Publications by authors named "Stephanie Beileke"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Heterologous prime-boost vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and BNT162b2.

Lancet Infect Dis 2021 09 29;21(9):1212-1213. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Institute of Virology, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich/Helmholtz Zentrum München, 81675 Munich, Germany; DZIF, partner sites Munich and Cologne/Bonn, Germany. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(21)00420-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8321428PMC
September 2021

Estimates and Determinants of SARS-Cov-2 Seroprevalence and Infection Fatality Ratio Using Latent Class Analysis: The Population-Based Tirschenreuth Study in the Hardest-Hit German County in Spring 2020.

Viruses 2021 06 10;13(6). Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Institute of Clinical and Molecular Virology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Schlossgarten 4, 91054 Erlangen, Germany.

SARS-CoV-2 infection fatality ratios (IFR) remain controversially discussed with implications for political measures. The German county of Tirschenreuth suffered a severe SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in spring 2020, with particularly high case fatality ratio (CFR). To estimate seroprevalence, underreported infections, and IFR for the Tirschenreuth population aged ≥14 years in June/July 2020, we conducted a population-based study including home visits for the elderly, and analyzed 4203 participants for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies via three antibody tests. Latent class analysis yielded 8.6% standardized county-wide seroprevalence, a factor of underreported infections of 5.0, and 2.5% overall IFR. Seroprevalence was two-fold higher among medical workers and one third among current smokers with similar proportions of registered infections. While seroprevalence did not show an age-trend, the factor of underreported infections was 12.2 in the young versus 1.7 for ≥85-year-old. Age-specific IFRs were <0.5% below 60 years of age, 1.0% for age 60-69, and 13.2% for age 70+. Senior care homes accounted for 45% of COVID-19-related deaths, reflected by an IFR of 7.5% among individuals aged 70+ and an overall IFR of 1.4% when excluding senior care home residents from our computation. Our data underscore senior care home infections as key determinant of IFR additionally to age, insufficient targeted testing in the young, and the need for further investigations on behavioral or molecular causes of the fewer infections among current smokers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13061118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8230374PMC
June 2021

Evaluation of surfactant proteins A, B, C, and D in articular cartilage, synovial membrane and synovial fluid of healthy as well as patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

PLoS One 2018 20;13(9):e0203502. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Institute of Functional and Clinical Anatomy, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen, Germany.

Objective: Surfactant Proteins (SPs) are well known from lung and form, along with phospholipids, a surface-active-layer at the liquid-air-interface of the alveolar lining. They play a major protective role by lowering surface tension, activating innate and adaptive immune defense at the lung mucosal interface, especially during infection. We analyzed the regulation of SPs in human and mouse articular chondrocytes, synoviocytes, and synovial fluid under healthy and inflammatory conditions, as well as in tissues of patients suffering from osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Methods: Immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, ELISA, Western blotting were performed in cell cultures and tissue samples to determine localization, regulation, and concentration of SPs.

Results: All four SPs, were expressed by healthy human and mouse articular chondrocytes and synoviocytes and were also present in synovial fluid. Treatment with inflammatory mediators like IL-1β and TNF-α led to short-term upregulation of individual SPs in vitro. In tissues from patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, protein levels of all four SPs increased significantly compared to the controls used.

Conclusion: These results show the distribution and amount of SPs in tissues of articular joints. They are produced by chondrocytes and synoviocytes and occur in measurable amounts in synovial fluid. All four SPs seem to be differently regulated under pathologic conditions. Their physiological functions in lowering surface tension and immune defense need further elucidation and make them potential candidates for therapeutic intervention.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0203502PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6147433PMC
February 2019

SFTA3 - a novel surfactant protein of the ocular surface and its role in corneal wound healing and tear film surface tension.

Sci Rep 2018 06 28;8(1):9791. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Department of Functional and Clinical Anatomy, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen, Germany.

The study aimed to characterize the expression and function of SFTA3 at the ocular surface and in tears. Ocular tissues, conjunctival (HCjE) and human corneal (HCE) epithelial cell lines as well as tearfilm of patients suffering from different forms of dry eye disease (DED) were analyzed by means of RT-PCR, western blot, immunohistochemistry, and ELISA. A possible role of recombinant SFTA3 in corneal wound healing was investigated performing in vitro scratch assays. Tear film regulatory properties were analyzed with the spinning drop method and the regulation of SFTA3 transcripts was studied in HCE and HCjE after incubation with proinflammatory cytokines as well as typical ocular pathogens by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA. The results reveal that human ocular tissue as well as tears of healthy volunteers express SFTA3 whereas tears from patients with DED showed significantly increased SFTA3 levels. In vitro wounding of HCE cell cultures that had been treated with recombinant SFTA3 demonstrated a significantly increased wound closure rate and rSFTA3 reduced the surface tension of tear fluid. The results indicate that SFTA3 at the ocular surface seemed to be involved in wound healing and the reduction of surface tension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-28005-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6023927PMC
June 2018

Expression and Localization of Lung Surfactant Proteins in Human Testis.

PLoS One 2015 24;10(11):e0143058. Epub 2015 Nov 24.

Institute of Anatomy II, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Background: Surfactant proteins (SPs) have been described in various tissues and fluids including tissues of the nasolacrimal apparatus, airways and digestive tract. Human testis have a glandular function as a part of the reproductive and the endocrine system, but no data are available on SPs in human testis and prostate under healthy and pathologic conditions.

Objective: The aim of the study was the detection and characterization of the surfactant proteins A, B, C and D (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, SP-D) in human testis. Additionally tissue samples affected by testicular cancer were investigated.

Results: Surfactant proteins A, B, C and D were detected using RT-PCR in healthy testis. By means of Western blot analysis, these SPs were detected at the protein level in normal testis, seminoma and seminal fluid, but not in spermatozoa. Expression of SPs was weaker in seminoma compared to normal testicular tissue. SPs were localized in combination with vimentin immunohistochemically in cells of Sertoli and Leydig.

Conclusion: Surfactant proteins seem to be inherent part of the human testis. By means of physicochemical properties the proteins appear to play a role during immunological and rheological process of the testicular tissue. The presence of SP-B and SP-C in cells of Sertoli correlates with their function of fluid secretion and may support transportation of spermatozoa. In seminoma the expression of all SP's was generally weaker compared to normal germ cells. This could lead to a reduction of immunomodulatory and rheology processes in the germ cell tumor.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0143058PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4658200PMC
June 2016

Palate Lung Nasal Clone (PLUNC), a Novel Protein of the Tear Film: Three-Dimensional Structure, Immune Activation, and Involvement in Dry Eye Disease (DED).

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015 Nov;56(12):7312-23

Department of Anatomy II Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Purpose: Palate Lung Nasal Clone (PLUNC) is a hydrophobic protein belonging to the family of surfactant proteins that is involved in fluid balance regulation of the lung. Moreover, it is known to directly act against gram-negative bacteria. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible expression and antimicrobial role of PLUNC at the healthy ocular surface and in tears of patients suffering from dry eye disease (DED).

Methods: Bioinformatics and biochemical and immunologic methods were combined to elucidate the structure and function of PLUNC at the ocular surface. Tissue-specific localization was performed by using immunohistochemistry. The PLUNC levels in tear samples from non-Sjögren's DED patients with moderate dry eye suffering either from hyperevaporation or tear deficiency were analyzed by ELISA and compared with tears from healthy volunteers.

Results: Palate Lung Nasal Clone is expressed under healthy conditions at the ocular surface and secreted into the tear film. Protein modeling studies and molecular dynamics simulations performed indicated surface activity of PLUNC. In vitro experiments revealed that proinflammatory cytokines and bacterial supernatants have only a slight effect on the expression of PLUNC in HCE and HCjE cell lines. In tears from DED patients, the PLUNC concentration is significantly increased (7-fold in evaporative dry eye tears and 17-fold in tears from patients with tear deficiency) compared with healthy subjects.

Conclusions: The results show that PLUNC is a protein of the tear film and suggest that it plays a role in fluid balance and surface tension regulation at the ocular surface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.15-17560DOI Listing
November 2015

Detection of surfactant proteins A, B, C, and D in human nasal mucosa and their regulation in chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps.

Am J Rhinol Allergy 2013 Jan;27(1):24-9

Department of Anatomy II, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany.

Background: The nasal mucosa is characterized by a multirow high prismatic ciliated epithelium representing the first barrier of the immune defense system against microbial and other environmental pathogenic influences. A number of nonspecific defense mechanisms, including the presence of lactoferrin, peroxidases, proteases, interferons, and lysozymes in nasal secretions, act to counter inflammatory processes. The surfactant proteins (SPs) known from the lungs are important components of the innate immune system. They also influence the rheology of fluids and reduce the surface tension of gas-fluid interphases. The objective of this study was to investigate the protein expression of all four SPs. A specific aim was detection and characterization of SP-C, which had previously not been confirmed in human nasal mucosa.

Methods: The expression of mRNA for SP-A, -B, -C and -D was investigated using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction on samples of both healthy nasal mucosa and nasal mucosa altered by inflammatory processes (allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis). The distribution of all four proteins was determined with monoclonal antibodies using Western blot analysis as well as immunohistochemical methods.

Results: The results show that all four SPs, including SP-C not detected before this, are nasal mucosa components. A shift was also observed in the expression behavior of the SP-A, -B, and -D in nasal mucosa with inflammatory changes.

Conclusion: Based on these results, SPs appear to have an important function in immunologic and rheological process of the nasal mucosa and support the prospective therapeutic use of liposomal nasal sprays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2500/ajra.2013.27.3838DOI Listing
January 2013

Schirmer strip vs. capillary tube method: non-invasive methods of obtaining proteins from tear fluid.

Ann Anat 2013 Mar 23;195(2):137-42. Epub 2012 Oct 23.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany.

Human tear fluid is a complex mixture containing over 500 solute proteins, lipids, electrolytes, mucins, metabolites, hormones and desquamated epithelial cells as well as foreign substances from the ambient air. Little is known to date about the function of most tear components. The efficient and gentle collection of tear fluid facilitates closer investigation of these matters. The objective of the present paper was to compare two commonly used methods of obtaining tear fluid, the capillary tube and Schirmer strip methods, in terms of usefulness in molecular biological investigation of tear film. The comparative protein identification methods Bradford and Western Blot were used in the analyses to this end. The surfactant proteins (SP) A-D recently described as present on the eye surface were selected as the model proteins. Both methods feature sufficient uptake efficiency for proteins in or extraction from the sampling means used (capillary tube/Schirmer strip). The total protein concentration can be determined and the proteins in the tears can be detected - besides the hydrophilic SP-A and D also the non-water-soluble proteins of smaller size such as SP-B and C. Thus both methods afford a suitable basis for comparative analysis of the physiological processes in the tear fluid of healthy and diseased subjects. On the whole, the Schirmer strip has several advantages over the capillary tube.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aanat.2012.10.001DOI Listing
March 2013

Human parotid and submandibular glands express and secrete surfactant proteins A, B, C and D.

Histochem Cell Biol 2009 Sep 30;132(3):331-8. Epub 2009 May 30.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Grosse Steinstr. 52, 06097, Halle/Saale, Germany.

The oral cavity and the salivary glands are open to the oral environment and are thus exposed to multiple microbiological, chemical and mechanical influences. The existence of an efficient defense system is essential to ensure healthy and physiological function of the oral cavity. Surfactant proteins play an important role in innate immunity and surface stability of fluids. This study aimed to evaluate the expression and presence of surfactant proteins (SP) A, B, C, and D in human salivary glands and saliva. The expression of mRNA for SP-A, -B, -C and -D was analyzed by RT-PCR in healthy parotid and submandibular glands. Deposition of all surfactant proteins was determined with monoclonal antibodies by means of Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry in healthy tissues and saliva of volunteers. Our results show that all four surfactant proteins SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D are peptides of saliva and salivary glands. Based on the known direct and indirect antimicrobial effects of collectins, the surfactant-associated proteins A and D appear to be involved in immune defense inside the oral cavity. Furthermore, by lowering surface tension between saliva and the epithelial lining of excretory ducts, SP-B and SP-C may assist in drainage and outflow into the oral cavity. Further functions such as pellicle formation on teeth have yet to be determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00418-009-0609-xDOI Listing
September 2009
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