Publications by authors named "Stephanie Chambers"

26 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Learning from the implementation of Universal Free School Meals in Scotland using Normalisation Process Theory: Lessons for policymakers to engage multiple stakeholders.

Food Policy 2020 Aug;95:101936

Institute for Social Marketing and Health, University of Stirling, United Kingdom.

In 2014/15, Universal Free School Meals (UFSM) were introduced in Scotland and England for children in their first three years of primary school. This study examined the implementation of UFSM in Scotland using Normalisation Process Theory (NPT), a middle-range theory of implementation, to identify areas of learning for policymakers wishing to introduce or extend similar policies. NPT is predominantly used to evaluate interventions or new technologies in healthcare settings. Qualitative data were collected across Scotland using a case study approach shortly after implementation (n = 29 school-level stakeholders) and in the following school year (n = 18 school-level stakeholders and n = 19 local authority-level stakeholders). Observations of lunchtime in each school were conducted at both timepoints. Data were analysed using a thematic framework approach using NPT constructs and sub-constructs. Results suggested education and catering stakeholders experiences of implementation diverged most around the NPT concepts of coherence, cognitive participation, and reflexive monitoring. Lack of coherence around the purpose and long-term benefits of UFSM appeared to reduce education stakeholders' willingness to engage with the policy beyond operational issues. In contrast, catering stakeholders identified a direct benefit to their everyday work and described receiving additional resources to deliver the policy. Overall, participants described an absence of monitoring data around the areas of greatest salience for education stakeholders. This study successfully used NPT to identify policy learning around school meals. Policymakers must increase the salience of such intersectoral policies for all relevant stakeholders involved before policy implementation, and plan adequate monitoring to evaluate potential long-term benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2020.101936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7539368PMC
August 2020

The Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome in the Neonate.

Adv Neonatal Care 2020 Aug 19. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

East Carolina University College of Nursing, Greenville, North Carolina.

Background: Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) is a congenital defect of the cardiac conduction system (CCS), with proliferation of extra embryologic conduction pathways and rapid conduction of electrical impulses. The estimated neonatal incidence of 0.1% to 0.2% may be misrepresented secondary to missed or misdiagnosis. Undiagnosed WPW can result in sudden cardiac death.

Purpose: To discuss the pathogenesis, manifestations, diagnosis, management, and lifespan implications of WPW in the prenatal and postnatal periods.

Methods/search Strategy: A literature review was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, and Google Scholar (2013-2019). Search terms included (newborn OR infant), wolff parkinson white, pathogenesis, management, and ventricular preexcitation. After removal of duplicates, 267 references were identified, abstracts reviewed, and 30 publications fully evaluated.

Findings/results: Separation of the heart chambers begins around 7 weeks' gestation with formation of the annulus fibrosis complete after term. The unknown external environmental influence on the development of the preterm infant's CCS places neonates at risk for persistent atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia with WPW development. Ensuring an appropriate diagnosis is crucial, as an incorrect diagnosis could mean death.

Implications For Practice: Due to the rarity of WPW, any fetal or neonatal supraventricular tachycardia requires further evaluation with an electrocardiogram and involvement of an experienced cardiologist for diagnosis. One episode of supraventricular tachycardia warrants evaluation for WPW, as recurring episodes may result in irreversible damage.

Implications For Research: The recommendations for treatment of WPW in the prenatal and immediate postnatal periods are based heavily on standards of care for the adult population. A paucity of evidenced-based literature exists and future research is crucial to understand the true incidence, physiologic effects, and lifespan implications of WPW on neonates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ANC.0000000000000785DOI Listing
August 2020

Pilot Study of an Overdose First Aid Program in Juvenile Detention.

Health Promot Pract 2020 Aug 18:1524839920950028. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM, USA.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and short-term impact of a brief opioid overdose prevention and mitigation training administered to detained youth at risk for witnessing an overdose.

Methods: Adolescents seen in the medical clinic in a youth detention center were screened to determine risk for witnessing an overdose. Eligible adolescents completed a pretraining assessment that included opioid witnessing experiences and knowledge of and attitudes toward opioid overdose prevention. Participants completed a one-on-one overdose first aid training, received a naloxone (Narcan) kit at release, and completed a posttraining assessment of knowledge and attitudes. At 1 month and 3 months postrelease, participants completed telephone interviews to report satisfaction and application of training concepts.

Results: A total of 39 adolescent residents participated in this pilot study. Rates of recruitment and retention, as well as high rates of witnessing opioid use and overdose, indicate that opioid overdose prevention interventions are warranted with this population. There were significant changes in knowledge, confidence, and readiness to intervene in an opioid overdose from pre- to posttraining. At follow-up, the majority of participants still possessed their naloxone, and all reported sharing information from the training with others and having a plan if they witnessed an overdose. One participant reported completion of an overdose reversal.

Implications: Opioid overdose prevention training with detained youth is feasible and shows promising impacts on knowledge and application, meriting the need for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1524839920950028DOI Listing
August 2020

How men receive and utilise partner support when trying to change their diet and physical activity within a men's weight management programme.

BMC Public Health 2020 Feb 7;20(1):199. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, 200 Renfield Street, Glasgow, G2 3AX, UK.

Background: The impacts of interventions designed to change health behaviours are potentially affected by the complex social systems in which they are embedded. This study uses Scottish data to explore how men receive and utilise partner support when attempting to change dietary practices and physical activity within the context of Football Fans in Training (FFIT), a gender-sensitised weight management and healthy living programme for men who are overweight/obese.

Methods: Separate semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 20 men and their cohabiting female partners (total n = 40), 3-12 months after the men had completed FFIT. Data were thematically analysed and individual interviews were combined for dyadic analysis.

Results: Men's and women's accounts suggested variations in men's need for, and utilisation of, partner support in order to make changes to dietary practices and physical activity. There were also differences in descriptions of women's involvement in men's behaviour changes. Typologies were developed categorising men as 'resolute', 'reliant'/'receptive' and 'non-responsive' and women as 'very involved', 'partially involved' and 'not involved'. Men were more reliant, and women more involved, in changes to dietary practices compared to physical activity. The role of partner involvement in promoting men's behaviour change seemed contingent on men's resoluteness, or their reliance on the partner support.

Conclusions: These results highlight how interactions between men's resoluteness/reliance on cohabiting female partners and the partners' involvement impact the extent to which female partners influence men's changes to dietary practices and physical activity following a weight loss intervention. Understanding this interaction could increase the impact of health interventions aimed at one individual's behaviour by considering other family members' roles in facilitating those changes. The typologies developed for this study might contribute towards the development of behaviour change theories within the cohabiting couple context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-8213-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7006401PMC
February 2020

Shirt sponsorship by gambling companies in the English and Scottish Premier Leagues: global reach and public health concerns.

Soccer Soc 2019 17;20(6):824-835. Epub 2018 Jan 17.

Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, Medical Research Council/Chief Scientist Office, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

While the nature of gambling practices is contested, a strong evidence base demonstrates that gambling can become a serious disorder and have a range of detrimental effects for individuals, communities and societies. Over the last decade, football in the UK has become visibly entwined with gambling marketing. To explore this apparent trend, we tracked shirt sponsors in both the English and Scottish Premier Leagues since 1992 and found a pronounced increase in the presence of sponsorship by gambling companies. This increase occurred at the same time the Gambling Act 2005, which liberalized rules, was introduced. We argue that current levels of gambling sponsorship in UK football, and the global visibility it provides to gambling brands, is a public health concern that needs to be debated and addressed. We recommend that legislators revisit the relationship between football in the UK and the sponsorship it receives from the gambling industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14660970.2018.1425682DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6795541PMC
January 2018

Commercial determinants of health: advertising of alcohol and unhealthy foods during sporting events.

Bull World Health Organ 2019 Apr 25;97(4):290-295. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

MRC/CSOSocial and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland.

Tobacco, alcohol and foods that are high in fat, salt and sugar generate much of the global burden of noncommunicable diseases. We therefore need a better understanding of how these products are promoted.The promotion of tobacco products through sporting events has largely disappeared over the last two decades, but advertising and sponsorship continues bycompanies selling alcohol, unhealthy food and sugar-sweetened beverage. The sponsorship of sporting events such as the Olympic Games, the men's FIFA World Cup and the men's European Football Championships in 2016, has received some attention in recent years in the public health literature. Meanwhile, British football and the English Premier League have become global events with which transnational companies are keen to be associated, to promote their brands to international markets. Despite its reach, the English Premier League marketing and sponsorship portfolio has received very little scrutiny from public health advocates. We call for policy-makers and the public health community to formulate an approach to the sponsorship of sporting events, one that accounts for public health concerns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.18.220087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6438257PMC
April 2019

Exploring the relationship between Big Food corporations and professional sports clubs: a scoping review.

Public Health Nutr 2019 07 2;22(10):1888-1897. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

1School of Social and Political Sciences,College of Social Sciences,University of Glasgow,27 Bute Gardens,GlasgowG12 8RS,UK.

Objective: Professional sport occupies a prominent cultural position in societies across the globe and commercial organisations make use of this to promote their products. The present scoping review explores existing academic literature on the relationship between professional sports clubs and food and drink marketing and considers how this relationship may impact upon the public's health.

Design: The scoping review searched six databases. Experts were also consulted. Records written in languages other than English were excluded. We also excluded records relating to mega events (e.g. Olympics, Football World Cup) and alcohol marketing, because of the attention already given to these.

Setting: Professional sports clubs.

Results: We identified 18 166 titles, reviewed 163 abstracts and read twenty-six full texts. We included six papers in the review. Four were from Australia and New Zealand. The Australasian literature focused largely on the marketing of foods and beverages to children and the potential impact on consumption. Single papers from researchers in Turkey and the USA were identified. The Turkish paper analysed shirt sponsorship in football leagues internationally and showed food and beverage (including alcohol) companies were the most common sponsors. The US paper examined a mixed reaction to a football team named after an energy drink.

Conclusions: Commercial relationships between professional sports clubs and Big Food corporations have largely eluded scrutiny in much of the world. The current review highlights the lack of public health research on these relationships. Research exploring the interdependent commercial practices of food and drink companies and professional sports clubs is urgently needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980019000545DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6558258PMC
July 2019

Time to address the double inequality of differences in dietary intake between Scotland and England.

Br J Nutr 2018 07;120(2):220-226

4Human Nutrition Research Centre and Institute of Health and Society,Newcastle University,Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH,UK.

Geographical disparities in health outcomes have been evident across the UK for decades. Recent analysis on the dietary differences between Scotland and England that might go some way to explain these health differences is limited. This study aimed to assess whether, and to what degree, aspects of diet and nutrition differ between Scottish and English populations, specifically between those with similar household incomes. A period of 12 years of UK food purchase data (2001-2012) were pooled and used to estimate household-level consumption data for Scotland and England. Population mean food consumption and nutrient intakes were estimated, adjusting for known confounders (year, age of household reference person, age they left full-time education and income). Comparison was also made within equivalised income quintiles. Analysis showed that the foods and nutrients that should be increased in the diet (highlighted in the Scottish Dietary Goals) were lower in Scotland than in England (e.g. fruit and vegetables 267 g/d; 99 % CI 259, 274 v. 298 g/d; 99 % CI 296, 301), P<0·001). Similarly, foods and drinks linked with poor health outcomes were higher in Scotland. These regional inequalities in diet were even more pronounced in the lower-income groups (e.g. red and processed meat consumption in the lowest-income quintile was 65 g/d; 99 % CI 61, 69 in Scotland v. 58 g/day; 99 % CI 57, 60 in England, P<0·001, but similar in the highest-income quintile (58 g/d; 99 % CI 54, 61 v. 59 g/d; 99 % CI 58, 60, respectively). A poorer diet in Scotland compared with England, particularly among disadvantaged groups, may contribute to differences in excess mortality between countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114518001435DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6088540PMC
July 2018

Paternal cholestasis exacerbates obesity-associated hypertension in male offspring but is prevented by paternal ursodeoxycholic acid treatment.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2019 02 24;43(2):319-330. Epub 2018 May 24.

Department of Women and Children's Health, King's College London, London, SE1 7EH, UK.

Background: Obesity is a heterogeneous phenotype and risk associations to non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes are influenced by several factors. The paternal metabolic status at the time of conception influences offspring susceptibility to developing obesity and adiposity-associated cardiometabolic disease. Cholestatic liver diseases are characterized by raised circulating serum bile acid levels and dyslipidemia, and are commonly treated with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). We hypothesized that paternal cholestasis alters offspring susceptibility to developing obesity and adiposity-associated cardiometabolic disease and that this may be modified by paternal UDCA treatment.

Methods: Cholestasis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice with a 0.5% cholic acid (CA)-supplemented diet for 10 weeks prior to mating with normal chow (NC)-fed females. Offspring of cholestatic and NC-fed fathers were fed either a NC diet or challenged with an obesogenic 'western diet' (WD) from 12 weeks of age. Offspring body weight and cardiometabolic function were assessed, and the impact of treatment of paternal cholestasis with UDCA was evaluated.

Results: Male offspring (18 weeks old) of cholestatic fathers challenged with WD had raised fasting insulin, hepatic triglyceride content and serum cholesterol levels compared to diet-matched controls. At 25-29 weeks of age, WD-fed male offspring of cholestatic fathers had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure than controls and this was prevented by paternal UDCA treatment. In contrast, WD-challenged female offspring of cholestatic fathers showed improved glucose tolerance compared to controls.

Conclusions: We demonstrated in our model of paternal cholestasis that offspring susceptibility to adiposity-associated cardiometabolic disease is affected in a sex-specific manner and paternal UDCA treatment had a protective effect against hypertension in the obese male offspring. The most prevalent human cholestatic conditions are primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cholangitis. These findings are of clinical relevance to children of men with these conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41366-018-0095-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6124644PMC
February 2019

Characterizing oral microbial communities across dentition states and colonization niches.

Microbiome 2018 04 10;6(1):67. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Division of Periodontology, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, 4111 Postle Hall, 305, W 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

Methods: The present study aimed to identify patterns and processes in acquisition of oral bacteria and to characterize the microbiota of different dentition states and habitats. Mucosal, salivary, supragingival, and subgingival biofilm samples were collected from orally and systemically healthy children and mother-child dyads in predentate, primary, mixed, and permanent dentitions. 16S rRNA gene sequences were compared to the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD). Functional potential was inferred using PICRUSt.

Results: Unweighted and weighted UniFrac distances were significantly smaller between each mother-predentate dyad than infant-unrelated female dyads. Predentate children shared a median of 85% of species-level operational taxonomic units (s-OTUs) and 100% of core s-OTUs with their mothers. Maternal smoking, but not gender, mode of delivery, feeding habits, or type of food discriminated between predentate microbial profiles. The primary dentition demonstrated expanded community membership, structure, and function when compared to the predentate stage, as well as significantly lower similarity between mother-child dyads. The primary dentition also included 85% of predentate core s-OTUs. Subsequent dentitions exhibited over 90% similarity to the primary dentition in phylogenetic and functional structure. Species from the predentate mucosa as well as new microbial assemblages were identified in the primary supragingival and subgingival microbiomes. All individuals shared 65% of species between supragingival and subgingival habitats; however, the salivary microbiome exhibited less than 35% similarity to either habitat.

Conclusions: Within the limitations of a cross-sectional study design, we identified two definitive stages in oral bacterial colonization: an early predentate imprinting and a second wave with the eruption of primary teeth. Bacterial acquisition in the oral microbiome is influenced by the maternal microbiome. Personalization begins with the eruption of primary teeth; however, this is limited to phylogeny; functionally, individuals exhibit few differences, suggesting that microbial assembly may follow a defined schematic that is driven by the functional requirements of the ecosystem. This early microbiome forms the foundation upon which newer communities develop as more colonization niches emerge, and expansion of biodiversity is attributable to both introduction of new species and increase in abundance of predentate organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-018-0443-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5891995PMC
April 2018

Registered Replication Report: Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg (1998).

Authors:
Michael O'Donnell Leif D Nelson Evi Ackermann Balazs Aczel Athfah Akhtar Silvio Aldrovandi Nasseem Alshaif Ronald Andringa Mark Aveyard Peter Babincak Nursena Balatekin Scott A Baldwin Gabriel Banik Ernest Baskin Raoul Bell Olga Białobrzeska Angie R Birt Walter R Boot Scott R Braithwaite Jessie C Briggs Axel Buchner Desiree Budd Kathryn Budzik Lottie Bullens Richard L Bulley Peter R Cannon Katarzyna Cantarero Joseph Cesario Stephanie Chambers Christopher R Chartier Peggy Chekroun Clara Chong Axel Cleeremans Sean P Coary Jacob Coulthard Florien M Cramwinckel Thomas F Denson Marcos Díaz-Lago Theresa E DiDonato Aaron Drummond Julia Eberlen Titus Ebersbach John E Edlund Katherine M Finnigan Justin Fisher Natalia Frankowska Efraín García-Sánchez Frank D Golom Andrew J Graves Kevin Greenberg Mando Hanioti Heather A Hansen Jenna A Harder Erin R Harrell Andree Hartanto Michael Inzlicht David J Johnson Andrew Karpinski Victor N Keller Olivier Klein Lina Koppel Emiel Krahmer Anthony Lantian Michael J Larson Jean-Baptiste Légal Richard E Lucas Dermot Lynott Corey M Magaldino Karlijn Massar Matthew T McBee Neil McLatchie Nadhilla Melia Michael C Mensink Laura Mieth Samantha Moore-Berg Geraldine Neeser Ben R Newell Marret K Noordewier Asil Ali Özdoğru Myrto Pantazi Michał Parzuchowski Kim Peters Michael C Philipp Monique M H Pollmann Panagiotis Rentzelas Rosa Rodríguez-Bailón Jan Philipp Röer Ivan Ropovik Nelson A Roque Carolina Rueda Bastiaan T Rutjens Katey Sackett Janos Salamon Ángel Sánchez-Rodríguez Blair Saunders Juliette Schaafsma Michael Schulte-Mecklenbeck David R Shanks Martin F Sherman Kenneth M Steele Niklas K Steffens Jessie Sun Kyle J Susa Barnabas Szaszi Aba Szollosi Ricardo M Tamayo Gustav Tinghög Yuk-Yue Tong Carol Tweten Miguel A Vadillo Deisy Valcarcel Nicolas Van der Linden Michiel van Elk Frenk van Harreveld Daniel Västfjäll Simine Vazire Philippe Verduyn Matt N Williams Guillermo B Willis Sarah E Wood Chunliang Yang Oulmann Zerhouni Robert Zheng Mark Zrubka

Perspect Psychol Sci 2018 03 21;13(2):268-294. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Dijksterhuis and van Knippenberg (1998) reported that participants primed with a category associated with intelligence ("professor") subsequently performed 13% better on a trivia test than participants primed with a category associated with a lack of intelligence ("soccer hooligans"). In two unpublished replications of this study designed to verify the appropriate testing procedures, Dijksterhuis, van Knippenberg, and Holland observed a smaller difference between conditions (2%-3%) as well as a gender difference: Men showed the effect (9.3% and 7.6%), but women did not (0.3% and -0.3%). The procedure used in those replications served as the basis for this multilab Registered Replication Report. A total of 40 laboratories collected data for this project, and 23 of these laboratories met all inclusion criteria. Here we report the meta-analytic results for those 23 direct replications (total N = 4,493), which tested whether performance on a 30-item general-knowledge trivia task differed between these two priming conditions (results of supplementary analyses of the data from all 40 labs, N = 6,454, are also reported). We observed no overall difference in trivia performance between participants primed with the "professor" category and those primed with the "hooligan" category (0.14%) and no moderation by gender.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1745691618755704DOI Listing
March 2018

A systematic review of grandparents' influence on grandchildren's cancer risk factors.

PLoS One 2017 14;12(11):e0185420. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

Faculty of Heath Sciences and Sport, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom.

Many lifestyle patterns are established when children are young. Research has focused on the potential role of parents as a risk factor for non communicable disease in children, but there is limited investigation of the role of other caregivers, such as grandparents. The aim of this review was to identify and synthesise evidence for any influence grandparents' care practices may have on their grandchildren's long term cancer risk factors. A systematic review was carried out with searches across four databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, PsycINFO) as well as searches of reference lists and citing articles, and Google Scholar. Search terms were based on six areas of risk that family care could potentially influence-weight, diet, physical activity, tobacco, alcohol and sun exposure. All study designs were included, as were studies that provided an indication of the interaction of grandparents with their grandchildren. Studies were excluded if grandparents were primary caregivers and if children had serious health conditions. Study quality was assessed using National Institute for Health and Care Excellence checklists. Grandparent impact was categorised as beneficial, adverse, mixed or as having no impact. Due to study heterogeneity a meta-analysis was not possible. Qualitative studies underwent a thematic synthesis of their results. Results from all included studies indicated that there was a sufficient evidence base for weight, diet, physical activity and tobacco studies to draw conclusions about grandparents' influence. One study examined alcohol and no studies examined sun exposure. Evidence indicated that, overall, grandparents had an adverse impact on their grandchildren's cancer risk factors. The theoretical work in the included studies was limited. Theoretically underpinned interventions designed to reduce these risk factors must consider grandparents' role, as well as parents', and be evaluated robustly to inform the evidence base further.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0185420PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5685489PMC
December 2017

Identifying dietary differences between Scotland and England: a rapid review of the literature.

Public Health Nutr 2017 Oct 20;20(14):2459-2477. Epub 2017 Jul 20.

3Human Nutrition Research Centre and Institute of Health and Society,Newcastle University,Newcastle upon Tyne,UK.

Objective: Rates of premature mortality have been higher in Scotland than in England since the 1970s. Given the known association of diet with chronic disease, the study objective was to identify and synthesise evidence on current and historical differences in food and nutrient intakes in Scotland and England.

Design: A rapid review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature was carried out. After an initial scoping search, Medline, CINAHL, Embase and Web of Science were searched. Relevant grey literature was also included. Inclusion criteria were: any date; measures of dietary intake; representative populations; cross-sectional or observational cohort studies; and English-language publications. Study quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-sectional Studies. A narrative synthesis of extracted information was conducted.

Results: Fifty publications and reports were included in the review. Results indicated that children and adults in Scotland had lower intakes of vegetables and vitamins compared with those living in England. Higher intakes of salt in Scotland were also identified. Data were limited by small Scottish samples, difficulty in finding England-level data, lack of statistical testing and adjustment for key confounders.

Conclusions: Further investigation of adequately powered and analysed surveys is required to examine more fully dietary differences between Scotland and England. This would provide greater insight into potential causes of excess mortality in Scotland compared with England and suitable policy recommendations to address these inequalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980017001380DOI Listing
October 2017

School and local authority characteristics associated with take-up of free school meals in Scottish secondary schools, 2014.

Contemp Soc Sci 2016 Jan 30;11(1):52-63. Epub 2016 Sep 30.

School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Glasgow , Glasgow , UK.

School meals are an important state-delivered mechanism for improving children's diets. Scottish local authorities have a statutory duty to provide free school meals (FSM) to families meeting means-testing criteria. Inevitably take-up of FSM does not reach 100%. Explanations put forward to explain this include social stigma, as well as a more general dissatisfaction amongst pupils about lack of modern facilities and meal quality, and a preference to eat where friends are eating. This study investigated characteristics associated with take-up across Scottish secondary schools in 2013-2014 using multilevel modelling techniques. Results suggest that stigma, food quality and the ability to eat with friends are associated with greater take-up. Levels of school modernisation appeared less important, as did differences between more urban or rural areas. Future studies should focus on additional school-level variables to identify characteristics associated with take-up, with the aim of reducing the number of registered pupils not taking-up FSM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21582041.2016.1223871DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5259801PMC
January 2016

Effectiveness of Child Advocacy Centers and the multidisciplinary team approach on prosecution rates of alleged sex offenders and satisfaction of non-offending caregivers with allegations of child sexual abuse: a systematic review.

JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep 2016 Jan 15;13(12):93-129. Epub 2016 Jan 15.

The Northeast Institute for Evidence Synthesis and Translation (NEST): a Collaborating Center of the Joanna Briggs Institute.

Background: Child sexual abuse is a multifaceted issue that negatively affects the lives of millions of children worldwide. These children suffer numerous medical and psychological long-term adverse effects both in childhood and adulthood. It is imperative to implement evidence- based interventions for the investigation of this crime. The use of Child Advocacy Centers and the multidisciplinary team approach may improve the investigation of child sexual abuse.

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Child Advocacy Centers and the multidisciplinary team approach on prosecution rates of alleged sex offenders and satisfaction of non-offending caregivers of children less than 18 years of age, with allegations of child sexual abuse.

Inclusion Criteria:

Types Of Participants: Children under 18 years, of any race, ethnicity or gender with allegations of child sexual abuse. Other participants included in this review are non-offending caregivers of children with allegations of child sexual abuse, and alleged sex offenders. Type of intervention : The use of Child Advocacy Centers and the multidisciplinary team approach on child sexual abuse investigations. Types of outcomes : Prosecution rates of alleged sex offenders and the satisfaction of non-offending caregivers of children with allegations of child sexual abuse. Types of studies: This review includes quasi-experimental and descriptive studies.

Search Strategy: The search strategy aimed to find published and unpublished articles in the English language published from 1985 through April 2015 for inclusion. The databases searched include: PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, Criminal Justice Periodicals, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses and Criminal Justice Collections. An additional grey literature search was conducted.

Methodological Quality: Two reviewers evaluated the included studies for methodological quality using standardized critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute.

Data Extraction: Data were extracted using standardized data extraction instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute.

Data Synthesis: Due to heterogeneity between the included studies, statistical meta-analysis was not possible. Results are presented in a narrative form.

Conclusions: The use of Child Advocacy Centers and the multidisciplinary team approach in child sexual abuse investigation may have positive benefits in increasing non-offending caregivers' satisfaction and prosecution rates of alleged sex offenders.

Implications For Practice: Utilization of Child Advocacy Centers and the multidisciplinary team approach for child sexual abuse investigations may be beneficial in improving prosecution rates and the experiences of families involved. The use of satisfaction surveys for non-offending caregivers may be an effective tool to evaluate the satisfaction with services rendered by Child Advocacy Centers. Findings from this review may help to guide reforms. It is hoped that client satisfaction may lead to or improve utilization of services important for the healing process of victims of abuse. Child Advocacy Center multidisciplinary team interventions may improve prosecution rates and satisfaction of non-offending caregiver’ in children less than 18 years of age with allegations of child sexual abuse (Grade B). When available, children with allegations of child sexual abuse should be referred to Child Advocacy Centers for evaluation (Grade B). The use of non-offending caregiver satisfaction survey is recommended to evaluate the ongoing effectiveness of the Child Advocacy Centers multidisciplinary team approach. The quality improvement process will help measure the quality of care rendered by a Child Advocacy Centers and identify areas in need of improvement so a Child Advocacy Centers can continue to provide optimal care in the investigation of child sexual abuse while improving the utilization of services important for the healing process for victims of abuse (Grade B).

Implications For Research: Future studies may consider interventions that include greater sample size and more diverse ethnic groups to promote generalizability of findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11124/jbisrir-2015-2113DOI Listing
January 2016

Pediatric Orthopaedic Workforce in 2014: Current Workforce and Projections for the Future.

J Pediatr Orthop 2017 Jan;37(1):59-66

*Department of Orthopaedic Surgery & Biomedical Engineering, University of Tennessee-Campbell Clinic, Memphis, TN †Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Akron Children's Hospital §Akron Children's Hospital, Akron, OH ‡Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX.

Background: The changing nature of the United States (US) health care system has prompted debate concerning the physician supply. The basic questions are: do we have an adequate number of surgeons to meet current demands and are we training the correct number of surgeons to meet future demands? The purpose of this analysis was to characterize the current pediatric orthopaedic workforce in terms of supply and demand, both present and future.

Methods: Databases were searched (POSNA, SF Match, KID, MGMA) to determine the current pediatric orthopaedic workforce and workforce distribution, as well as pediatric orthopaedic demand.

Results: The number of active Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America (POSNA) members increased over the past 20 years, from 410 in 1993 to 653 in 2014 (155% increase); however, the density of POSNA members is not equally distributed, but correlates to population density. The number of estimated pediatric discharges, orthopaedic and nonorthopaedic, has remained relatively stable from 6,348,537 in 1997 to 5,850,184 in 2012. Between 2003 and 2013, the number of pediatric orthopaedic fellows graduating from Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and non-Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education programs increased from 39 to 50 (29%), with a peak of 67 fellows (71%) in 2009.

Discussion: Although predicting the exact need for pediatric orthopaedic surgeons (POS) is impossible because of the complex interplay among macroeconomic, governmental, insurance, and local factors, some trends were identified: the supply of POS has increased, which may offset the expected numbers of experienced surgeons who will be leaving the workforce in the next 10 to 15 years; macroeconomic factors influencing demand for physician services, driven by gross domestic product and population growth, are expected to be stable in the near future; expansion of the scope of practice for POS is expected to continue; and further similar assessments are warranted.

Level Of Evidence: Level II-economic and decision analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000000666DOI Listing
January 2017

PROTECT: A Pilot Program to Integrate Mental Health Treatment Into Elder Abuse Services for Older Women.

J Elder Abuse Negl 2015 2;27(4-5):438-53. Epub 2015 Sep 2.

b New York City Department for the Aging , New York , New York , USA.

The goal of this pilot program was to test the usefulness of adapted Problem-Solving Therapy (PST) and anxiety management, called PROTECT, integrated into elder abuse services to reduce depression and improve self-efficacy. Depressed women victims were randomized to receive elder abuse resolution services combined with either PROTECT or a mental health referral. At follow-up, the PROTECT group showed greater reduction in depressive symptoms and endorsed greater improved self-efficacy in problem-solving when compared to those in the Referral condition. These preliminary findings support the potential usefulness of PROTECT to alleviate depressive symptoms and enhance personal resources among abused older women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08946566.2015.1088422DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6528790PMC
October 2016

Acute nicotine induces anxiety and disrupts temporal pattern organization of rat exploratory behavior in hole-board: a potential role for the lateral habenula.

Front Cell Neurosci 2015 1;9:197. Epub 2015 Jun 1.

Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, University of Malta Msida, Malta ; School of Biosciences, Cardiff University Cardiff, UK.

Nicotine is one of the most addictive drugs of abuse. Tobacco smoking is a major cause of many health problems, and is the first preventable cause of death worldwide. Several findings show that nicotine exerts significant aversive as well as the well-known rewarding motivational effects. Less certain is the anatomical substrate that mediates or enables nicotine aversion. Here, we show that acute nicotine induces anxiogenic-like effects in rats at the doses investigated (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), as measured by the hole-board apparatus and manifested in behaviors such as decreased rearing and head-dipping and increased grooming. No changes in locomotor behavior were observed at any of the nicotine doses given. T-pattern analysis of the behavioral outcomes revealed a drastic reduction and disruption of complex behavioral patterns induced by all three nicotine doses, with the maximum effect for 1 mg/kg. Lesion of the lateral habenula (LHb) induced hyperlocomotion and, strikingly, reversed the nicotine-induced anxiety obtained at 1 mg/kg to an anxiolytic-like effect, as shown by T-pattern analysis. We suggest that the LHb is critically involved in emotional behavior states and in nicotine-induced anxiety, most likely through modulation of monoaminergic nuclei.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2015.00197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4450172PMC
June 2015

Reducing the volume, exposure and negative impacts of advertising for foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children: A systematic review of the evidence from statutory and self-regulatory actions and educational measures.

Prev Med 2015 Jun 28;75:32-43. Epub 2015 Feb 28.

Social Dimensions of Health Institute, University of Dundee, Airlie Place, Dundee DD1 4HJ, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Purpose: To identify and review evidence on 1) the effectiveness of statutory and self-regulatory actions to reduce the volume, exposure or wider impact of advertising for foods high in fat, sugar and salt (HFSS) to children, and 2) the role of educational measures.

Design/methodology/approach: A systematic review of three databases (Medline, CINAHL and PsycINFO) and grey literature was carried out. Relevant evidence included studies evaluating advertising bans and restrictions, advertising literacy programmes and parental communication styles. Relevant media included TV, internet, radio, magazines and newspaper advertising. No studies were excluded based on language or publication date.

Findings: Forty-seven publications were included: 19 provided evidence for the results of statutory regulation, 25 for self-regulation, and six for educational approaches. Outcome measures varied in approach, quality and results. Findings suggested statutory regulation could reduce the volume of and children's exposure to advertising for foods HFSS, and had potential to impact more widely. Self-regulatory approaches showed varied results in reducing children's exposure. There was some limited support for educational measures.

Discussion: Consistency in measures from evaluations over time would assist the development and interpretation of the evidence base on successful actions and measures to reduce the volume, exposure and impact of advertising for foods HFSS to children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.02.011DOI Listing
June 2015

The Parental Dental Concerns Scale (PDCS): its development and initial psychometric properties.

Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2013 Dec 1;41(6):541-50. Epub 2013 Mar 1.

Oral Health and Health Research Programme, Dental Health Services & Research Unit, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK.

Objectives: To assess the validity and reliability of a Parental Dental Concerns Scale (PDCS) to identify parents unable to access preventive dental care for their children.

Methods: Two studies were conducted. In Study One, a purposive convenience sample of 399 Scottish parents answered questions on going to the dentist, family life and demographics. Parents were retested eight weeks later. In Study Two, 574 Scottish parents participating in a preventive oral health programme were posted the same questionnaire. Information on child dental attendance was gained from dental records. Data were analysed using exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory (CFA) factor analysis. Internal consistency and test-retest correlations provided reliability estimates. Validity was assessed with confirmatory factor analysis, correlations and independent t-tests.

Results: EFA indicated that the PDCS had a four factor structure, supported by a subsequent CFA. The PDCS and its four subscales had good internal consistency, concurrent validity and test-retest reliability. Further work is required to confirm the scale's predictive validity in discriminating between children and parents who did and did not attend the dental practice.

Conclusions: The PDCS is a reliable scale, which demonstrates good construct validity. Further testing is required to confirm its predictive validity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdoe.12046DOI Listing
December 2013

Obesity and dental caries in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2013 Aug 16;41(4):289-308. Epub 2012 Nov 16.

School of Medicine, University of St Andrews, Fife, Scotland, UK.

Objectives: Obesity and dental caries have become increasingly prevalent challenges to public health. Research results into the relationship between obesity and dental caries in children have been mixed and inconclusive. The aim of this review and meta-analysis was to provide evidence to quantify the relationship between obesity and dental caries in children using a systematic approach.

Methods: A systematic search for papers between 1980 and 2010 addressing childhood obesity and dental caries was conducted and a random effects model meta-analysis applied.

Results: Fourteen papers met the selection criteria. Overall, a significant relationship between childhood obesity and dental caries (effect size = 0.104, P = 0.049) was found. When analysed by dentition type (primary versus permanent), there was a nonsignificant association of obesity and dental caries in permanent and primary dentitions, yet on accounting only for standardized definitions for assessment of child obesity using body mass index, a strong significant relationship was evident in children with permanent dentitions. Moderating for study country of origin (newly 'industrialized' versus industrialized) showed a significant relationship between obesity and dental caries in children from industrialized but not newly industrialized countries. Cofactors such as age and socioeconomic class were significant moderators.

Conclusions: Future analysis should investigate these confounding variables, helping shape the future of obesity management programmes and oral health interventions, through determining common risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdoe.12014DOI Listing
August 2013

What the UK public believes causes obesity, and what they want to do about it: a cross-sectional study.

J Public Health Policy 2011 Nov 1;32(4):430-44. Epub 2011 Sep 1.

Division of Clinical & Population Sciences & Education, University of Dundee, The MacKenzie Building, Kirsty Semple Way, Dundee DD2 4BF, UK.

Increases in the prevalence of obesity have led to calls for policy interventions in the United Kingdom. Little is known, however, about how the public explains overweight, or their support for interventions. Our research team recruited 500 adults (≥18 years of age) across the United Kingdom to complete a cross-sectional survey asking about beliefs concerning the causes of excess weight, and support for particular policy interventions. Respondents completed questionnaires in their homes with the assistance of an interviewer. Results suggested that support for policy interventions was greatest when responsibility was attributed to factors beyond individual control, with support for child-focused interventions particularly high. The relationship is more complex than previous studies suggest, as believing in the over-availability of unhealthy foods predicted higher support for policy interventions, whereas beliefs in structural explanations, such as cost, had little influence on support. Recognition of this complexity may help to design more effective future policies to tackle obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jphp.2011.45DOI Listing
November 2011

An RCT study to evaluate a targeted, theory driven healthy eating leaflet.

Soc Sci Med 2010 Dec 29;71(11):1916-20. Epub 2010 Sep 29.

The University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom.

A theory based healthy eating leaflet was evaluated against an existing publicly available standard leaflet. The intervention leaflet was designed to encourage healthy eating in 18-30 year olds and was developed by modifying an existing British Nutrition Foundation leaflet. The intervention leaflet targeted attitudes and self-efficacy. Participants (n = 104) were randomly assigned either to the intervention, Foundation or a local food leaflet control condition. Cognitions were measured pre-intervention, immediately after reading the corresponding leaflet, and once again at two weeks follow-up. Critically, intentions to eat healthily were significantly greater at follow-up in the Intervention group compared to the other two groups, with the former leaflet also being perceived as more persuasive. The Intervention group also showed evidence of healthier eating at two weeks compared to the other two groups. Collectively the results illustrate the utility of a targeted theory-based approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.09.023DOI Listing
December 2010

Local, national and imported foods: a qualitative study.

Appetite 2007 Jul 24;49(1):208-13. Epub 2007 Feb 24.

Department of Agricultural and Food Economics, University of Reading, PO Box 237, Reading RG6 6AR, UK.

The UK government is currently attempting to encourage consumers to buy more locally produced food. It is hoped that this will provide economic, environmental and social benefits to local areas, leading to more sustainable patterns of consumption. This qualitative study looks at the views and behaviour of consumers towards local foods with a particular focus on the barriers that prevent greater uptake of local produce. In total, four focus groups (n=33) were conducted. Content analysis identified six relevant themes in relation to local, national and imported foods. These were cost, lifestyle, food quality, consumer ethnocentrism, choice and farmers. Overall, although participants reported buying few local products currently, there was widespread enthusiasm across socio-economic groups for local foods, with participants perceiving them as being of a higher quality than imported foods. They also generally endorsed the idea of supporting local farmers and their own national economy. The main barriers preventing participants from buying more local products were price and inconvenience. The results are discussed in relation to developing future strategies for encouraging people to buy more local food products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2007.02.003DOI Listing
July 2007

Young people's and professionals' views about ways to reduce teenage pregnancy rates: to agree or not agree.

J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care 2002 Apr;28(2):85-90

Centre for Health Policy and Practice, School of Health, Staffordshire University, Leek Road, Stoke-on-Trent ST4 2DF, UK.

Context: We know little about young people's views of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce the frequency of teenage pregnancy.

Objective: To compare the views of young people and professionals about ways to reduce the frequency of teenage pregnancy.

Design: Comparison of consensus emerging from adult and teenagers' workshop discussions and subsequent modified two-round Delphi questionnaires for each subject group.

Setting: North Staffordshire community.

Participants: Fifty-six professionals from health, education, social care, youth and community and other sectors and 55 young people.

Main Outcome Measures: Views with which at least 70% of participants agreed.

Results: Young people emphasised the importance of interventions being young person-centred, whereas professionals stressed that re-organisation of sexual health and education services was key. Young people suggested more creative ways of communicating health and education messages than did professionals. Both groups advocated peer education and recognised the need for developing help and services for young men. Both suggested that staff should be educated to be more sensitive in relating to young people. Professionals and young people advocated the locating of sexual health services for teenagers in youth settings.

Conclusion: In the main, professionals favoured dedicated young people's services whilst young people emphasised the need for young person-centred services. Those working in the health and education sectors should seek and listen to young people's views and preferences when planning and providing sexual health education and services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1783/147118902101196009DOI Listing
April 2002