 63 ± 1% of bulk OC that was stored in the HF. Significant reduction of OC mineralization was found in all treatments with increasing OC content of the HF (HF-OC), clay-size minerals and Fe or Al oxyhydroxides. Temperature sensitivity (Q10) decreased with increasing soil depth from 2.4 to 1.4 in the bulk soil and from 2.9 to 1.5 in the HF. A concurrent increase in the metal-to-HF-OC ratios with soil depth suggests a stronger bonding of OM to minerals in the subsoil. There, the younger C signature in CO than that of the OC indicates a preferential decomposition of the more recent OM and the existence of a MOA fraction with limited access of OM to decomposers. These results indicate strong mineral controls on the decomposability of OM after permafrost thaw and on its temperature sensitivity. Thus, we here provide evidence that OM temperature sensitivity can be attenuated by MOA in permafrost soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14316DOI Listing
August 2018

Students Learn Curando el Cuerpo-Curando el Alma: Healing the Body-Healing the Soul.

J Christ Nurs 2018 Apr/Jun;35(2):132

Stephanie Turner, EdD, MSN, RN, is course faculty at Western Governors University. Amy Beasley, PhD, RN, is an assistant professor at The Capstone College of Nursing. Amy's main concentration involves hospice and rural community access to palliative care services.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CNJ.0000000000000487DOI Listing
September 2019

Protection Before Impact: the Potential Neuroprotective Role of Nutritional Supplementation in Sports-Related Head Trauma.

Sports Med 2018 03;48(Suppl 1):39-52

Sports Concussion Research Group, Department of Kinesiology, Texas Christian University (TCU), Box 297730, Fort Worth, TX, 76129, USA.

Even in the presence of underreporting, sports-related concussions/mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) are on the rise. In the absence of proper diagnosis, an athlete may return to play prior to full recovery, increasing the risk of second-impact syndrome or protracted symptoms. Recent evidence has demonstrated that sub-concussive impacts, those sustained routinely in practice and competition, result in a quantifiable pathophysiological response and the accumulation of both concussive and sub-concussive impacts sustained over a lifetime of sports participation may lead to long-term neurological impairments and an increased risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases. The pathophysiological, neurometabolic, and neurochemical cascade that initiates subsequent to the injury is complex and involves multiple mechanisms. While pharmaceutical treatments may target one mechanism, specific nutrients and nutraceuticals have been discovered to impact several pathways, presenting a broader approach. Several studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective effect of nutritional supplementation in the treatment of mTBI. However, given that many concussions go unreported and sub-concussive impacts result in a pathophysiological response that, too, may contribute to long-term brain health, protection prior to impact is warranted. This review discusses the current literature regarding the role of nutritional supplements that, when provided before mTBI and traumatic brain injury, may provide neurological protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40279-017-0847-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5790849PMC
March 2018

Nursing a disaster.

J Emerg Manag 2017 Jul/Aug;15(4):247-257

College of Health Professions, Nursing, Western Governors University, Hoover, Alabama.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the needs of nurses predisaster and postdisaster.

Design/methods: This study involved an exploratory mixed methods approach, with semistructured in-depth interviews followed by a 10-item survey of resilience.

Setting: The study took place in the PI's office in Tuscaloosa, AL.

Subjects: Ten English speaking nurses from an area hospital who were on duty during the April 2011 tornado. Participant recruitment involved distribution of flyers in break areas and other well-populated areas within the hospital.

Interventions: Each interview was audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Interview transcripts were reviewed and analyzed for themes, which were categorized, coded, and thoroughly examined. The survey was administered to the participants at the conclusion of the interview.

Main Outcome Measure: Study used an exploratory method; to gain an understanding of the needs of nurses predisaster and postdisaster.

Findings: All 10 participants were found to have higher levels of resilience than the general population. Results of the interviews included valid concerns for more disaster planning and education, as well as postdisaster counseling.

Conclusions: Organizations have the responsibility to keep the nursing workforce happy and healthy. Because disaster response can be both emotionally and physically damaging, it is imperative to increase disaster training and education to those who have the potential to be involved in a disaster event. Postdisaster counseling is also needed to help nurses deal with the stress that occurs during and after a disaster.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5055/jem.2017.0333DOI Listing
April 2018

Transforming the Nursing Classroom into a Clinical Setting.

Nurs Educ Perspect 2018 Jan/Feb;39(1):46-47

About the Authors The authors are faculty at the University of Alabama, Capstone College of Nursing, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Leslie G. Cole, DNP, RN, is an assistant professor. B. Ann Graves, PhD, RN, is an associate professor. Stephanie Turner, EdD, RN, is an assistant professor. For more information, contact Dr. Cole at

Providing clinical opportunities for students to gain experience in managing cardiac dysrhythmias is a challenge for nursing faculty. High-risk experiences are often not available for all students or are too life-threatening to entrust to students. Faculty shortages and increasing enrollments add to declines in clinical opportunities. The use of human patient simulation (HPS) has added opportunities to experience high-risk, low-frequency clinical situations. HPS may be employed in the classroom setting to teach content related to dysrhythmia treatments. This innovative approach to HPS utilization engages students and helps them apply theory into clinical nursing practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.NEP.0000000000000182DOI Listing
September 2019

Microbial Community Dynamics in Soil Depth Profiles Over 120,000 Years of Ecosystem Development.

Front Microbiol 2017 19;8:874. Epub 2017 May 19.

Geomicrobiology, Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural ResourcesHanover, Germany.

Along a long-term ecosystem development gradient, soil nutrient contents and mineralogical properties change, therefore probably altering soil microbial communities. However, knowledge about the dynamics of soil microbial communities during long-term ecosystem development including progressive and retrogressive stages is limited, especially in mineral soils. Therefore, microbial abundances (quantitative PCR) and community composition (pyrosequencing) as well as their controlling soil properties were investigated in soil depth profiles along the 120,000 years old Franz Josef chronosequence (New Zealand). Additionally, in a microcosm incubation experiment the effects of particular soil properties, i.e., soil age, soil organic matter fraction (mineral-associated vs. particulate), O status, and carbon and phosphorus additions, on microbial abundances (quantitative PCR) and community patterns (T-RFLP) were analyzed. The archaeal to bacterial abundance ratio not only increased with soil depth but also with soil age along the chronosequence, coinciding with mineralogical changes and increasing phosphorus limitation. Results of the incubation experiment indicated that archaeal abundances were less impacted by the tested soil parameters compared to suggesting that may better cope with mineral-induced substrate restrictions in subsoils and older soils. Instead, archaeal communities showed a soil age-related compositional shift with the , that were frequently detected in nutrient-poor, low-energy environments, being dominant at the oldest site. However, bacterial communities remained stable with ongoing soil development. In contrast to the abundances, the archaeal compositional shift was associated with the mineralogical gradient. Our study revealed, that archaeal and bacterial communities in whole soil profiles are differently affected by long-term soil development with archaeal communities probably being better adapted to subsoil conditions, especially in nutrient-depleted old soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00874DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5437693PMC
May 2017

Using High-Fidelity Simulation Scenarios in the Classroom to Engage Learners.

Creat Nurs 2017 Feb;23(1):35-41

It is well known that active teaching strategies improve student learning outcomes. By using simulation scenarios as a tool to teach systematic decision making in the classroom, faculty allow a large group of students to develop abstract thinking and gain experience in a setting that has traditionally delivered information in a linear format. This article will describe the process of using a high-fidelity simulation scenario as an unfolding case study to teach students how to manage and care for a patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1078-4535.23.1.35DOI Listing
February 2017

Interlaboratory quantification of Bacteria and Archaea in deeply buried sediments of the Baltic Sea (IODP Expedition 347).

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2017 03;93(3)

Department of Microbiology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.

Two common quantification methods for subseafloor microorganisms are catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Using these methods, we quantified Bacteria and Archaea in Baltic Sea basin sediments (IODP Exp. 347) down to 90 mbsf, testing the following hypotheses in an interlaboratory comparison: (1) proteinase K permeabilization of archaeal cell walls increases CARD-FISH accuracy and (2) qPCR varies by more than an order of magnitude between laboratories using similar protocols. CARD-FISH counts did not differ between permeabilization treatments, demonstrating that proteinase K did not increase accuracy of CARD-FISH counts. However, 91% of these counts were below the quantification limit of 1.3 × 107 cells cm-3. For qPCR, data varied between laboratories, but were largely within the same order of magnitude if the same primers were used, with 88% of samples being above the quantification limit. Copy number values were elevated by preparing a sediment slurry before DNA extraction: 3.88 × 106-2.34 × 109 16S rRNA gene copies cm-3 vs. 1.39 × 107-1.87 × 109 total cells cm-3. By qPCR, Bacteria were more abundant than Archaea, although they usually were within the same order of magnitude. Overall, qPCR is more sensitive than CARD-FISH, but both require optimization to consistently achieve both precision and accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fix007DOI Listing
March 2017

A Positive Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) Is Associated With Increased Recovery Time After Sports-Related Concussion in Youth and Adolescent Athletes.

Am J Sports Med 2017 Feb 28;45(2):474-479. Epub 2016 Oct 28.

Sports Concussion Research Group, Department of Kinesiology, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, Texas, USA.

Background: Vestibular and ocular motor impairments are routinely reported in patients with sports-related concussion (SRC) and may result in delayed return to play (RTP). The Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) assessment has been shown to be consistent and sensitive in identifying concussion when used as part of a comprehensive examination. To what extent these impairments or symptoms are associated with length of recovery is unknown.

Purpose: To examine whether symptom provocation or clinical abnormality in specific domains of the VOMS results in protracted recovery (time from SRC to commencement of RTP protocol).

Study Design: Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2.

Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted of 167 patients (69 girls, 98 boys; mean ± SD age, 15 ± 2 years [range, 11-19 years]) presenting with SRC in 2014. During the initial visit, VOMS was performed in which symptom provocation or clinical abnormality (eg, unsmooth eye movements) was documented by use of a dichotomous scale (0 = not present, 1 = present). The VOMS used in this clinic consisted of smooth pursuits (SMO_PUR), horizontal and vertical saccades (HOR_SAC and VER_SAC), horizontal and vertical vestibular ocular reflex (HOR_VOR and VER_VOR), near point of convergence (NPC), and accommodation (ACCOM). Domains were also categorized into ocular motor (SMO_PUR, HOR_SAC, VER_SAC, NPC, ACCOM) and vestibular (HOR_VOR, VER_VOR). Cox proportional hazard models were used to explore the relationship between the domains and recovery. Alpha was set at P ≤ .05.

Results: Symptom provocation and/or clinical abnormality in all domains except NPC ( P = .107) and ACCOM ( P = .234) delayed recovery (domain, hazard ratio [95% CI]: SMO_PUR, 0.65 [0.47-0.90], P = .009; HOR_SAC, 0.68 [0.50-0.94], P = .018; VER_SAC, 0.55 [0.40-0.75], P < .001; HOR_VOR, 0.68 [0.49-0.94], P = .018; VER_VOR, 0.60 [0.44-0.83], P = .002). The lowest crude hazard ratio was for ocular motor category (0.45 [0.32-0.63], P < .001).

Conclusion: These data suggest that symptom provocation/clinical abnormality associated with all domains except NPC and ACCOM can delay recovery after SRC in youth and adolescents. Thus, the VOMS not only may augment current diagnostic tools but also may serve as a predictor of recovery time in patients with SRC. The findings of this study may lead to more effective prognosis of concussion in youth and adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546516668624DOI Listing
February 2017

Probiotic Streptococcus thermophilus FP4 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 Supplementation Attenuates Performance and Range-of-Motion Decrements Following Muscle Damaging Exercise.

Nutrients 2016 Oct 14;8(10). Epub 2016 Oct 14.

Exercise & Sport Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, Texas Christian University, P.O. Box 297730, Fort Worth, TX 76129, USA.

Probiotics have immunomodulatory effects. However, little is known about the potential benefit of probiotics on the inflammation subsequent to strenuous exercise. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossover design separated by a 21-day washout, 15 healthy resistance-trained men ingested an encapsulated probiotic () FP4 and () BR03 at 5 bn live cells (AFU) concentration each, or a placebo, daily for 3 weeks prior to muscle-damaging exercise (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02520583). Isometric strength, muscle soreness, range of motion and girth, and blood interleukin-6 (IL-6) and creatine kinase (CK) concentrations were measured from pre- to 72 h post-exercise. Statistical analysis was via mixed models and magnitude-based inference to the standardized difference. Probiotic supplementation resulted in an overall decrease in circulating IL-6, which was sustained to 48 h post-exercise. In addition, probiotic supplementation likely enhanced isometric average peak torque production at 24 to 72 h into the recovery period following exercise (probiotic-placebo point effect ±90% CI: 24 h, 11% ± 7%; 48 h, 12% ± 18%; 72 h, 8% ± 8%). Probiotics also likely moderately increased resting arm angle at 24 h (2.4% ± 2.0%) and 48 h (1.9% ± 1.9%) following exercise, but effects on soreness and flexed arm angle and CK were unclear. These data suggest that dietary supplementation with probiotic strains FP4 and BR03 attenuates performance decrements and muscle tension in the days following muscle-damaging exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu8100642DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5084029PMC
October 2016

Interprofessional Clinical Assignments: A Project in Nursing Education.

Authors:
Stephanie Turner

Creat Nurs 2015 ;21(3):156-60

Education involving interprofessional activities helps to improve learning and the ability to work in an effective collaborative environment. In this project, 16 baccalaureate nursing students were given the opportunity to work with other members of the health care team to develop an understanding of the roles and responsibilities of each group of professionals and the communication skills needed to provide quality and safe care to patients and to positively impact their motivation to work with members of other health professions. All the students in the group documented the successful completion of these objectives in their journals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1078-4535.21.3.156DOI Listing
October 2015

Psychiatric Case Management in the Emergency Department.

Prof Case Manag 2015 Sep-Oct;20(5):217-27; quiz 228-9

Stephanie B. Turner, EdD, MSN, RN, is an Assistant Professor at the University of Alabama Capstone College of Nursing. She currently teaches adult health nursing in the undergraduate nursing program and numerous courses in the RN to MSN mobility program. Her specialty areas include emergency, critical care, and adult health nursing. Marietta P. Stanton, PhD, RN, CNAA, BC, CMAC, CCM, CNL, is a Professor of Nursing at The University of Alabama, Capstone College of Nursing. She has published a number of articles in case management. She is certified through the Center for Case Management as a Case Management Administrator.

Purpose: The care of the mentally ill has reached a real crisis in the United States. There were more than 6.4 million visits to emergency departments (EDs) in 2010, or about 5% of total visits, involved patients whose primary diagnosis was a mental health condition or substance abuse (). That is up 28% from just 4 years earlier, according to the latest figures available from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality in Rockville, MD. Using a method called scoping, the purpose of this article is to examine the range, extent, and evidence available regarding case management as an intervention in the ED to manage mental health patients, to determine whether there is sufficient quantity and quality of evidence on this topic to conduct a meta-analysis, and to identify relevant studies that balance comprehensiveness with reasonable limitations.

Primary Practice Settings: One solution for ensuring that the costs are contained, efficiency is maintained, and quality outcomes are achieved is the placement of a case manager in the ED. According to , because the majority of hospital admissions come through the ED, it makes sense to have case managers located there to act as gatekeepers and ensure that patients who are admitted meet criteria and are placed in the proper bed with the proper status.

Findings/conclusions: From the scoping techniques implemented in this study, the authors came to the conclusion that case management has been and can be used to effectively treat mental health patients in the emergency room. A good number of patients with psych mental health issues are frequent visitors and repeat visitors. Case management has not been used very often as a strategy for managing patients through the ED or for follow-up after the visit. Hospitals that have developed a protocol for managing these patients outside the main patient flow have had successful results. Staff training and development on psych mental health issues have been helpful in the ED.

Implications For Case Management Practice: While there are not a large number of studies available on this topic, there is sufficient evidence to warrant further examination of this research topic. The findings in this scoping study have broader implications for research, policy, and practice. The framework of this study involved an outcomes-based approach. Clinical outcomes that positively enhance patient care and save the hospital money are necessary in the current health care environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NCM.0000000000000106DOI Listing
January 2017

Neuman Systems Model as a Conceptual Framework for Nurse Resilience.

Nurs Sci Q 2015 Jul;28(3):213-7

Assistant Professor, Capstone College of Nursing.

Due to the stressors involved in the field of nursing, resilience has been identified as an essential trait for those working in the profession. Nurses must deal with many issues that can lead to exhaustion and burnout. The Neuman Systems Model focuses on types of stressors that may cause harm to a person's health and well-being. The purposes of this article are to offer the Neuman Systems Model as a conceptual framework for exploring nurse resilience, and to describe strategies that promote resilience-building in nurses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0894318415585620DOI Listing
July 2015

Resilience of Nurses in the Face of Disaster.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2015 Dec 5;9(6):601-4. Epub 2015 Jun 5.

University of Alabama,Capstone College of Nursing,Tuscaloosa,Alabama.

Objective: On April 27, 2011, the state of Alabama encountered a horrific day of tornados that left a trail of damage throughout the state. The city of Tuscaloosa was devastated by an EF-4 that resulted in many victims and casualties. Druid City Hospital in Tuscaloosa had a massive inflow of victims with both mild and major injuries. When disasters such as this occur, nurses must respond with efficiency and effectiveness to help as many victims as possible. However, little is known about the psychological effects of disasters on nurses and how these impact nurses both personally and professionally. Because resilience can directly impact how a nurse responds to a situation, this article aimed to examine the resilience levels of nurses working during the disaster.

Methods: This study was part of a larger study examining the needs of nurses both before and after disasters. Ten nurses were interviewed and completed a 10-item survey on resilience, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). The full range of scores on this scale is from 0 to 40, with higher scores reflecting greater resilience.

Results: In this survey of 10 nurses, the scores ranged from 33 to 40, with a mean score of 36.7.

Conclusions: The nurses who were interviewed and completed the survey possessed a high level of resilience. More research should be done on the causes of increased resilience in nurses after disasters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2015.70DOI Listing
December 2015

Rho isoform-specific interaction with IQGAP1 promotes breast cancer cell proliferation and migration.

J Biol Chem 2012 Nov 19;287(45):38367-78. Epub 2012 Sep 19.

Department of Medicine and Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.

We performed a proteomics screen for Rho isoform-specific binding proteins to clarify the tumor-promoting effects of RhoA and C that contrast with the tumor-suppressive effects of RhoB. We found that the IQ-motif-containing GTPase-activating protein IQGAP1 interacts directly with GTP-bound, prenylated RhoA and RhoC, but not with RhoB. Co-immunoprecipitation of IQGAP1 with endogenous RhoA/C was enhanced when RhoA/C were activated by epidermal growth factor (EGF) or transfection of a constitutively active guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). Overexpression of IQGAP1 increased GTP-loading of RhoA/C, while siRNA-mediated depletion of IQGAP1 prevented endogenous RhoA/C activation by growth factors. IQGAP1 knockdown also reduced the amount of GTP bound to GTPase-deficient RhoA/C mutants, suggesting that IQGAP enhances Rho activation by GEF(s) or stabilizes Rho-GTP. IQGAP1 depletion in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells blocked EGF- and RhoA-induced stimulation of DNA synthesis. Infecting cells with adenovirus encoding constitutively active RhoA(L63) and measuring absolute amounts of RhoA-GTP in infected cells demonstrated that the lack of RhoA(L63)-induced DNA synthesis in IQGAP1-depleted cells was not due to reduced GTP-bound RhoA. These data suggested that IQGAP1 functions downstream of RhoA. Overexpression of IQGAP1 in MDA-MB-231 cells increased DNA synthesis irrespective of siRNA-mediated RhoA knockdown. Breast cancer cell motility was increased by expressing a constitutively-active RhoC(V14) mutant or overexpressing IQGAP1. EGF- or RhoC-induced migration required IQGAP1, but IQGAP1-stimulated migration independently of RhoC, placing IQGAP1 downstream of RhoC. We conclude that IQGAP1 acts both upstream of RhoA/C, regulating their activation state, and downstream of RhoA/C, mediating their effects on breast cancer cell proliferation and migration, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M112.377499DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3488105PMC
November 2012

Ultra-prolonged activation of CO2-sensing neurons disorients mosquitoes.

Nature 2011 Jun;474(7349):87-91

Cellular, Molecular, and Developmental Biology Program, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA.

Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) present in exhaled air is the most important sensory cue for female blood-feeding mosquitoes, causing activation of long-distance host-seeking flight, navigation towards the vertebrate host and, in the case of Aedes aegypti, increased sensitivity to skin odours. The CO(2) detection machinery is therefore an ideal target to disrupt host seeking. Here we use electrophysiological assays to identify a volatile odorant that causes an unusual, ultra-prolonged activation of CO(2)-detecting neurons in three major disease-transmitting mosquitoes: Anopheles gambiae, Culex quinquefasciatus and A. aegypti. Importantly, ultra-prolonged activation of these neurons severely compromises their ability subsequently to detect CO(2) for several minutes. We also identify odours that strongly inhibit CO(2)-sensitive neurons as candidates for use in disruption of host-seeking behaviour, as well as an odour that evokes CO(2)-like activity and thus has potential use as a lure in trapping devices. Analysis of responses to panels of structurally related odours across the three mosquitoes and Drosophila, which have related CO(2)-receptor proteins, reveals a pattern of inhibition that is often conserved. We use video tracking in wind-tunnel experiments to demonstrate that the novel ultra-prolonged activators can completely disrupt CO(2)-mediated activation as well as source-finding behaviour in Aedes mosquitoes, even after the odour is no longer present. Lastly, semi-field studies demonstrate that use of ultra-prolonged activators disrupts CO(2)-mediated hut entry behaviour of Culex mosquitoes. The three classes of CO(2)-response-modifying odours offer powerful instruments for developing new generations of insect repellents and lures, which even in small quantities can interfere with the ability of mosquitoes to seek humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3150595PMC
June 2011

Modification of CO2 avoidance behaviour in Drosophila by inhibitory odorants.

Nature 2009 Sep 26;461(7261):277-81. Epub 2009 Aug 26.

Cellular, Molecular, and Developmental Biology Program, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA.

The fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster exhibits a robust and innate olfactory-based avoidance behaviour to CO(2), a component of odour emitted from stressed flies. Specialized neurons in the antenna and a dedicated neuronal circuit in the higher olfactory system mediate CO(2) detection and avoidance. However, fruitflies need to overcome this avoidance response in some environments that contain CO(2) such as ripening fruits and fermenting yeast, which are essential food sources. Very little is known about the molecular and neuronal basis of this unique, context-dependent modification of innate olfactory avoidance behaviour. Here we identify a new class of odorants present in food that directly inhibit CO(2)-sensitive neurons in the antenna. Using an in vivo expression system we establish that the odorants act on the Gr21a/Gr63a CO(2) receptor. The presence of these odorants significantly and specifically reduces CO(2)-mediated avoidance behaviour, as well as avoidance mediated by 'Drosophila stress odour'. We propose a model in which behavioural avoidance to CO(2) is directly influenced by inhibitory interactions of the novel odours with CO(2) receptors. Furthermore, we observe differences in the temporal dynamics of inhibition: the effect of one of these odorants lasts several minutes beyond the initial exposure. Notably, animals that have been briefly pre-exposed to this odorant do not respond to the CO(2) avoidance cue even after the odorant is no longer present. We also show that related odorants are effective inhibitors of the CO(2) response in Culex mosquitoes that transmit West Nile fever and filariasis. Our findings have broader implications in highlighting the important role of inhibitory odorants in olfactory coding, and in their potential to disrupt CO(2)-mediated host-seeking behaviour in disease-carrying insects like mosquitoes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature08295DOI Listing
September 2009

Open-ended stories: extinction narratives in genome time.

Lit Med 2007 ;26(1):55-82

University of Houston-Downtown, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/lm.2008.0007DOI Listing
March 2008

Effects of lovastatin on Rho isoform expression, activity, and association with guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors.

Biochem Pharmacol 2008 Jan 1;75(2):405-13. Epub 2007 Sep 1.

Department of Medicine and Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0652, USA.

3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase (EC1.1.1.88) inhibitors (statins) reduce cholesterol synthesis and prevent cardiovascular disease; they can also inhibit prenylation of Ras and Rho proteins, and have anti-neoplastic effects. Rho proteins cycle between an active, GTP-bound, and an inactive, GDP-bound form, and Rho prenylation is important for Rho's interaction with upstream regulators and downstream effectors, but the effects of statins on Rho signaling are incompletely understood. We found that the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor lovastatin markedly induced the expression of RhoA, B, and C in human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells. The drug increased RhoA and C only in their unprenylated forms, but it increased both prenylated and unprenylated RhoB and did not significantly affect N- and K-Ras prenylation, suggesting that it inhibited geranyl-geranylation more efficiently than farnesylation. Quantitative analysis of nucleotides bound to Rho demonstrated a 3.7-fold increase in Rho-GTP and a similar increase in Rho-GDP in lovastatin-treated cells, leaving the fraction of Rho in the active, GTP-bound form constant at 5.8%. Lovastatin reduced Rho association with Rho guanine dissociation inhibitor (RhoGDI)-alpha and -beta, and prenylation-deficient Rho mutants did not associate with RhoGDI. siRNA inhibition of RhoGDIalpha expression increased Rho-GTP, suggesting that decreased Rho/RhoGDIalpha association explained an increase in unprenylated Rho-GTP in lovastatin-treated cells. Unprenylated Rho A, B, and C were partly functional in activating serum response element-dependent transcription. In conclusion, we quantified effects of lovastatin on RhoA, B, and C isoforms, and provide a molecular mechanism whereby statins cause accumulation of unprenylated Rho-GTP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2007.08.031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2228324PMC
January 2008
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