Publications by authors named "Stephanie N Hurwitz"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with FLT3 rearrangement.

Mod Pathol 2021 09 14;34(9):1673-1685. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Hematopathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms (M/LN) with 13q12/FLT3 rearrangement have been suggested as candidates for possible inclusion in the World Health Organization classification group of M/LN with eosinophilia (M/LN-eo). We report 12 patients with confirmed FLT3 rearrangement, six with t(12;13)/ETV6-FLT3; one with ins(13;22)/BCR-FLT3; and five with an unconfirmed partner gene located on chromosome bands 2p16, 3q27, 5q15, 5q35, and 7q36. Disease presentations were heterogeneous, including lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma, myeloid sarcoma, chronic eosinophilic leukemia, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome. However, some common features were observed, such as extramedullary involvement (n = 7, 58%), associated eosinophilia in blood, bone marrow, or tissue (n = 8, 67%), multilineage involvement, either as biphasic myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms (n = 2) or mixed phenotype acute leukemia (n = 2). Mutations were detected in 4/8 (50%) patients by next-generation sequencing. None (0/10) had FLT3 or KIT mutations. Eleven patients received disease-based chemotherapy or hypomethylating agents, three received FLT3 inhibitors, and five patients proceeded to hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Together with a review of 16 cases published in the literature, it is apparent that M/LNs with FLT3 rearrangement show disease features reminiscent of members in the category of M/LN-eo with PDGFRA, PDGFRB, FGFR1, and PCM1/JAK2 rearrangement, characterized by a specific gene rearrangement, frequent eosinophilia, multi-lineage involvement and therapeutic benefit from kinase inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-021-00817-7DOI Listing
September 2021

Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell signaling in the niche.

Leukemia 2020 12 19;34(12):3136-3148. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Comprehensive Bone Marrow Failure Center, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are responsible for lifelong maintenance of hematopoiesis through self-renewal and differentiation into mature blood cell lineages. Traditional models hold that HSPCs guard homeostatic function and adapt to regenerative demand by integrating cell-autonomous, intrinsic programs with extrinsic cues from the niche. Despite the biologic significance, little is known about the active roles HSPCs partake in reciprocally shaping the function of their microenvironment. Here, we review evidence of signals emerging from HSPCs through secreted autocrine or paracrine factors, including extracellular vesicles, and via direct contact within the niche. We also discuss the functional impact of direct cellular interactions between hematopoietic elements on niche occupancy in the context of leukemic infiltration. The aggregate data support a model whereby HSPCs are active participants in the dynamic adaptation of the stem cell niche unit during development and homeostasis, and under inflammatory stress, malignancy, or transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-01062-8DOI Listing
December 2020

Aplastic anemia in a patient with CVID due to NFKB1 haploinsufficiency.

Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud 2020 12 17;6(6). Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is a life-threatening bone marrow failure caused by an autoimmune cytotoxic T lymphocyte attack on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Factors contributing to aberrant autoimmune activation in AA include a deficit of T regulatory cells and high levels of inflammatory cytokines. Several acquired conditions of immune dysregulation and genetic polymorphisms in inflammatory cytokines and human leukocyte antigen genes have been linked to an increased risk of AA. However, AA has not been reported in patients with Mendelian disorders of immune regulation. Here we report a patient with familial common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) caused by a pathogenic variant in , who developed AA as an adult. The patient had a difficult clinical course and was unable to tolerate standard AA therapy with cyclosporine A and eltrombopag, with complications attributed in part to the effect of cyclosporine A on NF-κB signaling. Our case suggests a novel link between genetic disorders of immune regulation and AA and highlights the importance of recognizing inherited autoimmunity syndromes in AA patients for the selection of optimal therapy and prognostic counseling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/mcs.a005769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7784489PMC
December 2020

Alix and Syntenin-1 direct amyloid precursor protein trafficking into extracellular vesicles.

BMC Mol Cell Biol 2020 Jul 30;21(1):58. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Florida State University College of Medicine, 1115 West Call Street, Tallahassee, FL, 32306-4300, USA.

Background: Endosomal trafficking and amyloidogenic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) is believed to play a role in the neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent evidence has suggested that packaging and secretion of APP and its amyloidogenic cleaved products into small extracellular vesicles (EVs) may facilitate uptake of these neurotoxic factors during disease progression. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying trafficking of APP into EVs are poorly understood.

Results: In this study, the mechanism and impact of APP trafficking into extracellular vesicles (EVs) were assessed by a series of inducible gene knockdowns. We demonstrate that vesicle-associated proteins Alix and Syntenin-1 are essential for proper subcellular localization and efficient EV secretion of APP via an endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT)-independent pathway. The neurotoxic C-terminal fragment (CTFβ) of APP is similarly secreted in association with small vesicles. These mechanisms are conserved in terminally differentiated neuron-like cells. Furthermore, knockdown of Alix and Syntenin-1 alters the subcellular localization of APP, sequestering the precursor protein to endoplasmic reticulum and endolysosomal compartments, respectively. Finally, transfer of small EVs containing mutant APP confers an increase in reactive oxygen species production and neurotoxicity to human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cortical neurons and naïve primary neurons, an effect that is ameliorated by Alix and Syntenin-1 depletion.

Conclusions: Altogether these findings elucidate a novel mechanism for understanding the intracellular trafficking of APP and CTFβ into secreted extracellular vesicles, and the resultant potential impact on neurotoxicity in the context of Alzheimer's disease amyloidopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12860-020-00302-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7392838PMC
July 2020

Mutational Analysis Reinforces the Diagnosis of Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma With Robust PD1-positive T-Cell Hyperplasia.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 01;45(1):143-145

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001515DOI Listing
January 2021

A 2020 Vision Into Hodgkin Lymphoma Biology.

Adv Anat Pathol 2020 Sep;27(5):269-277

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Hodgkin lymphomas (HLs) are lymphoid neoplasms uniquely characterized by a paucity of neoplastic cells embedded in a supportive heterogenous cellular microenvironment. Although first described in the 19th century, systematic biological understanding of HLs has been hindered due to the challenges presented in studying the complex tumor microenvironment and scarce tumorigenic cells. Recent advances in single-cell isolation and characterization, sensitive mutational analytic tools, and multiplex immunohistochemical strategies have allowed further advances in understanding the development and progression of HL. Here we provide a current update on the chromosomal and mutational abnormalities seen in HL, the impact of Epstein-Barr virus infection on driving a subset of HLs, and the possibility of disease monitoring via high-sensitivity detection of genetic aberrations. We also discuss recent developments in understanding the intricate microenvironment through intercellular cross-talk, and describe novel potential biomarkers to aid in distinction of HL from other overlapping entities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAP.0000000000000270DOI Listing
September 2020

Extracellular Vesicle Integrins Distinguish Unique Cancers.

Proteomes 2019 Apr 11;7(2). Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Florida State University College of Medicine, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA.

The proteomic profile of extracellular vesicles (EVs) has been of increasing interest, particularly in understanding cancer growth, drug resistance, and metastatic behavior. Emerging data suggest that cancer-derived EVs carry an array of oncogenic cargo, including certain integrin proteins that may, in turn, promote cell detachment, migration, and selection of future metastatic sites. We previously reported a large comparison of secreted vesicle protein cargo across sixty diverse human cancer cell lines. Here, we analyze the distinct integrin profiles of these cancer EVs. We further demonstrate the enrichment of integrin receptors in cancer EVs compared to vesicles secreted from benign epithelial cells. The total EV integrin levels, including the quantity of integrins α6, αv, and β1 correlate with tumor stage across a variety of epithelial cancer cells. In particular, integrin α6 also largely reflects breast and ovarian progenitor cell expression, highlighting the utility of this integrin protein as a potential circulating biomarker of certain primary tumors. This study provides preliminary evidence of the value of vesicle-associated integrin proteins in detecting the presence of cancer cells and prediction of tumor stage. Differential expression of integrins across cancer cells and selective packaging of integrins into EVs may contribute to further understanding the development and progression of tumor growth and metastasis across a variety of cancer types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/proteomes7020014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6630702PMC
April 2019

Extraction of Extracellular Vesicles from Whole Tissue.

J Vis Exp 2019 02 7(144). Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Florida State University College of Medicine;

Circulating and interstitial small membrane-bound extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent promising targets for the development of novel diagnostic or prognostic biomarker assays, and likely serve as important players in the progression of a vast spectrum of diseases. Current research is focused on the characterization of vesicles secreted from multiple cell and tissue types in order to better understand the role of EVs in the pathogenesis of conditions including neurodegeneration, inflammation, and cancer. However, globally consistent and reproducible techniques to isolate and purify vesicles remain in progress. Moreover, methods for extraction of EVs from solid tissue ex vivo are scarcely described. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for extracting small EVs of interest from whole fresh or frozen tissues, including brain and tumor specimens, for further characterization. We demonstrate the adaptability of this method for multiple downstream analyses, including electron microscopy and immunophenotypic characterization of vesicles, as well as quantitative mass spectrometry of EV proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/59143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7098067PMC
February 2019

Transmembrane Domains Mediate Intra- and Extracellular Trafficking of Epstein-Barr Virus Latent Membrane Protein 1.

J Virol 2018 09 16;92(17). Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Florida State University College of Medicine, Tallahassee, Florida, USA

EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is released from latently infected tumor cells in small membrane-enclosed extracellular vesicles (EVs). Accumulating evidence suggests that LMP1 is a major driver of EV content and functions. LMP1-modified EVs have been shown to influence recipient cell growth, migration, differentiation, and regulation of immune cell function. Despite the significance of LMP1-modified exosomes, very little is known about how this viral protein enters or manipulates the host EV pathway. In this study, LMP1 deletion mutants were generated to assess protein regions required for EV trafficking. Following transfection of LMP1 or mutant plasmids, EVs were collected by differential centrifugation, and the levels of specific cargo were evaluated by immunoblot analysis. The results demonstrate that, together, the N terminus and transmembrane region 1 of LMP1 are sufficient for efficient sorting into EVs. Consistent with these findings, a mutant lacking the N terminus and transmembrane domains 1 through 4 (TM5-6) failed to be packaged into EVs, and exhibited higher colocalization with endoplasmic reticulum and early endosome markers than the wild-type protein. Surprisingly, TM5-6 maintained the ability to colocalize and form a complex with CD63, an abundant exosome protein that is important for the incorporation of LMP1 into EVs. Other mutations within LMP1 resulted in enhanced levels of secretion, pointing to potential positive and negative regulatory mechanisms for extracellular vesicle sorting of LMP1. These data suggest new functions of the N terminus and transmembrane domains in LMP1 intra- and extracellular trafficking that are likely downstream of an interaction with CD63. EBV infection contributes to the development of cancers, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, and posttransplant lymphomas, in immunocompromised or genetically susceptible individuals. LMP1 is an important viral protein expressed by EBV in these cancers. LMP1 is secreted in extracellular vesicles (EVs), and the transfer of LMP1-modified EVs to uninfected cells can alter their physiology. Understanding the cellular machinery responsible for sorting LMP1 into EVs is limited, despite the importance of LMP1-modified EVs. Here, we illustrate the roles of different regions of LMP1 in EV packaging. Our results show that the N terminus and TM1 are sufficient to drive LMP1 EV trafficking. We further show the existence of potential positive and negative regulatory mechanisms for LMP1 vesicle sorting. These findings provide a better basis for future investigations to identify the mechanisms of LMP1 targeting to EVs, which could have broad implications in understanding EV cargo sorting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00280-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6096814PMC
September 2018

An optimized method for enrichment of whole brain-derived extracellular vesicles reveals insight into neurodegenerative processes in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

J Neurosci Methods 2018 09 9;307:210-220. Epub 2018 Jun 9.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Florida State University College of Medicine, Tallahassee, FL, 32306, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major cause of dementia that has increased dramatically in prevalence over the past several decades. Yet many questions still surround the etiology of AD. Recently, extracellular vesicles (EVs) that transport protein, lipid, and nucleic acids from cell to cell have been implicated in the clearance and propagation of misfolded proteins. Investigation of EVs in AD progression, and their potential diagnostic utility may contribute to understanding and treating AD. However, the challenges of isolating brain-derived EVs have in part hindered these studies.

New Method: Here, we provide an optimized method for the enrichment of brain-derived EVs by iodixanol floatation density gradient for mass spectrometry analysis.

Results: We demonstrate the isolation of these vesicles and the enrichment of EV proteins compared to sedimentation gradient isolation of vesicles. Moreover, comparative proteomic analysis of brain-derived EVs from healthy and AD mouse brains revealed differences in vesicular content including proteins involved in aging, immune response, and oxidation-reduction maintenance. These changes provide insight into AD-associated neurodegeneration and potential biomarkers of AD. Comparison with existing methods: Recent techniques have used sedimentation sucrose gradients to isolate EVs from brain tissue. However, here we demonstrate the advantages of floatation iodixanol density gradient isolation of small EVs, and provide evidence of EV enrichment by electron microscopy, immunoblot analysis, and quantitative mass spectrometry.

Conclusions: Together these findings offer a rigorous technique for enriching whole tissue-derived EVs for downstream analyses, and application of this approach to uncovering molecular changes in AD progression and other neurological conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2018.05.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7052957PMC
September 2018

The interactome of EBV LMP1 evaluated by proximity-based BioID approach.

Virology 2018 03 9;516:55-70. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Florida State University College of Medicine, Tallahassee, FL 32306, United States. Electronic address:

Epstein-Barr virus LMP1 is an oncoprotein required for immortalizing B lymphocytes and also plays important roles in transforming non-lymphoid tissue. The discovery of LMP1 protein interactions will likely generate targets to treat EBV-associated cancers. Here, we define the broader LMP1 interactome using the recently developed BioID method. Combined with mass spectrometry, we identified over 1000 proteins across seven independent experiments with direct or indirect relationships to LMP1. Pathway analysis suggests that a significant number of the proteins identified are involved in signal transduction and protein or vesicle trafficking. Interestingly, a large number of proteins thought to be important in the formation of exosomes and protein targeting were recognized as probable LMP1 interacting partners, including CD63, syntenin-1, ALIX, TSG101, HRS, CHMPs, and sorting nexins. Therefore, it is likely that LMP1 modifies protein trafficking and exosome biogenesis pathways. In support of this, knock-down of syntenin-1 and ALIX resulted in reduced exosomal LMP1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2017.12.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5826876PMC
March 2018

Tetraspanin CD63 Bridges Autophagic and Endosomal Processes To Regulate Exosomal Secretion and Intracellular Signaling of Epstein-Barr Virus LMP1

J Virol 2018 03 12;92(5). Epub 2018 Feb 12.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Florida State University College of Medicine, Tallahassee, Florida, USA

The tetraspanin protein CD63 has been recently described as a key factor in extracellular vesicle (EV) production and endosomal cargo sorting. In the context of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, CD63 is required for the efficient packaging of the major viral oncoprotein latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) into exosomes and other EV populations and acts as a negative regulator of LMP1 intracellular signaling. Accumulating evidence has also pointed to intersections of the endosomal and autophagy pathways in maintaining cellular secretory processes and as sites for viral assembly and replication. Indeed, LMP1 can activate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway to suppress host cell autophagy and facilitate cell growth and proliferation. Despite the growing recognition of cross talk between endosomes and autophagosomes and its relevance to viral infection, little is understood about the molecular mechanisms governing endosomal and autophagy convergence. Here, we demonstrate that CD63-dependent vesicle protein secretion directly opposes intracellular signaling activation downstream of LMP1, including mTOR-associated proteins. Conversely, disruption of normal autolysosomal processes increases LMP1 secretion and dampens signal transduction by the viral protein. Increases in mTOR activation following CD63 knockout are coincident with the development of serum-dependent autophagic vacuoles that are acidified in the presence of high LMP1 levels. Altogether, these findings suggest a key role of CD63 in regulating the interactions between endosomal and autophagy processes and limiting cellular signaling activity in both noninfected and virally infected cells. The close connection between extracellular vesicles and viruses is becoming rapidly and more widely appreciated. EBV, a human gamma herpesvirus that contributes to the progression of a multitude of lymphomas and carcinomas in immunocompromised or genetically susceptible populations, packages its major oncoprotein, LMP1, into vesicles for secretion. We have recently described a role of the host cell protein CD63 in regulating intracellular signaling of the viral oncoprotein by shuttling LMP1 into exosomes. Here, we provide strong evidence of the utility of CD63-dependent EVs in regulating global intracellular signaling, including mTOR activation by LMP1. We also demonstrate a key role of CD63 in coordinating endosomal and autophagic processes to regulate LMP1 levels within the cell. Overall, this study offers new insights into the complex intersection of cellular secretory and degradative mechanisms and the implications of these processes in viral replication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01969-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5809724PMC
March 2018

Erratum to: An Adaptable Polyethylene Glycol-Based Workflow for Proteomic Analysis of Extracellular Vesicles.

Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1660:E1

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Florida State University College of Medicine, 1115 West Call Street, Tallahassee, FL, 32306, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-7253-1_36DOI Listing
January 2017

An Adaptable Polyethylene Glycol-Based Workflow for Proteomic Analysis of Extracellular Vesicles.

Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1660:303-317

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Florida State University College of Medicine, 1115 West Call Street, Tallahassee, FL, 32306, USA.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes are endocytically derived nanovesicles expelled from cells that contain molecular information in the form of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Transfer of this information to other cells in local or distant microenvironments facilitates cell-to-cell communication. Importantly, diseased cells release exosomes containing specific cargo that may contribute to pathology and can be harnessed for diagnostic or prognostic use. The broad potential medical utility of exosomes has fueled rapidly expanding research on understanding the composition and functions of exosomes in normal and pathological conditions. Here, we provide a complete workflow for purifying exosome-sized vesicles from biological fluids for in-depth proteomic analyses. Moreover, this polyethylene glycol-based method is efficient, highly adaptable, and compatible with a variety of downstream applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-7253-1_25DOI Listing
May 2018

CD63 Regulates Epstein-Barr Virus LMP1 Exosomal Packaging, Enhancement of Vesicle Production, and Noncanonical NF-κB Signaling.

J Virol 2017 03 14;91(5). Epub 2017 Feb 14.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Florida State University College of Medicine, Tallahassee, Florida, USA

Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded oncoprotein that is packaged into small extracellular vesicles (EVs) called exosomes. Trafficking of LMP1 into multivesicular bodies (MVBs) alters the content and function of exosomes. LMP1-modified exosomes enhance the growth, migration, and invasion of malignant cells, demonstrating the capacity to manipulate the tumor microenvironment and enhance the progression of EBV-associated cancers. Despite the growing evidence surrounding the significance of LMP1-modified exosomes in cancer, very little is understood about the mechanisms that orchestrate LMP1 incorporation into these vesicles. Recently, LMP1 was shown to be copurified with CD63, a conserved tetraspanin protein enriched in late endosomal and lysosomal compartments. Here, we demonstrate the importance of CD63 presence for exosomal packaging of LMP1. Nanoparticle tracking analysis and gradient purification revealed an increase in extracellular vesicle secretion and exosomal proteins following LMP1 expression. Immunoisolation of CD63-positive exosomes exhibited accumulation of LMP1 in this vesicle population. Functionally, CRISPR/Cas9 knockout of CD63 resulted in a reduction of LMP1-induced particle secretion. Furthermore, LMP1 packaging was severely impaired in CD63 knockout cells, concomitant with a disruption in the perinuclear localization of LMP1. Importantly, LMP1 trafficking to lipid rafts and activation of NF-κB and PI3K/Akt pathways remained intact following CD63 knockout, while mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) and noncanonical NF-κB activation were observed to be increased. These results suggest that CD63 is a critical player in LMP1 exosomal trafficking and LMP1-mediated enhancement of exosome production and may play further roles in limiting downstream LMP1 signaling. EBV is a ubiquitous gamma herpesvirus linked to malignancies such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, and Hodgkin's lymphoma. In the context of cancer, EBV hijacks the exosomal pathway to modulate cell-to-cell signaling by secreting viral components such as an oncoprotein, LMP1, into host cell membrane-bound EVs. Trafficking of LMP1 into exosomes is associated with increased oncogenicity of these secreted vesicles. However, we have only a limited understanding of the mechanisms surrounding exosomal cargo packaging, including viral proteins. Here, we describe a role of LMP1 in EV production that requires CD63 and provide an extensive demonstration of CD63-mediated exosomal LMP1 release that is distinct from lipid raft trafficking. Finally, we present further evidence of the role of CD63 in limiting LMP1-induced noncanonical NF-κB and ERK activation. Our findings have implications for future investigations of physiological and pathological mechanisms of exosome biogenesis, protein trafficking, and signal transduction, especially in viral-associated tumorigenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02251-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5309960PMC
March 2017

Proteomic profiling of NCI-60 extracellular vesicles uncovers common protein cargo and cancer type-specific biomarkers.

Oncotarget 2016 Dec;7(52):86999-87015

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Florida State University College of Medicine, Tallahassee, FL, 32306, USA.

Packed with biological information, extracellular vesicles (EVs) offer exciting promise for biomarker discovery and applications in therapeutics and non-invasive diagnostics. Currently, our understanding of EV contents is confined by the limited cells from which vesicles have been characterized utilizing the same enrichment method. Using sixty cell lines from the National Cancer Institute (NCI-60), here we provide the largest proteomic profile of EVs in a single study, identifying 6,071 proteins with 213 common to all isolates. Proteins included established EV markers, and vesicular trafficking proteins such as Rab GTPases and tetraspanins. Differentially-expressed proteins offer potential for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Network analysis of vesicle quantity and proteomes identified EV components associated with vesicle secretion, including CD81, CD63, syntenin-1, VAMP3, Rab GTPases, and integrins. Integration of vesicle proteomes with whole-cell molecular profiles revealed similarities, suggesting EVs provide a reliable reflection of their progenitor cell content, and are therefore excellent indicators of disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.13569DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5341331PMC
December 2016

Nanoparticle analysis sheds budding insights into genetic drivers of extracellular vesicle biogenesis.

J Extracell Vesicles 2016 13;5:31295. Epub 2016 Jul 13.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Florida State University College of Medicine, Tallahassee, FL, USA;

Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important mediators of cell-to-cell communication in healthy and pathological environments. Because EVs are present in a variety of biological fluids and contain molecular signatures of their cell or tissue of origin, they have great diagnostic and prognostic value. The ability of EVs to deliver biologically active proteins, RNAs and lipids to cells has generated interest in developing novel therapeutics. Despite their potential medical use, many of the mechanisms underlying EV biogenesis and secretion remain unknown.

Methods: Here, we characterized vesicle secretion across the NCI-60 panel of human cancer cells by nanoparticle tracking analysis. Using CellMiner, the quantity of EVs secreted by each cell line was compared to reference transcriptomics data to identify gene products associated with vesicle secretion.

Results: Gene products positively associated with the quantity of exosomal-sized vesicles included vesicular trafficking classes of proteins with Rab GTPase function and sphingolipid metabolism. Positive correlates of larger microvesicle-sized vesicle secretion included gene products involved in cytoskeletal dynamics and exocytosis, as well as Rab GTPase activation. One of the identified targets, CD63, was further evaluated for its role in vesicle secretion. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 knockout of the CD63 gene in HEK293 cells resulted in a decrease in small vesicle secretion, suggesting the importance of CD63 in exosome biogenesis.

Conclusion: These observations reveal new insights into genes involved in exosome and microvesicle formation, and may provide a means to distinguish EV sub-populations. This study offers a foundation for further exploration of targets involved in EV biogenesis and secretion.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4947197PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/jev.v5.31295DOI Listing
July 2016

ExtraPEG: A Polyethylene Glycol-Based Method for Enrichment of Extracellular Vesicles.

Sci Rep 2016 Apr 12;6:23978. Epub 2016 Apr 12.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Florida State University College of Medicine, Tallahassee, 32306, FL, USA.

Initially thought to be a means for cells to eliminate waste, secreted extracellular vesicles, known as exosomes, are now understood to mediate numerous healthy and pathological processes. Though abundant in biological fluids, purifying exosomes has been challenging because their biophysical properties overlap with other secreted cell products. Easy-to-use commercial kits for harvesting exosomes are now widely used, but the relative low-purity and high-cost of the preparations restricts their utility. Here we describe a method for purifying exosomes and other extracellular vesicles by adapting methods for isolating viruses using polyethylene glycol. This technique, called ExtraPEG, enriches exosomes from large volumes of media rapidly and inexpensively using low-speed centrifugation, followed by a single small-volume ultracentrifugation purification step. Total protein and RNA harvested from vesicles is sufficient in quantity and quality for proteomics and sequencing analyses, demonstrating the utility of this method for biomarker discovery and diagnostics. Additionally, confocal microscopy studies suggest that the biological activity of vesicles is not impaired. The ExtraPEG method can be easily adapted to enrich for different vesicle populations, or as an efficient precursor to subsequent purification techniques, providing a means to harvest exosomes from many different biological fluids and for a wide variety of purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep23978DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4828635PMC
April 2016
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