Publications by authors named "Stephanie A Archer-Hartmann"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

L-SIGN is a receptor on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells for SARS-CoV-2 virus.

JCI Insight 2021 07 22;6(14). Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Cardiovascular Biology Research Program, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), remains a pandemic. Severe disease is associated with dysfunction of multiple organs, but some infected cells do not express ACE2, the canonical entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2. Here, we report that the C-type lectin receptor L-SIGN interacted in a Ca2+-dependent manner with high-mannose-type N-glycans on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. We found that L-SIGN was highly expressed on human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and lymph node lymphatic endothelial cells but not on blood endothelial cells. Using high-resolution confocal microscopy imaging, we detected SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins within the LSECs from liver autopsy samples from patients with COVID-19. We found that both pseudo-typed virus enveloped with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus infected L-SIGN-expressing cells relative to control cells. Moreover, blocking L-SIGN function reduced CoV-2-type infection. These results indicate that L-SIGN is a receptor for SARS-CoV-2 infection. LSECs are major sources of the clotting factors vWF and factor VIII (FVIII). LSECs from liver autopsy samples from patients with COVID-19 expressed substantially higher levels of vWF and FVIII than LSECs from uninfected liver samples. Our data demonstrate that L-SIGN is an endothelial cell receptor for SARS-CoV-2 that may contribute to COVID-19-associated coagulopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.148999DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8410055PMC
July 2021

Protocols for isolating and characterizing polysaccharides from plant cell walls: a case study using rhamnogalacturonan-II.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2021 Jun 22;14(1):142. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, The University of Georgia, 315 Riverbend Road, Athens, GA, 30602, USA.

Background: In plants, a large diversity of polysaccharides comprise the cell wall. Each major type of plant cell wall polysaccharide, including cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin, has distinct structures and functions that contribute to wall mechanics and influence plant morphogenesis. In recent years, pectin valorization has attracted much attention due to its expanding roles in biomass deconstruction, food and material science, and environmental remediation. However, pectin utilization has been limited by our incomplete knowledge of its structure. Herein, we present a workflow of principles relevant for the characterization of polysaccharide primary structure using nature's most complex polysaccharide, rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II), as a model.

Results: We outline how to isolate RG-II from celery and duckweed cell walls and from red wine using chemical or enzymatic treatments coupled with size-exclusion chromatography. From there, we applied mass spectrometry (MS)-based techniques to determine the glycosyl residue and linkage compositions of the intact RG-II and derived oligosaccharides including special considerations for labile monosaccharides. In doing so, we demonstrated that in the duckweed Wolffiella repanda the arabinopyranosyl (Arap) residue of side chain B is substituted at O-2 with rhamnose. We used electrospray-MS techniques to identify non-glycosyl modifications including methyl-ethers, methyl-esters, and acetyl-esters on RG-II-derived oligosaccharides. We then showed the utility of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-NMR) to investigate the structure of intact RG-II and to complement the RG-II dimerization studies performed using size-exclusion chromatography.

Conclusions: The complexity of pectic polysaccharide structures has hampered efforts aimed at their valorization. In this work, we used RG-II as a model to demonstrate the steps necessary to isolate and characterize polysaccharides using chromatographic, MS, and NMR techniques. The principles can be applied to the characterization of other saccharide structures and will help inform researchers on how saccharide structure relates to functional properties in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13068-021-01992-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8218411PMC
June 2021

Engineered glycomaterial implants orchestrate large-scale functional repair of brain tissue chronically after severe traumatic brain injury.

Sci Adv 2021 Mar 5;7(10). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Regenerative Bioscience Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.

Severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) survivors experience permanent functional disabilities due to significant volume loss and the brain's poor capacity to regenerate. Chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans (CS-GAGs) are key regulators of growth factor signaling and neural stem cell homeostasis in the brain. However, the efficacy of engineered CS (eCS) matrices in mediating structural and functional recovery chronically after sTBI has not been investigated. We report that neurotrophic factor functionalized acellular eCS matrices implanted into the rat M1 region acutely after sTBI significantly enhanced cellular repair and gross motor function recovery when compared to controls 20 weeks after sTBI. Animals subjected to M2 region injuries followed by eCS matrix implantations demonstrated the significant recovery of "reach-to-grasp" function. This was attributed to enhanced volumetric vascularization, activity-regulated cytoskeleton (Arc) protein expression, and perilesional sensorimotor connectivity. These findings indicate that eCS matrices implanted acutely after sTBI can support complex cellular, vascular, and neuronal circuit repair chronically after sTBI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abe0207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7935369PMC
March 2021

Molecular Mechanism of Polysaccharide Acetylation by the Arabidopsis Xylan -acetyltransferase XOAT1.

Plant Cell 2020 07 30;32(7):2367-2382. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602

Xylans are a major component of plant cell walls. -Acetyl moieties are the dominant backbone substituents of glucuronoxylan in dicots and play a major role in the polymer-polymer interactions that are crucial for wall architecture and normal plant development. Here, we describe the biochemical, structural, and mechanistic characterization of Arabidopsis () xylan -acetyltransferase 1 (XOAT1), a member of the plant-specific Trichome Birefringence Like (TBL) family. Detailed characterization of XOAT1-catalyzed reactions by real-time NMR confirms that it exclusively catalyzes the 2--acetylation of xylan, followed by nonenzymatic acetyl migration to the -3 position, resulting in products that are monoacetylated at both -2 and -3 positions. In addition, we report the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of XOAT1, which adopts a unique conformation that bears some similarities to the α/β/α topology of members of the GDSL-like lipase/acylhydrolase family. Finally, we use a combination of biochemical analyses, mutagenesis, and molecular simulations to show that XOAT1 catalyzes xylan acetylation through formation of an acyl-enzyme intermediate, Ac-Ser-216, by a double displacement bi-bi mechanism involving a Ser-His-Asp catalytic triad and unconventionally uses an Arg residue in the formation of an oxyanion hole.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1105/tpc.20.00028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7346548PMC
July 2020

Slc35a1 deficiency causes thrombocytopenia due to impaired megakaryocytopoiesis and excessive platelet clearance in the liver.

Haematologica 2021 03 1;106(3):759-769. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Jiangsu Institute of Hematology, NHC Key Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China

Sialic acid is a common terminal residue of glycans on proteins and acidic sphingolipids such as gangliosides and has important biological functions. The sialylation process is controlled by more than 20 different sialyltransferases, many of which exhibit overlapping functions. Thus, it is difficult to determine the overall biological function of sialylation by targeted deletion of individual sialyltransferases. To address this issue, we established a mouse line with the Slc35a1 gene flanked by loxP sites. Slc35a1 encodes the cytidine-5’-monophosphate (CMP)-sialic acid transporter that transports CMP-sialic acid from the cytoplasm into the Golgi apparatus for sialylation. Here we report our study regarding the role of sialylation on megakaryocytes and platelets using a mouse line with significantly reduced sialylation in megakaryocytes and platelets (Plt Slc35a1– /–). The major phenotype of Plt Slc35a1–/– mice was thrombocytopenia. The number of bone marrow megakaryocytes in Plt Slc35a1–/– mice was reduced, and megakaryocyte maturation was also impaired. In addition, an increased number of desialylated platelets was cleared by Küpffer cells in the liver of Plt Slc35a1–/– mice. This study provides new insights into the role of sialylation in platelet homeostasis and the mechanisms of thrombocytopenia in diseases associated with platelet desialylation, such as immune thrombocytopenia and a rare congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG), SLC35A1-CDG, which is caused by SLC35A1 mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.225987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927894PMC
March 2021

Biocompatibility and structural characterization of glycosaminoglycans isolated from heads of silver-banded whiting (Sillago argentifasciata Martin & Montalban 1935).

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 May 16;151:663-676. Epub 2020 Feb 16.

Department of Biomolecular Sciences, Pharmacognosy Division, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS 38677-1848, USA. Electronic address:

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were extracted from heads of silver-banded whiting (SBW) fish and subjected to preliminary biocompatibility testing per ISO 10993: intracutaneous irritation, maximization sensitization, systemic toxicity, and cytotoxicity. When the GAG solution was injected intradermally, the observed irritation was within ISO limits and comparable to a marketed control. There was no evidence of sensitization, systemic toxicity, or cellular toxicity on the test organisms treated with the GAG mixture from SBW fish heads. Fractionation by size-exclusion chromatography has shown three distinct fractions: F1 as low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (190 kDa), F2 (82 kDa) and F3 (64 kDa), both as chondroitin sulfates. Structural characterization by 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and disaccharide analysis have shown sulfation ratios at positions C4:C6 of the F2 and F3 fractions respectively as 70:20% and 50:30%, and the balance of non-sulfated and 4,6-di-sulfated units. The preliminary results here suggest that GAG-based extracts from SBW fish heads are suitable alternative products to be used in soft tissue augmentation, although further long-term biocompatibility studies are still required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.02.160DOI Listing
May 2020

Alpha-Gal and Cross-Reactive Carbohydrate Determinants in the N-Glycans of Salivary Glands in the Lone Star Tick, .

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 Jan 9;8(1). Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Complex Carbohydrate Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.

Ticks are important ectoparasites and vectors of numerous human and animal pathogens. Ticks secrete saliva that contains various bioactive materials to evade the host defense system, and often facilitates the pathogen transmission. In addition, the Lone star tick saliva is thought to be the sensitizer in red meat allergy that is characterized by an allergic reaction to glycan moieties carrying terminal galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (aGal). To assess N-glycome of , we examined the N-glycan structures in male and female salivary glands at three different feeding stages and in carcasses of partially fed lone star ticks. We also surveyed the genes involved in the N-glycosylation in the tick species. The aGal epitopes and cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD) increases over time after the onset of blood feeding in both male and female . These CCDs include xylosylation of the core mannose, 1,3-mono and 1,3- and 1,6-difucosylations of the basal GlcNac and mono- or diantennary aGal. Combinations of both xylosylation and aGal and fucosylation and aGal were also found on the N-glycan structures. While the enzymes required for the early steps of the N-glycosylation pathway are quite conserved, the enzymes involved in the later stages of N-glycan maturation in the Golgi apparatus are highly diverged from those of insects. Most of all, we propose that the aGal serves as a molecular mimicry of bioactive proteins during tick feedings on mammalian hosts, while it contributes as a sensitizer of allergy in atypical host human.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8010018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7157712PMC
January 2020

A mutant-cell library for systematic analysis of heparan sulfate structure-function relationships.

Nat Methods 2018 11 30;15(11):889-899. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Heparan sulfate (HS) is a complex linear polysaccharide that modulates a wide range of biological functions. Elucidating the structure-function relationship of HS has been challenging. Here we report the generation of an HS-mutant mouse lung endothelial cell library by systematic deletion of HS genes expressed in the cell. We used this library to (1) determine that the strictly defined fine structure of HS, not its overall degree of sulfation, is more important for FGF2-FGFR1 signaling; (2) define the epitope features of commonly used anti-HS phage display antibodies; and (3) delineate the fine inter-regulation networks by which HS genes modify HS and chain length in mammalian cells at a cell-type-specific level. Our mutant-cell library will allow robust and systematic interrogation of the roles and related structures of HS in a cellular context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41592-018-0189-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6214364PMC
November 2018

Selective Deletion of Heparan Sulfotransferase Enzyme, Ndst1, in Donor Endothelial and Myeloid Precursor Cells Significantly Decreases Acute Allograft Rejection.

Sci Rep 2018 09 7;8(1):13433. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Divisions of Cardiovascular Medicine and Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Early damage to transplanted organs initiates excess inflammation that can cause ongoing injury, a leading cause for late graft loss. The endothelial glycocalyx modulates immune reactions and chemokine-mediated haptotaxis, potentially driving graft loss. In prior work, conditional deficiency of the glycocalyx-modifying enzyme N-deacetylase-N-sulfotransferase-1 (Ndst1 TekCre) reduced aortic allograft inflammation. Here we investigated modification of heparan sulfate (HS) and chemokine interactions in whole-organ renal allografts. Conditional donor allograft Ndst1 deficiency (Ndst1; C57Bl/6 background) was compared to systemic treatment with M-T7, a broad-spectrum chemokine-glycosaminoglycan (GAG) inhibitor. Early rejection was significantly reduced in Ndst1 kidneys engrafted into wildtype BALB/c mice (Ndst1) and comparable to M-T7 treatment in C57Bl/6 allografts (P < 0.0081). M-T7 lost activity in Ndst1 allografts while M-T7 point mutants with modified GAG-chemokine binding displayed a range of anti-rejection activity. CD3+ T cells (P < 0.0001), HS (P < 0.005) and CXC chemokine staining (P < 0.012), gene expression in NFκB and JAK/STAT pathways, and HS and CS disaccharide content were significantly altered with reduced rejection. Transplant of donor allografts with conditional Ndst1 deficiency exhibit significantly reduced acute rejection, comparable to systemic chemokine-GAG inhibition. Modified disaccharides in engrafted organs correlate with reduced rejection. Altered disaccharides in engrafted organs provide markers for rejection with potential to guide new therapeutic approaches in allograft rejection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-31779-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6128922PMC
September 2018

Assessment of aptamer-steroid binding using stacking-enhanced capillary electrophoresis.

Electrophoresis 2012 Mar;33(5):866-9

C. Eugene Bennett Department of Chemistry, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6045, USA.

The binding affinity of 17β-estradiol with an immobilized DNA aptamer was measured using capillary electrophoresis. Estradiol captured by the immobilized DNA was injected into the separation capillary using pH-mediated sample stacking. Stacked 17β-estradiol was then separated using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography and detected with UV-visible absorbance. Standard addition was used to quantify the concentration of estradiol bound to the aptamer. Following incubation with immobilized DNA, analysis of free and bound estradiol yielded a dissociation constant of 70 ± 10 μM. The method was also used to screen binding affinity of the aptamer for estrone and testosterone. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of capillary electrophoresis to assess the binding affinity of DNA aptamers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.201100411DOI Listing
March 2012

Online enzymatic sequencing of glycans from Trastuzumab by phospholipid-assisted capillary electrophoresis.

Electrophoresis 2011 Dec 21;32(24):3491-8. Epub 2011 Nov 21.

C. Eugene Bennett Department of Chemistry, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA.

CE separations of glycans taken from the cancer drug, Trastuzumab (Herceptin(®)), were accomplished using phospholipid additives. Glycans were labeled with 1-aminopyrene-3,6,8-trisulfonic acid and were separated with efficiencies as high as 510000 theoretical plates in a 60.2 cm 25 μm id fused-silica capillary. The thermally tunable phospholipid was loaded into the capillary when it possessed a viscosity similar to that of water. The temperature was increased, and the separations were performed when the material exhibited higher viscosity. Enzymes were integrated into the separation with the phospholipid additive. Neuraminidase, β1-4 galactosidase, and β-N-acetylglucosaminidase were injected into the capillary without covalent modification and used for enzyme hydrolysis. Exoglycosidase enzymes cleaved the terminal glycan residues. The glycan sequence could be verified based on enzyme specificity. Neuraminidase was used to determine total glycan content of the low-abundance glycans containing sialic acid. β1-4 Galactosidase and β-N-acetylglucosaminidase were used sequentially in-capillary, to determine the structure of the high-abundance glycans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.201100432DOI Listing
December 2011

Steroid determination in fish plasma using capillary electrophoresis.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2010 Sep;29(9):1950-6

C. Eugene Bennett Department of Chemistry, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 USA.

A capillary separation method that incorporates pH-mediated stacking is employed for the simultaneous determination of circulating steroid hormones in plasma from Perca flavescens (yellow perch) collected from natural aquatic environments. The method can be applied to separate eight steroid standards: progesterone, 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone, estrone, 11-ketotestosterone, ethynyl estradiol, and 17beta-estradiol. Based on screening of plasma, the performance of the analytical method was determined for 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, and 17beta-estradiol. The within-day reproducibility in migration time for these four steroids in aqueous samples was < or =2%. Steroid quantification was accomplished using a calibration curve obtained with external standards. Plasma samples from fish collected from the Choptank and Severn Rivers, Maryland, USA, stored for up to one year were extracted with ethyl acetate and then further processed with anion exchange and hydrophobic solid phase extraction cartridges. The recovery of testosterone and 17beta-estradiol from yellow perch plasma was 84 and 85%, respectively. Endogenous levels of testosterone ranged from 0.9 to 44 ng/ml, and when detected 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one ranged from 5 to 34 ng/ml. The reported values for testosterone correlated well with the immunoassay technique. Endogenous concentrations of 17beta-estradiol were < or =1.7 ng/ml. 11-Ketotestosterone was not quantified because of a suspected interferant. Higher levels of 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxypregn-4-en-3-one were found in male and female fish in which 17beta-estradiol was not detected. Monitoring multiple steroids can provide insight into hormonal fluctuations in fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.252DOI Listing
September 2010

Transformable capillary electrophoresis for oligosaccharide separations using phospholipid additives.

Anal Chem 2010 Feb;82(4):1228-33

C. Eugene Bennett Department of Chemistry, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506, USA.

Phospholipids are used as an additive in capillary electrophoresis to enhance the separation of glycans derived from alpha1-acid glycoprotein, fetuin, and ribonuclease B. The properties of phospholipid preparations are dependent upon composition, hydration, and temperature. Separation performance is evaluated as a function of these variables. A preparation of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC), with [DMPC]/[DHPC] = 2.5, in 10% lipid/aqueous buffer at 25 degrees C provides the best separation efficiency at an electric field strength of 400 V/cm. Resolution is enhanced with the additive. Concanavalin A, a lectin selective for high mannose and mannose branching glycans, and alpha1-2,3 mannosidase, an enzyme that cleaves 1-2 and 1-3 mannopyranosyl residues, are incorporated in the separation to provide additional selectivity and to expand the application of phospholipid additives for glycan separation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac902052mDOI Listing
February 2010

Electrophoretic screening of ligands under suppressed EOF with an inert phospholipid coating.

Electrophoresis 2007 Aug;28(17):3049-55

C. Eugene Bennett, Department of Chemistry, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA.

The applicability of dual injection CE for affinity selection of biopolymers that contain multiple binding sites is demonstrated. The efficient analysis of biomolecules such as carbohydrates and proteins, as well as pharmaceuticals by CE requires the reduction or elimination of nonspecific interactions with the capillary surface. Phospholipids are integral components of cell membranes and aqueous phospholipid liquid crystals adopt a bilayer structure on fused-silica. This phospholipid surface does not interact significantly with the following biomolecules: serum albumin, the 96-110 heparin binding domain of amyloid precursor protein (APP), polydisperse glycosaminoglycans, and variable chain-length oligosaccharides. Pharmaceuticals including five anionic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, three cationic analgesics, and two cationic beta-blockers, also show minimal interaction with the surface. In addition, the use of a phospholipid coating suppresses EOF, which enables reversed-polarity separations, dual opposite injection CE, affinity screening via CE by dual opposite injection, and serial target-ligand injections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.200600816DOI Listing
August 2007
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