Publications by authors named "Stephanie Hobbins"

4 Publications

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The clinical and inflammatory relationships between periodontitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

J Clin Periodontol 2020 09 9;47(9):1040-1052. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK.

Aim: To investigate associations between periodontitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with and without alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), including neutrophil functions implicated in tissue damage.

Methods: The presence and severity of periodontitis (using two international criteria) and lung disease were assessed in 156 COPD patients with and without AATD accounting for common confounding factors. Saliva and systemic inflammatory markers were measured by ELISA together with neutrophil migration.

Results: COPD and AATD patients exhibited higher prevalence of periodontitis (COPD 95%; AATD 88%) than reported in unselected community-dwelling populations even when risk factors (age, smoking history, socio-economic status and dental habits) were considered. Periodontitis severity associated with lung disease severity (AATD, periodontitis versus no periodontitis; FEV1 = 56% versus 99% predicted; TLCO = 59% versus 81% predicted, p < .0001 for both). Neutrophil migratory accuracy declined in stage II-IV periodontitis patients with COPD or AATD compared to COPD or AATD with no or stage I periodontitis. Improved dental habits appeared to be associated with a reduction in exacerbation frequency in COPD.

Conclusion: The results support shared pathophysiology between periodontitis and COPD, especially when associated with AATD. This may reflect an amplification of neutrophilic inflammation and altered neutrophil functions, already described in periodontitis, COPD and AATD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.13334DOI Listing
September 2020

Is periodontitis a comorbidity of COPD or can associations be explained by shared risk factors/behaviors?

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2017 4;12:1339-1349. Epub 2017 May 4.

University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK.

COPD is recognized as having a series of comorbidities potentially related to common inflammatory processes. Periodontitis is one of the most common human inflammatory diseases and has previously been associated with COPD in numerous observational studies. As periodontitis and COPD are both chronic, progressive conditions characterized by neutrophilic inflammation with subsequent proteolytic destruction of connective tissue, it has been proposed that they share common pathophysiological processes. The mechanisms proposed to link COPD and periodontitis include mechanical aspiration of oral contents into the respiratory tree, overspill of locally produced inflammatory mediators into the systemic circulation or oral or lung-derived bacteremia activating an acute-phase response and also reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytokine release by systemic neutrophils at distant sites. Studies of systemic neutrophils in COPD and chronic periodontitis describe altered cellular functions that would predispose to inflammation and tissue destruction both in the lung and in the mouth, again potentially connecting these conditions. However, COPD and periodontitis also share risk factors such as age, chronic tobacco smoke exposure, and social deprivation that are not always considered in observational and interventional studies. Furthermore, studies reporting associations have often utilized differing definitions of both COPD and periodontitis. This article reviews the current available evidence supporting the hypothesis that COPD and inflammatory periodontal disease (periodontitis) could be pathologically associated, including a review of shared inflammatory mechanisms. It highlights the potential limitations of previous studies, in particular, the lack of uniformly applied case definitions for both COPD and periodontitis and poor recognition of shared risk factors. Understanding associations between these conditions may inform why patients with COPD suffer such a burden of comorbid illness and new therapeutic strategies for both the diseases. However, further research is needed to clarify factors that may be directly causal as opposed to confounding relationships.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S127802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5422335PMC
March 2018

Patient characteristics, treatment and survival in pulmonary carcinoid tumours: an analysis from the UK National Lung Cancer Audit.

BMJ Open 2016 Sep 27;6(9):e012530. Epub 2016 Sep 27.

Care Quality Improvement Department, Royal College of Physicians, London, UK.

Objectives: Pulmonary carcinoid (PC) is a rare tumour with good prognosis following surgical resection. However, little is known regarding patient characteristics and use of other treatments modalities. Our objective was to review patient characteristics, treatment and survival for patients with PC and contrast these results with other forms of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Setting: Audit data from UK National Lung Cancer Audit (NLCA) 2008-2013.

Participants: 184 906 lung cancer cases were submitted to the NLCA.

Outcome Measures: Primary outcome-survival rates between PC and NSCLC. Secondary outcome-differences in performance status, lung function and treatment modality between PC and NSCLC.

Results: PC histology was recorded in 1341 (0.73%) patients and non-carcinoid NSCLC histology in 162 959 (87.4%) cases. 91% of patients with PC had good performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) 0-1), compared with only 53% of NSCLC. 66% of PC had localised disease. Of all PC cases, 77% were treated with surgery, 6.2% received chemotherapy and 3.6% received radiotherapy, with the remainder treated with best supportive care. Overall 1-year and 3-year survival rates for PC were 92% and 84.7%, respectively. In contrast, 1-year and 3-year survival rates for NSCLC were 36.2% and 15.6%, However, 3-year survival for PC markedly decreased with worsening performance status and advanced disease to 23.8% for performance status ECOG 3-4 and 33.6% for stage IV disease.

Conclusions: In contrast to other forms of NSCLC, the majority of patients with PC present with good performance status, preserved lung function and early stage disease amenable to surgical resection. However, 1 in 5 patients with PC has metastatic disease which is associated with poor prognosis, as is poor performance status at presentation. We believe these data will help clinicians provide accurate prognostic predictions stratified according to patient characteristics at presentation, as well as guide future clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-012530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5051516PMC
September 2016

Vasospectomania: an obsessive trait prevalent among junior doctors.

Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 2009 May;70(5):301

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May 2009