Publications by authors named "Stephanie J Weinstein"

210 Publications

Epidemiology of 40 blood biomarkers of one-carbon metabolism, vitamin status, inflammation, and renal and endothelial function among cancer-free older adults.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 5;11(1):13805. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Duke - NUS Medical School, Singapore, Singapore.

Imbalances of blood biomarkers are associated with disease, and biomarkers may also vary non-pathologically across population groups. We described variation in concentrations of biomarkers of one-carbon metabolism, vitamin status, inflammation including tryptophan metabolism, and endothelial and renal function among cancer-free older adults. We analyzed 5167 cancer-free controls aged 40-80 years from 20 cohorts in the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3). Centralized biochemical analyses of 40 biomarkers in plasma or serum were performed. We fit multivariable linear mixed effects models to quantify variation in standardized biomarker log-concentrations across four factors: age, sex, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI). Differences in most biomarkers across most factors were small, with 93% (186/200) of analyses showing an estimated difference lower than 0.25 standard-deviations, although most were statistically significant due to large sample size. The largest difference was for creatinine by sex, which was - 0.91 standard-deviations lower in women than men (95%CI - 0.98; - 0.84). The largest difference by age was for total cysteine (0.40 standard-deviation increase per 10-year increase, 95%CI 0.36; 0.43), and by BMI was for C-reactive protein (0.38 standard-deviation increase per 5-kg/m increase, 95%CI 0.34; 0.41). For 31 of 40 markers, the mean difference between current and never smokers was larger than between former and never smokers. A statistically significant (p < 0.05) association with time since smoking cessation was observed for 8 markers, including C-reactive protein, kynurenine, choline, and total homocysteine. We conclude that most blood biomarkers show small variations across demographic characteristics. Patterns by smoking status point to normalization of multiple physiological processes after smoking cessation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-93214-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257595PMC
July 2021

A population-based investigation of the association between alcohol intake and serum total ghrelin concentrations among cigarette-smoking, non-alcohol-dependent male individuals.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 Jun 24;226:108835. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Clinical Psychoneuroendocrinology and Neuropsychopharmacology Section, Translational Addiction Medicine Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse Intramural Research Program and National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Division of Intramural Clinical and Biological Research, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore and Bethesda, MD, United States; Medication Development Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, United States; Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies, Department of Behavioral and Social Sciences, School of Public Health, Brown University, Providence, RI, United States; Division of Addiction Medicine, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States; Department of Neuroscience, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington DC, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Ghrelin plays significant roles in regulating appetite, food intake, and metabolism. Furthermore, the ghrelin system is increasingly being studied in relation to alcohol seeking behaviors. To this end, it is important to understand the possible effects of alcohol intake on the ghrelin system. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between alcohol drinking and circulating ghrelin levels in a large sample of cigarette-smoking, non-alcohol-dependent male individuals.

Methods: We utilized data from two nested case-control studies (study A, n = 807; study B, n = 976) based within the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) trial. Data on alcohol consumption (grams of pure alcohol consumed per day) were obtained via a food frequency questionnaire. Blood samples were also collected (after 12 h of fasting), and serum concentrations of total ghrelin were measured by radioimmunoassay.

Results: Dichotomous comparison between alcohol drinkers (>0 g/day of alcohol intake) and non-drinkers (0 g/day of alcohol intake) found higher total ghrelin levels among individuals who drank alcohol than those who did not, with statistically significant results in study A [F (1, 798) = 4.32, P = 0.03] and less robust results in study B [F (1, 966) = 2.62, P = 0.10], controlling for a list of factors that may influence ghrelin levels and/or differ between drinkers and non-drinkers. Bivariate correlational analysis among drinkers found no association between the quantity of daily alcohol intake and blood total ghrelin concentrations.

Conclusion: These results indicate elevated ghrelin levels among alcohol drinkers and provide additional/relevant information on the complex interaction between alcohol use and the ghrelin system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2021.108835DOI Listing
June 2021

Novel Biomarkers of Habitual Alcohol Intake and Associations with Risk of Pancreatic and Liver Cancers and Liver Disease Mortality.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Division of Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Alcohol is an established risk factor for several cancers, but modest alcohol-cancer associations may be missed due to measurement error in self-reported assessments. Biomarkers of habitual alcohol intake may provide novel insight into the relationship between alcohol and cancer risk.

Methods: Untargeted metabolomics was used to identify metabolites correlated with self-reported habitual alcohol intake in a discovery dataset from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC; n = 454). Statistically significant correlations were tested in independent datasets of controls from case-control studies nested within EPIC (n = 280) and the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC; n = 438) study. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations of alcohol-associated metabolites and self-reported alcohol intake with risk of pancreatic cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver cancer, and liver disease mortality in the contributing studies.

Results: Two metabolites displayed a dose-response association with self-reported alcohol intake 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid and an unidentified compound. A 1-SD (log2) increase in levels of 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid was associated with risk of HCC (OR = 2.54; 95% CI = 1.51-4.27) and pancreatic cancer (OR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.03-1.99) in EPIC and liver cancer (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.44-2.77) and liver disease mortality (OR = 2.16; 95% CI = 1.63-2.86) in ATBC. Conversely, a 1-SD (log2) increase in questionnaire-derived alcohol intake was not associated with HCC or pancreatic cancer in EPIC or liver cancer in ATBC but was associated with liver disease mortality (OR = 2.19; 95% CI = 1.60-2.98) in ATBC.

Conclusions: 2-Hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid is a candidate biomarker of habitual alcohol intake that may advance the study of alcohol and cancer risk in population-based studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab078DOI Listing
May 2021

Genetic architectures of proximal and distal colorectal cancer are partly distinct.

Gut 2021 Jul 25;70(7):1325-1334. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology - IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: An understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of colorectal cancer (CRC) is critical for improving precision prevention, including individualized screening recommendations and the discovery of novel drug targets and repurposable drug candidates for chemoprevention. Known differences in molecular characteristics and environmental risk factors among tumors arising in different locations of the colorectum suggest partly distinct mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The extent to which the contribution of inherited genetic risk factors for CRC differs by anatomical subsite of the primary tumor has not been examined.

Design: To identify new anatomical subsite-specific risk loci, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses including data of 48 214 CRC cases and 64 159 controls of European ancestry. We characterised effect heterogeneity at CRC risk loci using multinomial modelling.

Results: We identified 13 loci that reached genome-wide significance (p<5×10) and that were not reported by previous GWASs for overall CRC risk. Multiple lines of evidence support candidate genes at several of these loci. We detected substantial heterogeneity between anatomical subsites. Just over half (61) of 109 known and new risk variants showed no evidence for heterogeneity. In contrast, 22 variants showed association with distal CRC (including rectal cancer), but no evidence for association or an attenuated association with proximal CRC. For two loci, there was strong evidence for effects confined to proximal colon cancer.

Conclusion: Genetic architectures of proximal and distal CRC are partly distinct. Studies of risk factors and mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and precision prevention strategies should take into consideration the anatomical subsite of the tumour.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-321534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223655PMC
July 2021

Trans-ancestry genome-wide association meta-analysis of prostate cancer identifies new susceptibility loci and informs genetic risk prediction.

Nat Genet 2021 01 4;53(1):65-75. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Cancer Epidemiology Division, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Prostate cancer is a highly heritable disease with large disparities in incidence rates across ancestry populations. We conducted a multiancestry meta-analysis of prostate cancer genome-wide association studies (107,247 cases and 127,006 controls) and identified 86 new genetic risk variants independently associated with prostate cancer risk, bringing the total to 269 known risk variants. The top genetic risk score (GRS) decile was associated with odds ratios that ranged from 5.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.84-5.29) for men of European ancestry to 3.74 (95% CI, 3.36-4.17) for men of African ancestry. Men of African ancestry were estimated to have a mean GRS that was 2.18-times higher (95% CI, 2.14-2.22), and men of East Asian ancestry 0.73-times lower (95% CI, 0.71-0.76), than men of European ancestry. These findings support the role of germline variation contributing to population differences in prostate cancer risk, with the GRS offering an approach for personalized risk prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-00748-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8148035PMC
January 2021

A Combined Proteomics and Mendelian Randomization Approach to Investigate the Effects of Aspirin-Targeted Proteins on Colorectal Cancer.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Mar 14;30(3):564-575. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Nutrition and Metabolism Section, International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization, Lyon, France.

Background: Evidence for aspirin's chemopreventative properties on colorectal cancer (CRC) is substantial, but its mechanism of action is not well-understood. We combined a proteomic approach with Mendelian randomization (MR) to identify possible new aspirin targets that decrease CRC risk.

Methods: Human colorectal adenoma cells (RG/C2) were treated with aspirin (24 hours) and a stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) based proteomics approach identified altered protein expression. Protein quantitative trait loci (pQTLs) from INTERVAL ( = 3,301) and expression QTLs (eQTLs) from the eQTLGen Consortium ( = 31,684) were used as genetic proxies for protein and mRNA expression levels. Two-sample MR of mRNA/protein expression on CRC risk was performed using eQTL/pQTL data combined with CRC genetic summary data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT), Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (GECCO) consortia and UK Biobank (55,168 cases and 65,160 controls).

Results: Altered expression was detected for 125/5886 proteins. Of these, aspirin decreased MCM6, RRM2, and ARFIP2 expression, and MR analysis showed that a standard deviation increase in mRNA/protein expression was associated with increased CRC risk (OR: 1.08, 95% CI, 1.03-1.13; OR: 3.33, 95% CI, 2.46-4.50; and OR: 1.15, 95% CI, 1.02-1.29, respectively).

Conclusions: MCM6 and RRM2 are involved in DNA repair whereby reduced expression may lead to increased DNA aberrations and ultimately cancer cell death, whereas ARFIP2 is involved in actin cytoskeletal regulation, indicating a possible role in aspirin's reduction of metastasis.

Impact: Our approach has shown how laboratory experiments and population-based approaches can combine to identify aspirin-targeted proteins possibly affecting CRC risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8086774PMC
March 2021

Recommended Definitions of Aggressive Prostate Cancer for Etiologic Epidemiologic Research.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Jun;113(6):727-734

Behavioral and Epidemiology Research Group, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: In the era of widespread prostate-specific antigen testing, it is important to focus etiologic research on the outcome of aggressive prostate cancer, but studies have defined this outcome differently. We aimed to develop an evidence-based consensus definition of aggressive prostate cancer using clinical features at diagnosis for etiologic epidemiologic research.

Methods: Among prostate cancer cases diagnosed in 2007 in the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-18 database with follow-up through 2017, we compared the performance of categorizations of aggressive prostate cancer in discriminating fatal prostate cancer within 10 years of diagnosis, placing the most emphasis on sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV).

Results: In our case population (n = 55 900), 3073 men died of prostate cancer within 10 years. Among 12 definitions that included TNM staging and Gleason score, sensitivities ranged from 0.64 to 0.89 and PPVs ranged from 0.09 to 0.23. We propose defining aggressive prostate cancer as diagnosis of category T4 or N1 or M1 or Gleason score of 8 or greater prostate cancer, because this definition had one of the higher PPVs (0.23, 95% confidence interval = 0.22 to 0.24) and reasonable sensitivity (0.66, 95% confidence interval = 0.64 to 0.67) for prostate cancer death within 10 years. Results were similar across sensitivity analyses.

Conclusions: We recommend that etiologic epidemiologic studies of prostate cancer report results for this definition of aggressive prostate cancer. We also recommend that studies separately report results for advanced category (T4 or N1 or M1), high-grade (Gleason score ≥8), and fatal prostate cancer. Use of this comprehensive set of endpoints will facilitate comparison of results from different studies and help elucidate prostate cancer etiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8248961PMC
June 2021

Circulating bilirubin levels and risk of colorectal cancer: serological and Mendelian randomization analyses.

BMC Med 2020 09 3;18(1):229. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Public Health Directorate, Asturias, Spain.

Background: Bilirubin, a byproduct of hemoglobin breakdown and purported anti-oxidant, is thought to be cancer preventive. We conducted complementary serological and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to investigate whether alterations in circulating levels of bilirubin are associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We decided a priori to perform analyses separately in men and women based on suggestive evidence that associations may differ by sex.

Methods: In a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), pre-diagnostic unconjugated bilirubin (UCB, the main component of total bilirubin) concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in plasma samples of 1386 CRC cases and their individually matched controls. Additionally, 115 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) robustly associated (P < 5 × 10) with circulating total bilirubin were instrumented in a 2-sample MR to test for a potential causal effect of bilirubin on CRC risk in 52,775 CRC cases and 45,940 matched controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), and the Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT) study.

Results: The associations between circulating UCB levels and CRC risk differed by sex (P = 0.008). Among men, higher levels of UCB were positively associated with CRC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.36; per 1-SD increment of log-UCB). In women, an inverse association was observed (OR = 0.86 (0.76-0.97)). In the MR analysis of the main UGT1A1 SNP (rs6431625), genetically predicted higher levels of total bilirubin were associated with a 7% increase in CRC risk in men (OR = 1.07 (1.02-1.12); P = 0.006; per 1-SD increment of total bilirubin), while there was no association in women (OR = 1.01 (0.96-1.06); P = 0.73). Raised bilirubin levels, predicted by instrumental variables excluding rs6431625, were suggestive of an inverse association with CRC in men, but not in women. These differences by sex did not reach formal statistical significance (P ≥ 0.2).

Conclusions: Additional insight into the relationship between circulating bilirubin and CRC is needed in order to conclude on a potential causal role of bilirubin in CRC development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01703-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7469292PMC
September 2020

Germline Sequencing DNA Repair Genes in 5545 Men With Aggressive and Nonaggressive Prostate Cancer.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 May;113(5):616-625

Center for Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: There is an urgent need to identify factors specifically associated with aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) risk. We investigated whether rare pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or deleterious (P/LP/D) germline variants in DNA repair genes are associated with aggressive PCa risk in a case-case study of aggressive vs nonaggressive disease.

Methods: Participants were 5545 European-ancestry men, including 2775 nonaggressive and 2770 aggressive PCa cases, which included 467 metastatic cases (16.9%). Samples were assembled from 12 international studies and germline sequenced together. Rare (minor allele frequency < 0.01) P/LP/D variants were analyzed for 155 DNA repair genes. We compared single variant, gene-based, and DNA repair pathway-based burdens by disease aggressiveness. All statistical tests are 2-sided.

Results: BRCA2 and PALB2 had the most statistically significant gene-based associations, with 2.5% of aggressive and 0.8% of nonaggressive cases carrying P/LP/D BRCA2 alleles (odds ratio [OR] = 3.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.94 to 5.25, P = 8.58 × 10-7) and 0.65% of aggressive and 0.11% of nonaggressive cases carrying P/LP/D PALB2 alleles (OR = 6.31, 95% CI = 1.83 to 21.68, P = 4.79 × 10-4). ATM had a nominal association, with 1.6% of aggressive and 0.8% of nonaggressive cases carrying P/LP/D ATM alleles (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.10 to 3.22, P = .02). In aggregate, P/LP/D alleles within 24 literature-curated candidate PCa DNA repair genes were more common in aggressive than nonaggressive cases (carrier frequencies = 14.2% vs 10.6%, respectively; P = 5.56 × 10-5). However, this difference was non-statistically significant (P = .18) on excluding BRCA2, PALB2, and ATM. Among these 24 genes, P/LP/D carriers had a 1.06-year younger diagnosis age (95% CI = -1.65 to 0.48, P = 3.71 × 10-4).

Conclusions: Risk conveyed by DNA repair genes is largely driven by rare P/LP/D alleles within BRCA2, PALB2, and ATM. These findings support the importance of these genes in both screening and disease management considerations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa132DOI Listing
May 2021

Association Between Plant and Animal Protein Intake and Overall and Cause-Specific Mortality.

JAMA Intern Med 2020 09;180(9):1173-1184

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland.

Importance: Although emphasis has recently been placed on the importance of high-protein diets to overall health, a comprehensive analysis of long-term cause-specific mortality in association with the intake of plant protein and animal protein has not been reported.

Objective: To examine the associations between overall mortality and cause-specific mortality and plant protein intake.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This prospective cohort study analyzed data from 416 104 men and women in the US National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study from 1995 to 2011. Data were analyzed from October 2018 through April 2020.

Exposures: Validated baseline food frequency questionnaire dietary information, including intake of plant protein and animal protein.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Hazard ratios and 16-year absolute risk differences for overall mortality and cause-specific mortality.

Results: The final analytic cohort included 237 036 men (57%) and 179 068 women. Their overall median (SD) ages were 62.2 (5.4) years for men and 62.0 (5.4) years for women. Based on 6 009 748 person-years of observation, 77 614 deaths (18.7%; 49 297 men and 28 317 women) were analyzed. Adjusting for several important clinical and other risk factors, greater dietary plant protein intake was associated with reduced overall mortality in both sexes (hazard ratio per 1 SD was 0.95 [95% CI, 0.94-0.97] for men and 0.95 [95% CI, 0.93-0.96] for women; adjusted absolute risk difference per 1 SD was -0.36% [95% CI, -0.48% to -0.25%] for men and -0.33% [95% CI, -0.48% to -0.21%] for women; hazard ratio per 10 g/1000 kcal was 0.88 [95% CI, 0.84-0.91] for men and 0.86 [95% CI, 0.82-0.90] for women; adjusted absolute risk difference per 10 g/1000 kcal was -0.95% [95% CI, -1.3% to -0.68%] for men and -0.86% [95% CI, -1.3% to -0.55%] for women; all P < .001). The association between plant protein intake and overall mortality was similar across the subgroups of smoking status, diabetes, fruit consumption, vitamin supplement use, and self-reported health status. Replacement of 3% energy from animal protein with plant protein was inversely associated with overall mortality (risk decreased 10% in both men and women) and cardiovascular disease mortality (11% lower risk in men and 12% lower risk in women). In particular, the lower overall mortality was attributable primarily to substitution of plant protein for egg protein (24% lower risk in men and 21% lower risk in women) and red meat protein (13% lower risk in men and 15% lower risk in women).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this large prospective cohort, higher plant protein intake was associated with small reductions in risk of overall and cardiovascular disease mortality. Our findings provide evidence that dietary modification in choice of protein sources may influence health and longevity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.2790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7358979PMC
September 2020

Exploratory Genome-Wide Interaction Analysis of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs and Predicted Gene Expression on Colorectal Cancer Risk.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 09 10;29(9):1800-1808. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington.

Background: Regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) is associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer. Genome-wide interaction analysis on single variants (G × E) has identified several SNPs that may interact with NSAIDs to confer colorectal cancer risk, but variations in gene expression levels may also modify the effect of NSAID use. Therefore, we tested interactions between NSAID use and predicted gene expression levels in relation to colorectal cancer risk.

Methods: Genetically predicted gene expressions were tested for interaction with NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk among 19,258 colorectal cancer cases and 18,597 controls from 21 observational studies. A Mixed Score Test for Interactions (MiSTi) approach was used to jointly assess G × E effects which are modeled via fixed interaction effects of the weighted burden within each gene set (burden) and residual G × E effects (variance). A false discovery rate (FDR) at 0.2 was applied to correct for multiple testing.

Results: Among the 4,840 genes tested, genetically predicted expression levels of four genes modified the effect of any NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk, including (P = 1.96 × 10), (P = 2.3 × 10), (P = 9.38 × 10), and (P = 1.44 × 10). There was a significant interaction between expression level of and regular use of aspirin only on colorectal cancer risk (P = 3.23 × 10). No interactions were observed between predicted gene expression and nonaspirin NSAID use at FDR < 0.2.

Conclusions: By incorporating functional information, we discovered several novel genes that interacted with NSAID use.

Impact: These findings provide preliminary support that could help understand the chemopreventive mechanisms of NSAIDs on colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-1018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556991PMC
September 2020

Serum Metabolomic Response to Low- and High-Dose Vitamin E Supplementation in Two Randomized Controlled Trials.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 07 20;29(7):1329-1334. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland.

Background: Vitamin E is an essential micronutrient and critical human antioxidant previously tested for cancer preventative effects with conflicting clinical trial results that have yet to be explained biologically.

Methods: We examined baseline and on-trial serum samples for 154 men randomly assigned to receive 400 IU vitamin E (as alpha-tocopheryl acetate; ATA) or placebo daily in the Vitamin E Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (VEAPS), and for 100 men administered 50 IU ATA or placebo daily in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC). Over 970 metabolites were identified using ultrahigh-performance LC/MS-MS. Linear regression models estimated the change in serum metabolites of men supplemented with vitamin E versus those receiving placebo in VEAPS as compared with ATBC.

Results: Serum alpha-carboxyethyl hydrochroman (CEHC) sulfate, alpha-tocopherol, and beta/gamma-tocopherol were significantly altered by ATA supplementation in both trials (all values ≤5.1 × 10, the Bonferroni multiple comparisons corrected statistical threshold). Serum C lactone sulfate was significantly decreased in response to the high-dose vitamin E in VEAPS (β = -0.70, = 8.1 × 10), but not altered by the low dose in ATBC (β = -0.17, = 0.4). In addition, changes in androgenic steroid metabolites were strongly correlated with the vitamin E supplement-associated change in C lactone sulfate only in the VEAPS trial.

Conclusions: We found evidence of a dose-dependent vitamin E supplementation effect on a novel C lactone sulfate compound that was correlated with several androgenic steroids.

Impact: Our data add information on a differential hormonal response based on vitamin E dose that could have direct relevance to opposing prostate cancer incidence results from previous large controlled trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7340214PMC
July 2020

Associations between metabolites and pancreatic cancer risk in a large prospective epidemiological study.

Gut 2020 11 14;69(11):2008-2015. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Biostatistics Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, USA.

Objective: To assess whether prediagnostic metabolites were associated with incident pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in a prospective cohort study.

Design: We conducted an untargeted analysis of 554 known metabolites measured in prediagnostic serum (up to 24 years) to determine their association with incident PDAC in a nested case-control study of male smokers (372 matched case-control sets) and an independent nested case-control study that included women and non-smokers (107 matched sets). Metabolites were measured using Orbitrap Elite or Q-Exactive high-resolution/accurate mass spectrometers. Controls were matched to cases by age, sex, race, date of blood draw, and follow-up time. We used conditional logistic regression adjusted for age to calculate ORs and 95% CIs for a 1 SD increase in log-metabolite level separately in each cohort and combined the two ORs using a fixed-effects meta-analysis.

Results: Thirty-one metabolites were significantly associated with PDAC at a false discovery rate <0.05 with 12 metabolites below the Bonferroni-corrected threshold (p<9.04×10). Similar associations were observed in both cohorts. The dipeptides glycylvaline, aspartylphenylalanine, pyroglutamylglycine, phenylalanylphenylalanine, phenylalanylleucine and tryptophylglutamate and amino acids aspartate and glutamate were positively while the dipeptides tyrosylglutamine and α-glutamyltyrosine, fibrinogen cleavage peptide DSGEGDFXAEGGGVR and glutathione-related amino acid cysteine-glutathione disulfide were inversely associated with PDAC after Bonferroni correction. Five top metabolites demonstrated significant time-varying associations (p<0.023) with the strongest associations observed 10-15 years after participants' blood collection and attenuated thereafter.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that prediagnostic metabolites related to subclinical disease, γ-glutamyl cycle metabolism and adiposity/insulin resistance are associated with PDAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2019-319811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7980697PMC
November 2020

Mendelian Randomization of Circulating Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Colorectal Cancer Risk.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 04 12;29(4):860-870. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Results from epidemiologic studies examining polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and colorectal cancer risk are inconsistent. Mendelian randomization may strengthen causal inference from observational studies. Given their shared metabolic pathway, examining the combined effects of aspirin/NSAID use with PUFAs could help elucidate an association between PUFAs and colorectal cancer risk.

Methods: Information was leveraged from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) regarding PUFA-associated SNPs to create weighted genetic scores (wGS) representing genetically predicted circulating blood PUFAs for 11,016 non-Hispanic white colorectal cancer cases and 13,732 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Associations per SD increase in the wGS were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Interactions between PUFA wGSs and aspirin/NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk were also examined.

Results: Modest colorectal cancer risk reductions were observed per SD increase in circulating linoleic acid [OR = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93-0.98; = 5.2 × 10] and α-linolenic acid (OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.92-0.97; = 5.4 × 10), whereas modest increased risks were observed for arachidonic (OR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.03-1.08; = 3.3 × 10), eicosapentaenoic (OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.01-1.07; = 2.5 × 10), and docosapentaenoic acids (OR = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.01-1.06; = 1.2 × 10). Each of these effects was stronger among aspirin/NSAID nonusers in the stratified analyses.

Conclusions: Our study suggests that higher circulating shorter-chain PUFAs (i.e., LA and ALA) were associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk, whereas longer-chain PUFAs (i.e., AA, EPA, and DPA) were associated with an increased colorectal cancer risk.

Impact: The interaction of PUFAs with aspirin/NSAID use indicates a shared colorectal cancer inflammatory pathway. Future research should continue to improve PUFA genetic instruments to elucidate the independent effects of PUFAs on colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-0891DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7125012PMC
April 2020

Cumulative Burden of Colorectal Cancer-Associated Genetic Variants Is More Strongly Associated With Early-Onset vs Late-Onset Cancer.

Gastroenterology 2020 04 19;158(5):1274-1286.e12. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington; Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington School of Public Health, Seattle, Washington.

Background & Aims: Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC, in persons younger than 50 years old) is increasing in incidence; yet, in the absence of a family history of CRC, this population lacks harmonized recommendations for prevention. We aimed to determine whether a polygenic risk score (PRS) developed from 95 CRC-associated common genetic risk variants was associated with risk for early-onset CRC.

Methods: We studied risk for CRC associated with a weighted PRS in 12,197 participants younger than 50 years old vs 95,865 participants 50 years or older. PRS was calculated based on single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with CRC in a large-scale genome-wide association study as of January 2019. Participants were pooled from 3 large consortia that provided clinical and genotyping data: the Colon Cancer Family Registry, the Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study, and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and were all of genetically defined European descent. Findings were replicated in an independent cohort of 72,573 participants.

Results: Overall associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS were significant for early-onset cancer, and were stronger compared with late-onset cancer (P for interaction = .01); when we compared the highest PRS quartile with the lowest, risk increased 3.7-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.28-4.24) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.80-3.04). This association was strongest for participants without a first-degree family history of CRC (P for interaction = 5.61 × 10). When we compared the highest with the lowest quartiles in this group, risk increased 4.3-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.61-5.01) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.70-3.00). Sensitivity analyses were consistent with these findings.

Conclusions: In an analysis of associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS, we found the cumulative burden of CRC-associated common genetic variants to associate with early-onset cancer, and to be more strongly associated with early-onset than late-onset cancer, particularly in the absence of CRC family history. Analyses of PRS, along with environmental and lifestyle risk factors, might identify younger individuals who would benefit from preventive measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.12.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7103489PMC
April 2020

Identification of Novel Loci and New Risk Variant in Known Loci for Colorectal Cancer Risk in East Asians.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 02 11;29(2):477-486. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Laboratory for Statistical Analysis, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Kanagawa, Japan.

Background: Risk variants identified so far for colorectal cancer explain only a small proportion of familial risk of this cancer, particularly in Asians.

Methods: We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of colorectal cancer in East Asians, including 23,572 colorectal cancer cases and 48,700 controls. To identify novel risk loci, we selected 60 promising risk variants for replication using data from 58,131 colorectal cancer cases and 67,347 controls of European descent. To identify additional risk variants in known colorectal cancer loci, we performed conditional analyses in East Asians.

Results: An indel variant, rs67052019 at 1p13.3, was found to be associated with colorectal cancer risk at × 10 in Asians ( per allele deletion = 1.13, 95% confidence interval = 1.08-1.18). This association was replicated in European descendants using a variant (rs2938616) in complete linkage disequilibrium with rs67052019 ( = 7.7 × 10). Of the remaining 59 variants, 12 showed an association at < 0.05 in the European-ancestry study, including rs11108175 and rs9634162 at < 5 × 10 and two variants with an association near the genome-wide significance level (rs60911071, = 5.8 × 10; rs62558833, = 7.5 × 10) in the combined analyses of Asian- and European-ancestry data. In addition, using data from East Asians, we identified 13 new risk variants at 11 loci reported from previous GWAS.

Conclusions: In this large GWAS, we identified three novel risk loci and two highly suggestive loci for colorectal cancer risk and provided evidence for potential roles of multiple genes and pathways in the etiology of colorectal cancer. In addition, we showed that additional risk variants exist in many colorectal cancer risk loci identified previously.

Impact: Our study provides novel data to improve the understanding of the genetic basis for colorectal cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-0755DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571256PMC
February 2020

Vitamin D binding protein and risk of renal cell carcinoma in the prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer screening trial.

Int J Cancer 2020 08 19;147(3):669-674. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI.

Our group has conducted two previous studies on the association between vitamin D binding protein (DBP) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the most common form of kidney cancer, finding strong inverse associations. We undertook the current analysis to replicate our findings in a different study population that included women and nonsmokers. We conducted a nested case-control study in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO). Cases (n = 323) were matched 1:1 to controls on age (±1 year), race/ethnicity, date of blood collection (±30 days) and sex. We performed conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between quartiles of circulating DBP and risk of RCC. We observed a statistically significant positive association between DBP and RCC that persisted after adjustment for history of diabetes, history of hypertension, family history of renal cancer, body mass index and smoking status (mv-adj Q4 vs. Q1 OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 2.2-7.8; p-trend <0.0001). These findings were similar when we restricted to cases with at least 2 years of follow-up and no major weight loss, suggesting that our findings are not due to reverse causality. In the present study, those with higher serum concentrations of DBP were at increased risk of RCC, in contrast to previously published findings. Further research is necessary to determine the true association between DBP and risk of RCC, and whether different DBP phenotypes may have different associations with risk of RCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32758DOI Listing
August 2020

Serum Retinol and Risk of Overall and Site-Specific Cancer in the ATBC Study.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 06;189(6):532-542

Metabolic Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Retinol, the most biologically active form of vitamin A, might influence cancer-related biological pathways. However, results from observational studies of serum retinol and cancer risk have been mixed. We prospectively examined serum retinol and risk of overall and site-specific cancer in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (n = 29,104 men), conducted in 1985-1993, with follow-up through 2012. Serum retinol concentration was measured using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Cox proportional hazards models estimated the association between baseline serum retinol quintile and overall and site-specific cancer risk in 10,789 cases. After multivariable adjustment, higher serum retinol was not associated with overall cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintile: hazard ratio (HR) = 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91, 1.03; P for trend = 0.43). Higher retinol concentrations were, however, associated with increased risk of prostate cancer (highest vs. lowest quintile: HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.45; P for trend < 0.0001) and lower risk of both liver and lung cancers (highest vs. lowest quintile: for liver, HR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.42, 0.91; P for trend = 0.004; and for lung, HR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.72, 0.88; P for trend < 0.0001). No associations with other cancers were observed. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie these associations might provide insight into the role of vitamin A in cancer etiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwz226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7443202PMC
June 2020

Genetic overlap between autoimmune diseases and non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes.

Genet Epidemiol 2019 10 13;43(7):844-863. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Medicina Traslazionale, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Vercelli, Italy.

Epidemiologic studies show an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in patients with autoimmune disease (AD), due to a combination of shared environmental factors and/or genetic factors, or a causative cascade: chronic inflammation/antigen-stimulation in one disease leads to another. Here we assess shared genetic risk in genome-wide-association-studies (GWAS). Secondary analysis of GWAS of NHL subtypes (chronic lymphocytic leukemia, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and marginal zone lymphoma) and ADs (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis). Shared genetic risk was assessed by (a) description of regional genetic of overlap, (b) polygenic risk score (PRS), (c)"diseasome", (d)meta-analysis. Descriptive analysis revealed few shared genetic factors between each AD and each NHL subtype. The PRS of ADs were not increased in NHL patients (nor vice versa). In the diseasome, NHLs shared more genetic etiology with ADs than solid cancers (p = .0041). A meta-analysis (combing AD with NHL) implicated genes of apoptosis and telomere length. This GWAS-based analysis four NHL subtypes and three ADs revealed few weakly-associated shared loci, explaining little total risk. This suggests common genetic variation, as assessed by GWAS in these sample sizes, may not be the primary explanation for the link between these ADs and NHLs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gepi.22242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6763347PMC
October 2019

Circulating markers of cellular immune activation in prediagnostic blood sample and lung cancer risk in the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3).

Int J Cancer 2020 05 22;146(9):2394-2405. Epub 2019 Jul 22.

Department of Epidemiology, Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN.

Cell-mediated immune suppression may play an important role in lung carcinogenesis. We investigated the associations for circulating levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine:tryptophan ratio (KTR), quinolinic acid (QA) and neopterin as markers of immune regulation and inflammation with lung cancer risk in 5,364 smoking-matched case-control pairs from 20 prospective cohorts included in the international Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium. All biomarkers were quantified by mass spectrometry-based methods in serum/plasma samples collected on average 6 years before lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lung cancer associated with individual biomarkers were calculated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for circulating cotinine. Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest quintiles of kynurenine, KTR, QA and neopterin were associated with a 20-30% higher risk, and tryptophan with a 15% lower risk of lung cancer (all p < 0.05). The strongest associations were seen for current smokers, where the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) of lung cancer for the highest quintile of KTR, QA and neopterin were 1.42 (1.15-1.75), 1.42 (1.14-1.76) and 1.45 (1.13-1.86), respectively. A stronger association was also seen for KTR and QA with risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma followed by adenocarcinoma, and for lung cancer diagnosed within the first 2 years after blood draw. This study demonstrated that components of the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway with immunomodulatory effects are associated with risk of lung cancer overall, especially for current smokers. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of these biomarkers in lung carcinogenesis and progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32555DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6960354PMC
May 2020

Relationship Between Serum Alpha-Tocopherol and Overall and Cause-Specific Mortality.

Circ Res 2019 06 6;125(1):29-40. Epub 2019 May 6.

From the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD (J.H., S.J.W., K.Y., D.A.).

Rationale: Although there has been a long-standing interest in the human health effects of vitamin E, a comprehensive analysis of the association between circulating vitamin E and long-term mortality has not been conducted.

Objective: Determine whether serum α-tocopherol (the predominant form of vitamin E) is related to long-term overall and cause-specific mortality and elucidate the dose-response relationships with better quantification of the associations.

Methods And Results: We conducted a biochemical analysis of 29 092 participants in the ATBC Study (Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention) that originally tested vitamin E and β-carotene supplementation. Serum α-tocopherol was measured at baseline using high-performance liquid chromatography, and during a 30-year follow-up we identified 23 787 deaths, including deaths from cardiovascular disease (9867), cancer (7687), respiratory disease (2161), diabetes mellitus (119), injuries and accidents (1255), and other causes (2698). After adjusting for major risk factors, we found that men with higher serum α-tocopherol had significantly lower all-cause mortality (hazard ratios=0.83, 0.79, 0.75, and 0.78 for quintile 2 (Q2)-Q5 versus Q1, respectively; P<0.0001), and significantly decreased mortality from cardiovascular disease, heart disease, stroke, cancer, respiratory disease, and other causes, with risk reductions from 17% to 47% for the highest versus lowest quintile. The α-tocopherol association with overall mortality was similar across subgroups of smoking intensity, years of smoking, alcohol consumption, trial supplementation, and duration of follow-up. The association was, however, significantly modified by baseline age and body mass index, with stronger inverse associations for younger men and men with a lower body mass index ( P≤0.006).

Conclusions: In this long-term prospective cohort study, higher baseline serum α-tocopherol biochemical status was associated with lower risk of overall mortality and mortality from all major causes. Our data support the long-term health benefits of higher serum α-tocopherol for overall and chronic disease mortality and should be replicated in other more diverse populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.119.314944DOI Listing
June 2019

Prospective Investigation of Serum Metabolites, Coffee Drinking, Liver Cancer Incidence, and Liver Disease Mortality.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2020 03;112(3):286-294

Metabolic Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD.

Background: Coffee has been consistently associated with lower risk of liver cancer and chronic liver disease, suggesting that coffee affects mechanisms underlying disease development.

Methods: We measured serum metabolites using untargeted metabolomics in 1:1 matched nested case-control studies of liver cancer (n = 221 cases) and fatal liver disease (n = 242 cases) in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention cohort (n = 29 133). Associations between baseline coffee drinking and metabolites were identified using linear regression; conditional logistic regression models were used to identify associations with subsequent outcomes.

Results: Overall, 21 metabolites were associated with coffee drinking and also each subsequent endpoint; nine metabolites and trigonelline, a known coffee biomarker, were identified. Tyrosine and two bile acids, glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA) and glycocholic acid (GCA), were inversely associated with coffee but positively associated with both outcomes; odds ratios (ORs) comparing the 90th to 10th percentile (modeled on a continuous basis) ranged from 3.93 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.00 to 7.74) for tyrosine to 4.95 (95% CI = 2.64 to 9.29) for GCA and from 4.00 (95% CI = 2.42 to 6.62) for GCA to 6.77 (95% CI = 3.62 to 12.65) for GCDCA for liver cancer and fatal liver disease, respectively. The remaining six metabolites and trigonelline were positively associated with coffee drinking but inversely associated with both outcomes; odds ratio ranged from 0.16 to 0.37. Associations persisted following diet adjustment and for outcomes occurring greater than 10 years after blood collection.

Conclusions: A broad range of compounds were associated with coffee drinking, incident liver cancer, and liver disease death over 27 years of follow-up. These associations provide novel insight into chronic liver disease and liver cancer etiology and support a possible hepatoprotective effect of coffee.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djz122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7073908PMC
March 2020

Smoking, Alcohol, and Biliary Tract Cancer Risk: A Pooling Project of 26 Prospective Studies.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2019 12;111(12):1263-1278

Background: Tobacco and alcohol are well-established risk factors for numerous cancers, yet their relationship to biliary tract cancers remains unclear.

Methods: We pooled data from 26 prospective studies to evaluate associations of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with biliary tract cancer risk. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations with smoking and alcohol consumption were calculated. Random-effects meta-analysis produced summary estimates. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results: Over a period of 38 369 156 person-years of follow-up, 1391 gallbladder, 758 intrahepatic bile duct, 1208 extrahepatic bile duct, and 623 ampulla of Vater cancer cases were identified. Ever, former, and current smoking were associated with increased extrahepatic bile duct and ampulla of Vater cancers risk (eg, current vs never smokers HR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.34 to 2.13 and 2.22, 95% CI = 1.69 to 2.92, respectively), with dose-response effects for smoking pack-years, duration, and intensity (all Ptrend < .01). Current smoking and smoking intensity were also associated with intrahepatic bile duct cancer (eg, >40 cigarettes per day vs never smokers HR = 2.15, 95 % CI = 1.15 to 4.00; Ptrend = .001). No convincing association was observed between smoking and gallbladder cancer. Alcohol consumption was only associated with intrahepatic bile duct cancer, with increased risk for individuals consuming five or more vs zero drinks per day (HR = 2.35, 95%CI = 1.46 to 3.78; Ptrend = .04). There was evidence of statistical heterogeneity among several cancer sites, particularly between gallbladder cancer and the other biliary tract cancers.

Conclusions: Smoking appears to increase the risk of developing all biliary tract cancers except gallbladder cancer. Alcohol may increase the risk of intrahepatic bile duct cancer. Findings highlight etiologic heterogeneity across the biliary tract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djz103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6910180PMC
December 2019

Anthropometric Risk Factors for Cancers of the Biliary Tract in the Biliary Tract Cancers Pooling Project.

Cancer Res 2019 08 21;79(15):3973-3982. Epub 2019 May 21.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, Indiana.

Biliary tract cancers are rare but highly fatal with poorly understood etiology. Identifying potentially modifiable risk factors for these cancers is essential for prevention. Here we estimated the relationship between adiposity and cancer across the biliary tract, including cancers of the gallbladder (GBC), intrahepatic bile ducts (IHBDC), extrahepatic bile ducts (EHBDC), and the ampulla of Vater (AVC). We pooled data from 27 prospective cohorts with over 2.7 million adults. Adiposity was measured using baseline body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip, and waist-to-height ratios. HRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for sex, education, race, smoking, and alcohol consumption with age as the time metric and the baseline hazard stratified by study. During 37,883,648 person-years of follow-up, 1,343 GBC cases, 1,194 EHBDC cases, 784 IHBDC cases, and 623 AVC cases occurred. For each 5 kg/m increase in BMI, there were risk increases for GBC (HR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.19-1.36), IHBDC (HR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.21-1.45), and EHBDC (HR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.23), but not AVC (HR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.88-1.11). Increasing waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio were associated with GBC and IHBDC but not EHBDC or AVC. These results indicate that adult adiposity is associated with an increased risk of biliary tract cancer, particularly GBC and IHBDC. Moreover, they provide evidence for recommending weight maintenance programs to reduce the risk of developing these cancers. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings identify a correlation between adiposity and biliary tract cancers, indicating that weight management programs may help minimize the risk of these diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-0459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6759233PMC
August 2019

A Prospective Study of Serum Vitamin E and 28-Year Risk of Lung Cancer.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2020 02;112(2):191-199

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD.

Background: Epidemiologic data are inconsistent regarding the vitamin E-lung cancer association, and no study to our knowledge has examined serologic changes in vitamin E status in relation to subsequent risk.

Methods: In a cohort of 22 781 male smokers in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study, we ascertained 3184 lung cancer cases during up to 28 years of observation. Cox proportional hazards models examined whether higher serum alpha-tocopherol concentrations at baseline, 3 years, or the interval change were associated with lower lung cancer risk. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results: After adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking intensity and duration, serum total cholesterol, and trial intervention group, we found lower lung cancer risk in men with high baseline alpha-tocopherol (fifth quintile [Q5] vs Q1, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.66 to 0.87, Ptrend < .001). A similar reduction in risk was seen for serum alpha-tocopherol at 3 years (Q5 vs Q1, HR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.67 to 0.91, Ptrend = .004). The inverse risk association appeared stronger for younger men and those who had smoked fewer years but was similar across trial intervention groups. We also found reduced risk among men not supplemented with vitamin E who had a lower serum alpha-tocopherol at baseline and greater increases in concentrations at 3 years (third tertile vs first tertile of serum alpha-tocopherol change, HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.59 to 0.91, P = .005).

Conclusions: Higher vitamin E status, as measured by serum alpha-tocopherol concentration, as well as repletion of a low vitamin E state, was related to decreased lung cancer risk during a 28-year period. Our findings provide evidence supporting the importance of adequate physiological vitamin E status for lung cancer risk reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djz077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7019088PMC
February 2020

Meta-analysis of 16 studies of the association of alcohol with colorectal cancer.

Int J Cancer 2020 02 7;146(3):861-873. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA.

Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, while studies have consistently reported elevated risk of CRC among heavy drinkers, associations at moderate levels of alcohol consumption are less clear. We conducted a combined analysis of 16 studies of CRC to examine the shape of the alcohol-CRC association, investigate potential effect modifiers of the association, and examine differential effects of alcohol consumption by cancer anatomic site and stage. We collected information on alcohol consumption for 14,276 CRC cases and 15,802 controls from 5 case-control and 11 nested case-control studies of CRC. We compared adjusted logistic regression models with linear and restricted cubic splines to select a model that best fit the association between alcohol consumption and CRC. Study-specific results were pooled using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Compared to non-/occasional drinking (≤1 g/day), light/moderate drinking (up to 2 drinks/day) was associated with a decreased risk of CRC (odds ratio [OR]: 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-0.98, p = 0.005), heavy drinking (2-3 drinks/day) was not significantly associated with CRC risk (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.99-1.24, p = 0.08) and very heavy drinking (more than 3 drinks/day) was associated with a significant increased risk (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.11-1.40, p < 0.001). We observed no evidence of interactions with lifestyle risk factors or of differences by cancer site or stage. These results provide further evidence that there is a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk. This overall pattern was not significantly modified by other CRC risk factors and there was no effect heterogeneity by tumor site or stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32377DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6819207PMC
February 2020

Coffee and tea drinking and risk of cancer of the urinary tract in male smokers.

Ann Epidemiol 2019 06 3;34:33-39. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Metabolic Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD.

Purpose: We evaluated the association of coffee and tea drinking with risk of the urinary tract cancer in Finnish men, with high coffee consumption, using data from the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study.

Methods: The ATBC trial conducted from 1985 to 1993 enrolled 29,133 male smokers. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs), using men who drank more than 0 but less than 1 cup coffee/d and tea nondrinkers as our referent group for coffee and tea analyses, respectively.

Results: During 472,402 person-years of follow-up, 835 incident cases of bladder cancer and 366 cases of renal cell carcinoma were ascertained. For bladder cancer, we observed no association for coffee consumption (HR ≥4 vs. >0 to <1 cups/d = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.86-1.56) and a borderline statistically significant inverse association for tea consumption (HR ≥1 vs. 0 cup/d = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.58-1.00). For renal cell carcinoma, we observed no association for coffee (HR ≥4 vs. >0 to <1 cups/d = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.55-1.32) or tea consumption (HR ≥1 vs. 0 cup/d = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.68-1.46). We found no impact of coffee preparation on coffee-cancer associations.

Conclusions: Coffee drinking was not associated with urinary tract cancers risk. Further research on tea and bladder cancer is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2019.03.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6684125PMC
June 2019

The associations of anthropometric, behavioural and sociodemographic factors with circulating concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 in a pooled analysis of 16,024 men from 22 studies.

Int J Cancer 2019 12 4;145(12):3244-3256. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) have been implicated in the aetiology of several cancers. To better understand whether anthropometric, behavioural and sociodemographic factors may play a role in cancer risk via IGF signalling, we examined the cross-sectional associations of these exposures with circulating concentrations of IGFs (IGF-I and IGF-II) and IGFBPs (IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3). The Endogenous Hormones, Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group dataset includes individual participant data from 16,024 male controls (i.e. without prostate cancer) aged 22-89 years from 22 prospective studies. Geometric means of protein concentrations were estimated using analysis of variance, adjusted for relevant covariates. Older age was associated with higher concentrations of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 and lower concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-3. Higher body mass index was associated with lower concentrations of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2. Taller height was associated with higher concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and lower concentrations of IGFBP-1. Smokers had higher concentrations of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 and lower concentrations of IGFBP-3 than nonsmokers. Higher alcohol consumption was associated with higher concentrations of IGF-II and lower concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-2. African Americans had lower concentrations of IGF-II, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 and Hispanics had lower IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-3 than non-Hispanic whites. These findings indicate that a range of anthropometric, behavioural and sociodemographic factors are associated with circulating concentrations of IGFs and IGFBPs in men, which will lead to a greater understanding of the mechanisms through which these factors influence cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32276DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6745281PMC
December 2019
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