Publications by authors named "Stephanie Everts"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Visualizing context-dependent calcium signaling in encephalitogenic T cells in vivo by two-photon microscopy.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 08 17;114(31):E6381-E6389. Epub 2017 Jul 17.

Institute of Clinical Neuroimmunology, University Hospital and Biomedical Center, Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, 81377 Munich, Germany;

In experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), autoimmune T cells are activated in the periphery before they home to the CNS. On their way, the T cells pass through a series of different cellular milieus where they receive signals that instruct them to invade their target tissues. These signals involve interaction with the surrounding stroma cells, in the presence or absence of autoantigens. To portray the serial signaling events, we studied a T-cell-mediated model of EAE combining in vivo two-photon microscopy with two different activation reporters, the FRET-based calcium biosensor Twitch1 and fluorescent NFAT. In vitro activated T cells first settle in secondary (2°) lymphatic tissues (e.g., the spleen) where, in the absence of autoantigen, they establish transient contacts with stroma cells as indicated by sporadic short-lived calcium spikes. The T cells then exit the spleen for the CNS where they first roll and crawl along the luminal surface of leptomeningeal vessels without showing calcium activity. Having crossed the blood-brain barrier, the T cells scan the leptomeningeal space for autoantigen-presenting cells (APCs). Sustained contacts result in long-lasting calcium activity and NFAT translocation, a measure of full T-cell activation. This process is sensitive to anti-MHC class II antibodies. Importantly, the capacity to activate T cells is not a general property of all leptomeningeal phagocytes, but varies between individual APCs. Our results identify distinct checkpoints of T-cell activation, controlling the capacity of myelin-specific T cells to invade and attack the CNS. These processes may be valuable therapeutic targets.
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August 2017

Targeting Glycoprotein NMB With Antibody-Drug Conjugate, Glembatumumab Vedotin, for the Treatment of Osteosarcoma.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2016 Jan 25;63(1):32-8. Epub 2015 Aug 25.

Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York.

Background: Cure rates for children and young adults with osteosarcoma have remained stagnant over the past three decades. Targeting glycoprotein non-metastatic b (GPNMB) with the antibody-drug conjugate glembatumumab vedotin has improved outcomes for patients with melanoma and breast cancer. The potential utility of targeting GPNMB in osteosarcoma was explored.

Methods: GPNMB protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in human osteosarcoma tumor samples and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in osteosarcoma cell lines. mRNA expression was measured by quantitative PCR in primary osteosarcoma samples and cell lines. Surface GPNMB expression was evaluated by flow cytometry and correlated with in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity of glembatumumab vedotin.

Results: Sixty seven human osteosarcoma samples were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, including 12 samples from initial biopsy, 38 samples from definitive surgery, and 17 from the time of disease recurrence. GPNMB was expressed in 92.5% (62/67) of osteosarcoma samples. All primary osteosarcoma samples expressed high levels of GPNMB mRNA. Glembatumumab induced cytotoxic effects in 74% (14/19) of osteosarcoma cell lines, and GPNMB protein levels correlated with glembatumumab in vitro cytotoxicity (r = -0.46, P = 0.04). All osteosarcoma cell lines demonstrated surface GPNMB expression.

Conclusions: GPNMB is expressed in osteosarcoma and targeting GPNMB with the antibody-drug conjugate glembatumumab vedotin demonstrates osteosarcoma cytotoxic activity. Clinical trials are indicated to assess the efficacy of targeting GPNMB in patients with osteosarcoma.
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January 2016

Single dose pharmacokinetics of oral tenofovir in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, colonic tissue, and vaginal tissue.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2013 Nov 29;29(11):1443-50. Epub 2013 May 29.

1 Johns Hopkins University , Baltimore, Maryland.

HIV seroconversion outcomes in preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials of oral tenofovir (TFV)-containing regimens are highly sensitive to drug concentration, yet less-than-daily dosing regimens are under study. Description of TFV and its active moiety, TFV diphosphate (TFV-DP), in blood, vaginal tissue, and colon tissue may guide the design and interpretation of PrEP clinical trials. Six healthy women were administered a single oral dose of 300 mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and 4.3 mg (12.31 MBq, 333 μCi) (14)C-TDF slurry. Blood was collected every 4 h for the first 24 h, then at 4, 8, 11, and 15 days postdosing. Colonic and vaginal samples (tissue, total and CD4(+) cells, luminal fluid and cells) were collected 1, 8 and 15 days postdose. Samples were analyzed for TFV and TFV-DP. Plasma TFV demonstrated triphasic decay with terminal elimination half-life median [interquartile range (IQR)] 69 h (58-77). Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) TFV-DP demonstrated biphasic peaks (median 12 h and 96 h) followed by a terminal 48 h (38-76) half-life; Cmax was 20 fmol/million cells (2-63). One day postdose, the TFV-DP paired colon:vaginal tissue concentration ratio was 1 or greater in all subjects' tissue homogenates, median 124 (range 1-281), but was not sustained. The ratio was lower and more variable in cells extracted from tissue. Among all sample types, TFV and TFV-DP half-life ranged from 23 to 139 h. PBMC TFV-DP rose slowly in the hours after dosing indicating that success with exposure-driven dosing regimens may be sensitive to timing of the dose prior to exposure. Colonic tissue homogenate TFV-DP concentrations were greater than in vaginal homogenate at 24 h, but not in cells extracted from tissue. These and the other pharmacokinetic findings will guide the interpretation and design of future PrEP trials.
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November 2013

Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of the HIV integrase inhibitor dolutegravir given twice daily with rifampin or once daily with rifabutin: results of a phase 1 study among healthy subjects.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2013 Jan;62(1):21-7

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

Background: Cotreatment of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV among coinfected patients is now the standard of care. Rifampin (RIF) is a standard part of TB treatment but is a potent inducer of drug metabolizing enzymes. This study evaluated the effect of RIF or rifabutin (RBT) on the pharmacokinetics of the investigational HIV integrase inhibitor, dolutegravir (DTG).

Methods: Phase I pharmacokinetic drug interaction study. In arm 1, healthy subjects received 50 mg of DTG once daily for 7 days (period 1), then 50 mg of DTG twice daily for 7 days (period 2), then 50 mg of DTG twice daily together with 600 mg of RIF once daily for 14 days (period 3). In arm 2, subjects received 50 mg of DTG once daily for 7 days (period 1) then 50 mg of DTG once daily together with 300 mg of RBT once daily for 14 days (period 2). PK sampling was performed at the end of each period.

Results: In arm 1, comparing period 3 to period 1, the geometric mean ratio (GMR) for the 24-hour area under the time-concentration curve (AUC0-24) was 1.33 [90% confidence interval (CI): 1.14 to 1.53], and the GMR for the trough (Cτ) was 1.22 (90% CI: 1.01 to 1.48). Comparing period 2 to period 1 in arm 2, the GMR for the AUC0-24 was 0.95 (90% CI: 0.82 to 1.10), and the GMR for the Cτ was 0.70 (90% CI: 0.57 to 0.87).

Conclusions: Regimens including twice-daily DTG and RIF or once-daily DTG and RBT may represent a new treatment option for patients who require concomitant treatment of HIV and TB.
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January 2013

Pharmacokinetic effect of AMD070, an Oral CXCR4 antagonist, on CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 substrates midazolam and dextromethorphan in healthy volunteers.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2008 Apr;47(5):559-65

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Many antiretroviral drugs used in HIV care involve complex drug metabolism by CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzymes, and drug interactions are problematic clinically. AMD070, a novel entry inhibitor, is an inhibitor of X4-tropic HIV virus. In vitro data suggested that it is a CYP3A4 substrate and may inhibit CYP2D6 and CYP3A4.

Methods: Twelve healthy subjects were given a single oral dose of 5 mg of midazolam and 30 mg of dextromethorphan on day 1 and 9, and 200 mg of AMD070 twice daily on days 2 through 9 (inclusive). Pharmacokinetic parameters of midazolam and dextromethorphan were assessed alone and in the presence of AMD070.

Results: The mean AUC0-24 and Cmax of dextromethorphan increased 2.86-fold (2.20 to 5.10, 90% confidence interval [CI]) and 2.52-fold (1.99 to 4.24, 90% CI), respectively, in the presence of AMD070. Plasma AUC0-12 of midazolam increased 1.33-fold (1.15 to 1.61, 90% CI) without change in Cmax. The half-life did not change for both drugs, but significant, parallel decrease in apparent oral clearance and volume of distribution was observed.

Conclusions: The data support an alteration in bioavailability due to an AMD070-mediated inhibition of presystemic metabolism, though an intestinal P-glycoprotein effect could also be contributing. Interactions between AMD070 with CYP3A4 and, especially, 2D6 substrates of clinical importance in HIV care should be further explored.
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April 2008