Publications by authors named "Stella Trompet"

221 Publications

The associations of leptin and adiponectin with the metabolic syndrome in an Indonesian and a Dutch population.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Jul 27;31(8):2426-2435. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background And Aims: At the same BMI, Asian populations develop cardiometabolic complications earlier than Western populations. We hypothesized that a different secretion of the adipocyte-derived hormones leptin and adiponectin plays a role and investigated the associations of the two hormones with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in an Indonesian and a Dutch population.

Methods And Results: We performed cross-sectional analyses of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity Study (n = 6602) and the SUGAR Scientific Programme Indonesia-Netherlands Study (n = 1461). We examined sex-stratified associations of leptin and adiponectin with MetS, using multivariate logistic regression including adjustment for total body fat. The mean (SD) leptin (mcg/L) were 4.7 (6.0) in Indonesian men, 18.6 (12.0) in Indonesian women, 9.1 (7.7) in Dutch men, and 23.4 (17.4) in Dutch women. The mean (SD) adiponectin (mg/L) were 5.7 (5.4), 7.5 (7.1), 6.6 (3.3), and 11.3 (4.9), respectively. Within the same BMI category, leptin concentrations were similar in the two populations, whereas adiponectin was lower in the Indonesian population. Per SD of leptin, adjusted prevalence odds ratios (ORs, 95%CI) of MetS were 0.9 (0.6-1.2) in Indonesian men, 1.1 (0.9-1.4) in Indonesian women, 2.2 (1.6-2.8) in Dutch men, and 1.2 (1.0-1.5) in Dutch women. Per SD of adiponectin, the ORs were 0.9 (0.7-1.2), 0.8 (0.7-1.0), 0.6 (0.6-0.8), and 0.4 (0.4-0.5), respectively.

Conclusions: Despite lower adiponectin levels, adiponectin was not related to the MetS in the Indonesian population and can not explain their increased cardiometabolic risk at the same BMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2021.05.012DOI Listing
July 2021

Levothyroxine Treatment and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Older People With Subclinical Hypothyroidism: Pooled Individual Results of Two Randomised Controlled Trials.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 20;12:674841. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.

Background: The cardiovascular effects of treating older adults with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) are uncertain. Although concerns have been raised regarding a potential increase in cardiovascular side effects from thyroid hormone replacement, undertreatment may also increase the risk of cardiovascular events, especially for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Objective: To determine the effects of levothyroxine treatment on cardiovascular outcomes in older adults with SCH.

Methods: Combined data of two parallel randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trials TRUST (Thyroid hormone Replacement for Untreated older adults with Subclinical hypothyroidism - a randomised placebo controlled Trial) and IEMO80+ (the Institute for Evidence-Based Medicine in Old Age 80-plus thyroid trial) were analysed as one-stage individual participant data. Participants aged ≥65 years for TRUST (n=737) and ≥80 years for IEMO80+ (n=105) with SCH, defined by elevated TSH with fT4 within the reference range, were included. Participants were randomly assigned to receive placebo or levothyroxine, with titration of the dose until TSH level was within the reference range. Cardiovascular events and cardiovascular side effects of overtreatment (new-onset atrial fibrillation and heart failure) were investigated, including stratified analyses according to CVD history and age.

Results: The median [IQR] age was 75.0 [69.7-81.1] years, and 448 participants (53.2%) were women. The mean TSH was 6.38± SD 5.7 mIU/L at baseline and decreased at 1 year to 5.66 ± 3.3 mIU/L in the placebo group, compared with 3.66 ± 2.1 mIU/L in the levothyroxine group (p<0.001), at a median dose of 50 μg. Levothyroxine did not significantly change the risk of any of the prespecified cardiovascular outcomes, including cardiovascular events (HR 0.74 [0.41-1.25]), atrial fibrillation (HR 0.69 [0.32-1.52]), or heart failure (0.41 [0.13-1.35]), or all-cause mortality (HR 1.28 [0.54-3.03]), irrespective of history of CVD and age.

Conclusion: Treatment with levothyroxine did not significantly change the risk of cardiovascular outcomes in older adults with subclinical hypothyroidism, irrespective of a history of cardiovascular disease and age.

Clinical Trial Registration: [ClinicalTrials.gov], identifier [NCT01660126] (TRUST); Netherlands Trial Register: NTR3851 (IEMO80+).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.674841DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8173189PMC
May 2021

The trans-ancestral genomic architecture of glycemic traits.

Nat Genet 2021 06 31;53(6):840-860. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Glycemic traits are used to diagnose and monitor type 2 diabetes and cardiometabolic health. To date, most genetic studies of glycemic traits have focused on individuals of European ancestry. Here we aggregated genome-wide association studies comprising up to 281,416 individuals without diabetes (30% non-European ancestry) for whom fasting glucose, 2-h glucose after an oral glucose challenge, glycated hemoglobin and fasting insulin data were available. Trans-ancestry and single-ancestry meta-analyses identified 242 loci (99 novel; P < 5 × 10), 80% of which had no significant evidence of between-ancestry heterogeneity. Analyses restricted to individuals of European ancestry with equivalent sample size would have led to 24 fewer new loci. Compared with single-ancestry analyses, equivalent-sized trans-ancestry fine-mapping reduced the number of estimated variants in 99% credible sets by a median of 37.5%. Genomic-feature, gene-expression and gene-set analyses revealed distinct biological signatures for each trait, highlighting different underlying biological pathways. Our results increase our understanding of diabetes pathophysiology by using trans-ancestry studies for improved power and resolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00852-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610958PMC
June 2021

Common Genetic Variation in MC4R Does Not Affect Atherosclerotic Plaque Phenotypes and Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes.

J Clin Med 2021 Mar 1;10(5). Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department Medicine, Division Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands.

We analyzed the effects of the common BMI-increasing melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) rs17782313-C allele with a minor allele frequency of 0.22-0.25 on (1) cardiovascular disease outcomes in two large population-based cohorts (Copenhagen City Heart Study and Copenhagen General Population Study, = 106,018; and UK Biobank, = 357,426) and additionally in an elderly population at risk for cardiovascular disease ( = 5241), and on (2) atherosclerotic plaque phenotypes in samples of patients who underwent endarterectomy ( = 1439). Using regression models, we additionally analyzed whether potential associations were modified by sex or explained by changes in body mass index. We confirmed the BMI-increasing effects of +0.22 kg/m per additional copy of the C allele ( < 0.001). However, we found no evidence for an association of common MC4R genetic variation with coronary artery disease (HR 1.03; 95% CI 0.99, 1.07), ischemic vascular disease (HR 1.00; 95% CI 0.98, 1.03), myocardial infarction (HR 1.01; 95% CI 0.94, 1.08 and 1.02; 0.98, 1.07) or stroke (HR 0.93; 95% CI 0.85, 1.01), nor with any atherosclerotic plaque phenotype. Thus, common MC4R genetic variation, despite increasing BMI, does not affect cardiovascular disease risk in the general population or in populations at risk for cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10050932DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7957774PMC
March 2021

Genetically determined NLRP3 inflammasome activation associates with systemic inflammation and cardiovascular mortality.

Eur Heart J 2021 05;42(18):1742-1756

Emory Clinical Cardiovascular Research Institute, Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, 1462 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

Aims: Inflammation plays an important role in cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. The NOD-like receptor protein-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome contributes to the development of atherosclerosis in animal models. Components of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway such as interleukin-1β can therapeutically be targeted. Associations of genetically determined inflammasome-mediated systemic inflammation with CVD and mortality in humans are unknown.

Methods And Results: We explored the association of genetic NLRP3 variants with prevalent CVD and cardiovascular mortality in 538 167 subjects on the individual participant level in an explorative gene-centric approach without performing multiple testing. Functional relevance of single-nucleotide polymorphisms on NLRP3 inflammasome activation has been evaluated in monocyte-enriched peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Genetic analyses identified the highly prevalent (minor allele frequency 39.9%) intronic NLRP3 variant rs10754555 to affect NLRP3 gene expression. rs10754555 carriers showed significantly higher C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A plasma levels. Carriers of the G allele showed higher NLRP3 inflammasome activation in isolated human PBMCs. In carriers of the rs10754555 variant, the prevalence of coronary artery disease was significantly higher as compared to non-carriers with a significant interaction between rs10754555 and age. Importantly, rs10754555 carriers had significantly higher risk for cardiovascular mortality during follow-up. Inflammasome inducers (e.g. urate, triglycerides, apolipoprotein C3) modulated the association between rs10754555 and mortality.

Conclusion: The NLRP3 intronic variant rs10754555 is associated with increased systemic inflammation, inflammasome activation, prevalent coronary artery disease, and mortality. This study provides evidence for a substantial role of genetically driven systemic inflammation in CVD and highlights the NLRP3 inflammasome as a therapeutic target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8244638PMC
May 2021

Investigating the relationships between unfavourable habitual sleep and metabolomic traits: evidence from multi-cohort multivariable regression and Mendelian randomization analyses.

BMC Med 2021 Mar 18;19(1):69. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Sleep traits are associated with cardiometabolic disease risk, with evidence from Mendelian randomization (MR) suggesting that insomnia symptoms and shorter sleep duration increase coronary artery disease risk. We combined adjusted multivariable regression (AMV) and MR analyses of phenotypes of unfavourable sleep on 113 metabolomic traits to investigate possible biochemical mechanisms linking sleep to cardiovascular disease.

Methods: We used AMV (N = 17,368) combined with two-sample MR (N = 38,618) to examine effects of self-reported insomnia symptoms, total habitual sleep duration, and chronotype on 113 metabolomic traits. The AMV analyses were conducted on data from 10 cohorts of mostly Europeans, adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. For the MR analyses, we used summary results from published European-ancestry genome-wide association studies of self-reported sleep traits and of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) serum metabolites. We used the inverse-variance weighted (IVW) method and complemented this with sensitivity analyses to assess MR assumptions.

Results: We found consistent evidence from AMV and MR analyses for associations of usual vs. sometimes/rare/never insomnia symptoms with lower citrate (- 0.08 standard deviation (SD)[95% confidence interval (CI) - 0.12, - 0.03] in AMV and - 0.03SD [- 0.07, - 0.003] in MR), higher glycoprotein acetyls (0.08SD [95% CI 0.03, 0.12] in AMV and 0.06SD [0.03, 0.10) in MR]), lower total very large HDL particles (- 0.04SD [- 0.08, 0.00] in AMV and - 0.05SD [- 0.09, - 0.02] in MR), and lower phospholipids in very large HDL particles (- 0.04SD [- 0.08, 0.002] in AMV and - 0.05SD [- 0.08, - 0.02] in MR). Longer total sleep duration associated with higher creatinine concentrations using both methods (0.02SD per 1 h [0.01, 0.03] in AMV and 0.15SD [0.02, 0.29] in MR) and with isoleucine in MR analyses (0.22SD [0.08, 0.35]). No consistent evidence was observed for effects of chronotype on metabolomic measures.

Conclusions: Whilst our results suggested that unfavourable sleep traits may not cause widespread metabolic disruption, some notable effects were observed. The evidence for possible effects of insomnia symptoms on glycoprotein acetyls and citrate and longer total sleep duration on creatinine and isoleucine might explain some of the effects, found in MR analyses of these sleep traits on coronary heart disease, which warrant further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-021-01939-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7971964PMC
March 2021

Genome-wide association study of circulating interleukin 6 levels identifies novel loci.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 Apr;30(5):393-409

Institute of Cardiovascular Science, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties with a heritability estimate of up to 61%. The circulating levels of IL-6 in blood have been associated with an increased risk of complex disease pathogenesis. We conducted a two-staged, discovery and replication meta genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating serum IL-6 levels comprising up to 67 428 (ndiscovery = 52 654 and nreplication = 14 774) individuals of European ancestry. The inverse variance fixed effects based discovery meta-analysis, followed by replication led to the identification of two independent loci, IL1F10/IL1RN rs6734238 on chromosome (Chr) 2q14, (Pcombined = 1.8 × 10-11), HLA-DRB1/DRB5 rs660895 on Chr6p21 (Pcombined = 1.5 × 10-10) in the combined meta-analyses of all samples. We also replicated the IL6R rs4537545 locus on Chr1q21 (Pcombined = 1.2 × 10-122). Our study identifies novel loci for circulating IL-6 levels uncovering new immunological and inflammatory pathways that may influence IL-6 pathobiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddab023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8098112PMC
April 2021

Design and rationale of a routine clinical care pathway and prospective cohort study in older patients needing intensive treatment.

BMC Geriatr 2021 01 7;21(1):29. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, PO box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Treatment decisions concerning older patients can be very challenging and individualised treatment plans are often required in this very heterogeneous group. In 2015 we have implemented a routine clinical care pathway for older patients in need of intensive treatment, including a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) that was used to support clinical decision making. An ongoing prospective cohort study, the Triaging Elderly Needing Treatment (TENT) study, has also been initiated in 2016 for participants in this clinical care pathway, to study associations between geriatric characteristics and outcomes of treatment that are relevant to older patients. The aim of this paper is to describe the implementation and rationale of the routine clinical care pathway and design of the TENT study.

Methods: A routine clinical care pathway has been designed and implemented in multiple hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients aged ≥70 years who are candidates for intensive treatments, such as chemotherapy, (chemo-)radiation therapy or major surgery, undergo frailty screening based on the Geriatric 8 (G-8) questionnaire and the Six-Item Cognitive Impairment Test (6CIT). If screening reveals potential frailty, a CGA is performed. All patients are invited to participate in the TENT study. Clinical data and blood samples for biomarker studies are collected at baseline. During follow-up, information about treatment complications, hospitalisations, functional decline, quality of life and mortality is collected. The primary outcome is the composite endpoint of functional decline or mortality at 1 year.

Discussion: Implementation of a routine clinical care pathway for older patients in need of intensive treatment provides the opportunity to study associations between determinants of frailty and outcomes of treatment. Results of the TENT study will support individualised treatment for future patients.

Trial Registration: The study is retrospectively registered at the Netherlands Trial Register (NTR), trial number NL8107 . Date of registration: 22-10-2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-020-01975-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7791733PMC
January 2021

Health care expenditure in the last five years of life is driven by morbidity, not age: A national study of spending trajectories in Danish decedents over age 65.

PLoS One 2020 18;15(12):e0244061. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Data Science Lab, Statistics Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: The high level of medical spending at the end of life is well-documented, but whether there is any real potential for cost reductions there is still in question, and studies have tended to overlook the costs of care.

Aim: To identify the most common health care spending trajectories over the last five years of life among older Danes, as well as the determinants of following a given trajectory.

Methods: We linked Danish health registries to obtain data on all health care expenditure (including hospital treatment, prescription drugs, primary care and costs of communal care) over the last five years of life for all Danish decedents above age 65 in the period 2013 through 2017. A latent class analysis identified the most common cost trajectories, which were then related to socio-economical characteristics and health status at five years before death.

Results: Total health care expenditures in the last five years of life were largely independent of age and cause of death. Costs of home care and residential care increased steeply with age at death whereas hospital costs decreased correspondingly. We found four main spending trajectories among decedents: 3 percent followed a late-rise trajectory, 11 percent had accelerating costs, and two groups of 43 percent each followed moderately or consistently high trajectories. The main predictor of total expenditure was the number of chronic diseases.

Interpretation: Spending at the end of life is largely determined by chronic disease, and age and cause of death only determine the distribution of expenses into care and cure.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0244061PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7748135PMC
February 2021

The Bidirectional Relationship between Vision and Cognition: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Ophthalmology 2021 Jul 27;128(7):981-992. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, Republic of Singapore; Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore, Republic of Singapore; Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address:

Topic: Visual impairment (VI) and cognitive impairment (CIM) are prevalent age-related conditions that impose substantial burden on the society. Findings on the hypothesized bidirectional association of VI and CIM remains equivocal. Hence, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine this bidirectional relationship.

Clinical Relevance: Sixty percent risk of CIM has not been well elucidated in the literature. A bidirectional relationship between VI and CIM may support the development of strategies for early detection and management of risk factors for both conditions in older people.

Methods: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central registers were searched systematically for observational studies, published from inception until April 6, 2020, in adults 40 years of age or older reporting objectively measured VI and CIM assessment using clinically validated cognitive screening tests or diagnostic evaluation. Meta-analyses on cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between VI and CIM outcomes (any CIM assessed using screening tests and clinically diagnosed dementia) were examined. Random effect models were used to generate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We also examined study quality, publication bias, and heterogeneity.

Results: Forty studies were included (n = 47 913 570). Meta-analyses confirmed that persons with VI were more likely to have CIM, with significantly higher odds of: (1) any CIM (cross-sectional: OR, 2.38 [95% CI, 1.84-3.07]; longitudinal: OR, 1.66 [95% CI, 1.46-1.89]) and (2) clinically diagnosed dementia (cross-sectional: OR, 2.43 [95% CI, 1.48-4.01]; longitudinal: OR, 2.09 [95% CI, 1.37-3.21]) compared with persons without VI. Significant heterogeneity was explained partially by differences in age, sex, and follow-up duration. Also, some evidence suggested that individuals with CIM, relative to cognitively intact persons, were more likely to have VI, with most articles (8/9 [89%]) reporting significantly positive associations; however, meta-analyses on this association could not be conducted because of insufficient data.

Discussion: Overall, our work suggests that VI is a risk factor of CIM, although further work is needed to confirm the association of CIM as a risk factor for VI. Strategies for early detection and management of both conditions in older people may minimize individual clinical and public health consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2020.12.010DOI Listing
July 2021

Cerebral small vessel disease genomics and its implications across the lifespan.

Nat Commun 2020 12 8;11(1):6285. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, 35233, USA.

White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are the most common brain-imaging feature of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), hypertension being the main known risk factor. Here, we identify 27 genome-wide loci for WMH-volume in a cohort of 50,970 older individuals, accounting for modification/confounding by hypertension. Aggregated WMH risk variants were associated with altered white matter integrity (p = 2.5×10-7) in brain images from 1,738 young healthy adults, providing insight into the lifetime impact of SVD genetic risk. Mendelian randomization suggested causal association of increasing WMH-volume with stroke, Alzheimer-type dementia, and of increasing blood pressure (BP) with larger WMH-volume, notably also in persons without clinical hypertension. Transcriptome-wide colocalization analyses showed association of WMH-volume with expression of 39 genes, of which four encode known drug targets. Finally, we provide insight into BP-independent biological pathways underlying SVD and suggest potential for genetic stratification of high-risk individuals and for genetically-informed prioritization of drug targets for prevention trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19111-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7722866PMC
December 2020

Association of circulating metabolites in plasma or serum and risk of stroke: Meta-analysis from seven prospective cohorts.

Neurology 2020 Dec 2. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands;

Objective: To conduct a comprehensive analysis of circulating metabolites and incident stroke in large prospective population-based settings.

Methods: We investigated the association of metabolites with risk of stroke in seven prospective cohort studies including 1,791 incident stroke events among 38,797 participants in whom circulating metabolites were measured by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (H-NMR) technology. The relationship between metabolites and stroke was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. The analyses were performed considering all incident stroke events and ischemic and hemorrhagic events separately.

Results: The analyses revealed ten significant metabolite associations. Amino acid histidine (hazard ratio (HR) per standard deviation (SD) = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85, 0.94; = 4.45×10), glycolysis-related metabolite pyruvate (HR per SD = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.14; = 7.45×10), acute phase reaction marker glycoprotein acetyls (HR per SD = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.15; = 1.27×10), cholesterol in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) 2 and several other lipoprotein particles were associated with risk of stroke. When focusing on incident ischemic stroke, a significant association was observed with phenylalanine (HR per SD = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.19; 4.13×10) and total and free cholesterol in large HDL particles.

Conclusions: We found association of amino acids, glycolysis-related metabolites, acute phase reaction markers, and several lipoprotein subfractions with the risk of stroke. These findings support the potential of metabolomics to provide new insights into the metabolic changes preceding stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8055347PMC
December 2020

Discovery of rare variants associated with blood pressure regulation through meta-analysis of 1.3 million individuals.

Nat Genet 2020 12 23;52(12):1314-1332. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.

Genetic studies of blood pressure (BP) to date have mainly analyzed common variants (minor allele frequency > 0.05). In a meta-analysis of up to ~1.3 million participants, we discovered 106 new BP-associated genomic regions and 87 rare (minor allele frequency ≤ 0.01) variant BP associations (P < 5 × 10), of which 32 were in new BP-associated loci and 55 were independent BP-associated single-nucleotide variants within known BP-associated regions. Average effects of rare variants (44% coding) were ~8 times larger than common variant effects and indicate potential candidate causal genes at new and known loci (for example, GATA5 and PLCB3). BP-associated variants (including rare and common) were enriched in regions of active chromatin in fetal tissues, potentially linking fetal development with BP regulation in later life. Multivariable Mendelian randomization suggested possible inverse effects of elevated systolic and diastolic BP on large artery stroke. Our study demonstrates the utility of rare-variant analyses for identifying candidate genes and the results highlight potential therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-00713-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610439PMC
December 2020

An individual participant data analysis of prospective cohort studies on the association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and depressive symptoms.

Sci Rep 2020 11 5;10(1):19111. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Institute of Primary Health Care (BIHAM), University of Bern, Mittelstrasse 43, 3012, Bern, Switzerland.

In subclinical hypothyroidism, the presence of depressive symptoms is often a reason for starting levothyroxine treatment. However, data are conflicting on the association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and depressive symptoms. We aimed to examine the association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and depressive symptoms in all prospective cohorts with relevant data available. We performed a systematic review of the literature from Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Cochrane Library from inception to 10th May 2019. We included prospective cohorts with data on thyroid status at baseline and depressive symptoms during follow-up. The primary outcome was depressive symptoms measured at first available follow-up, expressed on the Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) scale (range 0-63, higher values indicate more depressive symptoms, minimal clinically important difference: 5 points). We performed a two-stage individual participant data (IPD) analysis comparing participants with subclinical hypo- or hyperthyroidism versus euthyroidism, adjusting for depressive symptoms at baseline, age, sex, education, and income (PROSPERO CRD42018091627). Six cohorts met the inclusion criteria, with IPD on 23,038 participants. Their mean age was 60 years, 65% were female, 21,025 were euthyroid, 1342 had subclinical hypothyroidism and 671 subclinical hyperthyroidism. At first available follow-up [mean 8.2 (± 4.3) years], BDI scores did not differ between participants with subclinical hypothyroidism (mean difference = 0.29, 95% confidence interval =  - 0.17 to 0.76, I = 15.6) or subclinical hyperthyroidism (- 0.10, 95% confidence interval =  - 0.67 to 0.48, I = 3.2) compared to euthyroidism. This systematic review and IPD analysis of six prospective cohort studies found no clinically relevant association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction at baseline and depressive symptoms during follow-up. The results were robust in all sensitivity and subgroup analyses. Our results are in contrast with the traditional notion that subclinical thyroid dysfunction, and subclinical hypothyroidism in particular, is associated with depressive symptoms. Consequently, our results do not support the practice of prescribing levothyroxine in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism to reduce the risk of developing depressive symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75776-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7644764PMC
November 2020

Metabolic Age Based on the BBMRI-NL H-NMR Metabolomics Repository as Biomarker of Age-related Disease.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2020 10 14;13(5):541-547. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, the Netherlands (C.D.A.S., C.J.H.v.d.K., M.M.J.v.G.).

Background: The blood metabolome incorporates cues from the environment and the host's genetic background, potentially offering a holistic view of an individual's health status.

Methods: We have compiled a vast resource of proton nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics and phenotypic data encompassing over 25 000 samples derived from 26 community and hospital-based cohorts.

Results: Using this resource, we constructed a metabolomics-based age predictor (metaboAge) to calculate an individual's biological age. Exploration in independent cohorts demonstrates that being judged older by one's metabolome, as compared with one's chronological age, confers an increased risk on future cardiovascular disease, mortality, and functionality in older individuals. A web-based tool for calculating metaboAge (metaboage.researchlumc.nl) allows easy incorporation in other epidemiological studies. Access to data can be requested at bbmri.nl/samples-images-data.

Conclusions: In summary, we present a vast resource of metabolomics data and illustrate its merit by constructing a metabolomics-based score for biological age that captures aspects of current and future cardiometabolic health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.119.002610DOI Listing
October 2020

Association of common genetic variants with brain microbleeds: A genome-wide association study.

Neurology 2020 12 10;95(24):e3331-e3343. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

From the Departments of Epidemiology (M.J.K., H.H.H.A., D.V., S.J.v.d.L., P.Y., M.W.V., N.A., C.M.v.D., M.A.I.), Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (H.H.H.A., P.Y., A.v.d.L., M.W.V.), and Clinical Genetics (H.H.H.A.), Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Stroke Research Group, Department of Clinical Neurosciences (D.L., M.T., J.L., D.J.T., H.S.M.), University of Cambridge, UK; Department of Neurology (J.R.J.R., C.L.S., J.J.H., A.S.B., C.D., S. Seshadri), Boston University School of Medicine; The Framingham Heart Study (J.R.J.R., C.L.S., J.J.H., A.S.B., S. Seshadri), MA; Department of Biostatistics (A.V.S.), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Icelandic Heart Association (A.V.S., S. Sigurdsson, V.G.), Kopavogur, Iceland; Brown Foundation Institute of Molecular Medicine, McGovern Medical School (M.F.), and Human Genetics Center, School of Public Health (M.F.), University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston; Clinical Division of Neurogeriatrics, Department of Neurology (E.H., L.P., R.S.), Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation (E.H.), and Gottfried Schatz Research Center, Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry (Y.S., H.S.), Medical University of Graz, Austria; Center of Cerebrovascular Diseases, Department of Neurology (J.L.), West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu; Stroke Research Centre, Queen Square Institute of Neurology (I.C.H., D.W., H.H., D.J.W.), University College London, UK; Department of Neurosurgery (I.C.H.), Klinikum rechts der Isar, University of Munich, Germany; Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Psychology (M.L., D.C.M.L., M.E.B., I.J.D., J.M.W.), and Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, Edinburgh Imaging, UK Dementia Research Institute (M.E.B., J.M.W.), University of Edinburgh, UK; Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Gerontology and Geriatrics (S.T.), Department of Cardiology (S.T., J.v.d.G., J.W.J.), Section of Molecular Epidemiology, Biomedical Data Sciences (E.B.v.d.A., M.B., P.E.S.), Leiden Computational Biology Center, Biomedical Data Sciences (E.B.v.d.A.), Department of Radiology (J.v.d.G.), and Einthoven Laboratory for Experimental Vascular Medicine (J.W.J.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands; Department of Neurology (A.-K.G., N.S.R.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston; Memory Aging and Cognition Center (S.H., C.C.), National University Health System, Singapore; Department of Pharmacology (S.H., C.C.) and Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health (S.H.), National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore; Pattern Recognition & Bioinformatics (E.B.v.d.A.), Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands; Department of Biostatistics (S.L., J.J.H., Q.Y., A.S.B.), Boston University School of Public Health, MA; Department of Radiology (C.R.J., K.K.), Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; Glenn Biggs Institute for Alzheimer's & Neurodegenerative Diseases (C.L.S., S. Seshadri), UT Health San Antonio, TX; Department of Medicine, Division of Geriatrics (B.G.W., T.H.M), and Memory Impairment and Neurodegenerative Dementia (MIND) Center (T.H.M.), University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson; Singapore Eye Research Institute (C.Y.C., J.Y.K., T.Y.W.); Department of Neuroradiology (Z.M., J.M.W.), NHS Lothian, Edinburgh; Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences (D.J.S.), College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, UK; Division of Cerebrovascular Neurology (R.F.G.), Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; Department of Neuroradiology (A.D.M.), Atkinson Morley Neurosciences Centre, St George's NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; Department of Neurology (C.D.), University of California at Davis; Nuffield Department of Population Health (C.M.v.D.), University of Oxford, UK; Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences (L.J.L.), National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD; and Faculty of Medicine (V.G.), University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.

Objective: To identify common genetic variants associated with the presence of brain microbleeds (BMBs).

Methods: We performed genome-wide association studies in 11 population-based cohort studies and 3 case-control or case-only stroke cohorts. Genotypes were imputed to the Haplotype Reference Consortium or 1000 Genomes reference panel. BMBs were rated on susceptibility-weighted or T2*-weighted gradient echo MRI sequences, and further classified as lobar or mixed (including strictly deep and infratentorial, possibly with lobar BMB). In a subset, we assessed the effects of ε2 and ε4 alleles on BMB counts. We also related previously identified cerebral small vessel disease variants to BMBs.

Results: BMBs were detected in 3,556 of the 25,862 participants, of which 2,179 were strictly lobar and 1,293 mixed. One locus in the region reached genome-wide significance for its association with BMB (lead rs769449; odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval (CI)] 1.33 [1.21-1.45]; = 2.5 × 10). ε4 alleles were associated with strictly lobar (OR [95% CI] 1.34 [1.19-1.50]; = 1.0 × 10) but not with mixed BMB counts (OR [95% CI] 1.04 [0.86-1.25]; = 0.68). ε2 alleles did not show associations with BMB counts. Variants previously related to deep intracerebral hemorrhage and lacunar stroke, and a risk score of cerebral white matter hyperintensity variants, were associated with BMB.

Conclusions: Genetic variants in the region are associated with the presence of BMB, most likely due to the ε4 allele count related to a higher number of strictly lobar BMBs. Genetic predisposition to small vessel disease confers risk of BMB, indicating genetic overlap with other cerebral small vessel disease markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000010852DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7836652PMC
December 2020

Associations of Cytomegalovirus Infection With All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in Multiple Observational Cohort Studies of Older Adults.

J Infect Dis 2021 Feb;223(2):238-246

Department of Medicine and Aged Care, @AgeMelbourne, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Whether latent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in older adults has any substantial health consequences is unclear. Here, we sought associations between CMV-seropositivity and IgG titer with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in 5 longitudinal cohorts.

Methods: Leiden Longevity Study, Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk, Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins, and Leiden 85-plus Study were assessed at median (2.8-11.4 years) follow-up . Cox regression and random effects meta-analysis were used to estimate mortality risk dependent on CMV serostatus and/or IgG antibody titer, in quartiles after adjusting for confounders.

Results: CMV-seropositivity was seen in 47%-79% of 10 122 white community-dwelling adults aged 59-93 years. Of these, 3519 had died on follow-up (579 from cardiovascular disease). CMV seropositivity was not associated with all-cause (hazard ratio [HR], 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], .97-1.14) or cardiovascular mortality (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, .83-1.13). Subjects in the highest CMV IgG quartile group had increased all-cause mortality relative to CMV-seronegatives (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.04-1.29) but this association lost significance after adjustment for confounders (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, .99-1.29). The lack of increased mortality risk was confirmed in subanalyses.

Conclusions: CMV infection is not associated with all-cause or cardiovascular mortality in white community-dwelling older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa480DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7857154PMC
February 2021

Clinical determinants of low handgrip strength and its decline in the oldest old: the Leiden 85-plus Study.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2021 May 30;33(5):1307-1313. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Human Movement Sciences, Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Age-related decline in muscle strength, dynapenia, is linked to serious adverse health outcomes. Evidence on the determinants of muscle strength decline in the oldest old is lacking.

Aims: To identify clinical variables associated with handgrip strength and its change over a 4-year period in an oldest old cohort.

Methods: We included 555 participants from the Leiden 85-plus Study, a prospective population-based study of 85-year-old inhabitants of Leiden, the Netherlands. Handgrip strength was assessed at age 85 and 89 years. Anthropometry, mental status, functional performance, and biochemical variables were obtained at baselines. Significant univariates were included into multivariable regression models to extract the final predictive variables.

Results: Handgrip strength for men and women at age 85 years was 30.6 kg (SD 8.2) and 18.7 kg (SD, 5.5), respectively. In the cross-sectional analysis, body height and weight were positively associated with handgrip strength in both genders. Higher functional performance was associated with stronger handgrip strength in women. Mean absolute handgrip strength decline over 4 years was greater for men than women (- 6.1 kg (SD, 5.2) vs. - 3.4 kg (SD, 4.1), p < 0.001). Men with better baseline cognitive functioning had smaller decline in handgrip strength.

Conclusions: This study further strengthens evidence linking functional and cognitive performances to muscle strength in the oldest old. Future research is needed to ascertain causality and determine if these markers represent potential targets for intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40520-020-01639-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8081703PMC
May 2021

Genome-Wide Association Study of the Postprandial Triglyceride Response Yields Common Genetic Variation in LIPC (Hepatic Lipase).

Circ Genom Precis Med 2020 08 30;13(4):e002693. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine (J.B.v.K., L.L.B., P.C.N.R., K.W.v.D.).

Background: The increase in serum triglyceride (TG) concentrations in response to a meal is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to elucidate the genetics of the postprandial TG response through genome-wide association studies (GWAS).

Methods: Participants of the NEO (Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity) study (n=5630) consumed a liquid mixed meal after an overnight fast. GWAS of fasting and postprandial serum TG at 150 minutes were performed. To identify genetic variation of postprandial TG independent of fasting TG, we calculated the TG response at 150 minutes by the residuals of a nonlinear regression that predicted TG at 150 minutes as a function of fasting TG. Association analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and principal components in a linear regression model. Next, using the identified variants as determinants, we performed linear regression analyses on the residuals of the postprandial response of 149 nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolite measures.

Results: GWAS of fasting TG and postprandial serum TG at 150 minutes resulted in completely overlapping loci, replicating previous GWAS. From GWAS of the TG response, we identified rs7350789-A (allele frequency=0.36), mapping to hepatic lipase (), to be associated with a smaller increase in TG concentrations at 150 minutes (β=-0.11; -value=5.1×10). Rs7350789-A was associated with responses of 33 metabolite measures (-value <1.34×10), mainly smaller increases of the TG-component in almost all HDL (high-density lipoprotein) subparticles (HDL-TG), a smaller decrease of HDL diameter and smaller increases of most components of VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) subparticles.

Conclusions: GWAS of the TG response identified a variant near as a main contributor to postprandial TG metabolism independent of fasting TG concentrations, resulting in smaller increases of HDL-TG and VLDL subparticles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.119.002693DOI Listing
August 2020

Common Genetic Variation Indicates Separate Causes for Periventricular and Deep White Matter Hyperintensities.

Stroke 2020 07 10;51(7):2111-2121. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Psychiatry (C.F.-N.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

Background And Purpose: Periventricular white matter hyperintensities (WMH; PVWMH) and deep WMH (DWMH) are regional classifications of WMH and reflect proposed differences in cause. In the first study, to date, we undertook genome-wide association analyses of DWMH and PVWMH to show that these phenotypes have different genetic underpinnings.

Methods: Participants were aged 45 years and older, free of stroke and dementia. We conducted genome-wide association analyses of PVWMH and DWMH in 26,654 participants from CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology), ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro-Imaging Genetics Through Meta-Analysis), and the UKB (UK Biobank). Regional correlations were investigated using the genome-wide association analyses -pairwise method. Cross-trait genetic correlations between PVWMH, DWMH, stroke, and dementia were estimated using LDSC.

Results: In the discovery and replication analysis, for PVWMH only, we found associations on chromosomes 2 (), 10q23.1 (), and 10q24.33 ( In the much larger combined meta-analysis of all cohorts, we identified ten significant regions for PVWMH: chromosomes 2 (3 regions), 6, 7, 10 (2 regions), 13, 16, and 17q23.1. New loci of interest include 7q36.1 () and 16q24.2. In both the discovery/replication and combined analysis, we found genome-wide significant associations for the 17q25.1 locus for both DWMH and PVWMH. Using gene-based association analysis, 19 genes across all regions were identified for PVWMH only, including the new genes: (2q32.1), (3q27.1), (5q27.1), and (22q13.1). Thirteen genes in the 17q25.1 locus were significant for both phenotypes. More extensive genetic correlations were observed for PVWMH with small vessel ischemic stroke. There were no associations with dementia for either phenotype.

Conclusions: Our study confirms these phenotypes have distinct and also shared genetic architectures. Genetic analyses indicated PVWMH was more associated with ischemic stroke whilst DWMH loci were implicated in vascular, astrocyte, and neuronal function. Our study confirms these phenotypes are distinct neuroimaging classifications and identifies new candidate genes associated with PVWMH only.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.027544DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7365038PMC
July 2020

The contribution of tissue-grouped BMI-associated gene sets to cardiometabolic-disease risk: a Mendelian randomization study.

Int J Epidemiol 2020 08;49(4):1246-1256

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Body mass index (BMI)-associated loci are used to explore the effects of obesity using Mendelian randomization (MR), but the contribution of individual tissues to risks remains unknown. We aimed to identify tissue-grouped pathways of BMI-associated loci and relate these to cardiometabolic disease using MR analyses.

Methods: Using Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) data, we performed overrepresentation tests to identify tissue-grouped gene sets based on mRNA-expression profiles from 634 previously published BMI-associated loci. We conducted two-sample MR with inverse-variance-weighted methods, to examine associations between tissue-grouped BMI-associated genetic instruments and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and coronary artery disease (CAD), with use of summary-level data from published genome-wide association studies (T2DM: 74 124 cases, 824 006 controls; CAD: 60 801 cases, 123 504 controls). Additionally, we performed MR analyses on T2DM and CAD using randomly sampled sets of 100 or 200 BMI-associated genetic variants.

Results: We identified 17 partly overlapping tissue-grouped gene sets, of which 12 were brain areas, where BMI-associated genes were differentially expressed. In tissue-grouped MR analyses, all gene sets were similarly associated with increased risks of T2DM and CAD. MR analyses with randomly sampled genetic variants on T2DM and CAD resulted in a distribution of effect estimates similar to tissue-grouped gene sets.

Conclusions: Overrepresentation tests revealed differential expression of BMI-associated genes in 17 different tissues. However, with our biology-based approach using tissue-grouped MR analyses, we did not identify different risks of T2DM or CAD for the BMI-associated gene sets, which was reflected by similar effect estimates obtained by randomly sampled gene sets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyaa070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7660142PMC
August 2020

Association of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol With Cognitive Function: Findings From the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk.

J Aging Health 2020 10 27;32(9):1267-1274. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, NYC, NY.

We aimed to examine whether variability in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) over time was associated with cognitive function. We conducted a post hoc analysis of the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) trial. Our sample included 4,428 participants with at least two repeated HDL-c measures between Months 3 and 24 postbaseline and with cognitive assessments at Month 30. HDL-c variability was defined as the intraindividual standard deviation over each person's repeated measurements. Higher HDL-c variability was associated with worse performance on the Letter-Digit Coding Test (β [95% confidence interval] [CI] = -4.39 [-7.36, -1.43], = .004), immediate recall on the 15-Picture Learning Test (β [95% CI] = -0.98 [-1.86, -0.11], = .027), and delayed recall on the 15-Picture Learning Test (β [95% CI] = -1.90 [-3.14, -0.67], = .002). The associations did not vary by treatment group. Our findings suggest that variability in HDL-c may be associated with poor cognitive function among older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0898264320916959DOI Listing
October 2020

Multi-ancestry GWAS of the electrocardiographic PR interval identifies 202 loci underlying cardiac conduction.

Nat Commun 2020 05 21;11(1):2542. Epub 2020 May 21.

Wellcome Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

The electrocardiographic PR interval reflects atrioventricular conduction, and is associated with conduction abnormalities, pacemaker implantation, atrial fibrillation (AF), and cardiovascular mortality. Here we report a multi-ancestry (N = 293,051) genome-wide association meta-analysis for the PR interval, discovering 202 loci of which 141 have not previously been reported. Variants at identified loci increase the percentage of heritability explained, from 33.5% to 62.6%. We observe enrichment for cardiac muscle developmental/contractile and cytoskeletal genes, highlighting key regulation processes for atrioventricular conduction. Additionally, 8 loci not previously reported harbor genes underlying inherited arrhythmic syndromes and/or cardiomyopathies suggesting a role for these genes in cardiovascular pathology in the general population. We show that polygenic predisposition to PR interval duration is an endophenotype for cardiovascular disease, including distal conduction disease, AF, and atrioventricular pre-excitation. These findings advance our understanding of the polygenic basis of cardiac conduction, and the genetic relationship between PR interval duration and cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15706-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242331PMC
May 2020

Ventricular Repolarization is Associated with Cognitive Function, but Not with Cognitive Decline and Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Measurements in Older Adults.

J Clin Med 2020 Mar 26;9(4). Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA Leiden, the Netherlands.

We aimed to investigate the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of electrocardiogram (ECG)-based QT, QTc, JT, JTc, and QRS intervals with cognitive function and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements in a cohort of older individuals at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, but free of known arrhythmias. We studied 4627 participants (54% female, mean age 75 years) enrolled in the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER). Ten-second ECGs were conducted at baseline. Cognitive function was tested at baseline and repeated during a mean follow-up time of 3.2 years. Structural MRIs were conducted in a subgroup of 535 participants. Analyses were performed with multivariable (repeated) linear regression models and adjusted for cardiovascular risk-factors, co-morbidities, and cardiovascular drug use. At baseline, longer QT, JT, JTc-but not QTc and QRS intervals-were associated with a worse cognitive performance. Most notably, on the Stroop Test, participants performed 3.02 (95% CI 0.31; 5.73) seconds worse per standard deviation higher QT interval, independent of cardiovascular risk factors and medication use. There was no association between longer ventricular de- or repolarization and structural brain measurements. Therefore, specifically ventricular repolarization was associated with worse cognitive performance in older individuals at baseline but not during follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9040911DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7230741PMC
March 2020

The association of kidney function and cognitive decline in older patients at risk of cardiovascular disease: a longitudinal data analysis.

BMC Nephrol 2020 03 5;21(1):81. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333ZA, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been identified as a significant direct marker for cognitive decline, but controversy exists regarding the magnitude of the association of kidney function with cognitive decline across the different CKD stages. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the association of kidney function with cognitive decline in older patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease, using data from the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER).

Methods: Data of 5796 patients of PROSPER were used. Strata were made according to clinical stages of CKD based on estimated glomerular filtration rate; < 30 ml/min/1.73m (stage 4), 30-45 ml/min/1.73m (stage 3b), 45-60 ml/min/1.73m (stage 3a) and ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73m (stage 1-2). Cognitive function and functional status was assessed at six different time points and means were compared at baseline and over time, adjusted for multiple prespecified variables. Stratified analyses for history of vascular disease were executed.

Results: Mean age was 75.3 years and 48.3% participants were male. Mean follow-up was 3.2 years. For all cognitive function tests CKD stage 4 compared to the other stages had the worst outcome at baseline and a trend for faster cognitive decline over time. When comparing stage 4 versus stage 1-2 over time the estimates (95% CI) were 2.23 (0.60-3.85; p = 0.009) for the Stroop-Colour-Word test, - 0.33 (- 0.66-0.001; p = 0.051) for the Letter-Digit-Coding test, 0.08 (- 0.06-0.21; p = 0.275) for the Picture-Word-Learning test with immediate recall and - 0.07 (- 0.02-0.05; p = 0.509) for delayed recall. This association was most present in patients with a history of vascular disease. No differences were found in functional status.

Conclusion: In older people with vascular burden, only severe kidney disease (CKD stage 4), but not mild to modest kidney disease (CKD stage 3a and b), seem to be associated with cognitive impairment at baseline and cognitive decline over time. The association of severe kidney failure with cognitive impairment and decline over time was more outspoken in patients with a history of vascular disease, possibly due to a higher probability of polyvascular damage, in both kidney and brain, in patients with proven cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-020-01745-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7059260PMC
March 2020

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its association with body fat distribution in middle-aged individuals from Indonesia and the Netherlands: a cross-sectional analysis of two population-based studies.

Diabetol Metab Syndr 2020 7;12. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varies among populations with different ethnicities. Asian populations develop metabolic complications at lower amounts of adiposity than western populations. The role of abdominal obesity in the metabolic differences between the two populations is poorly understood.

Objectives: Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the relative contribution of its components in the Indonesian and the Dutch population, as well as to examine the associations of overall and abdominal obesity with metabolic syndrome.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study of middle-aged adults in the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity Study (n = 6602) and the Indonesian National Health Surveillance (n = 10,575), metabolic syndrome was defined by the unified IDF and AHA/NHLBI criteria. We performed logistic and linear regressions to examine associations of BMI and waist circumference with the metabolic syndrome, mutually adjusted for waist circumference and BMI.

Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 28% and 46% in Indonesian men and women, and 36% and 24% in Dutch men and women. The most prominent components were hypertension (61%) and hyperglycemia (51%) in the Indonesian, and hypertension (62%) and abdominal obesity (40%) in the Dutch population. Per SD in BMI and waist circumference, odds ratios (ORs, 95% CI) of metabolic syndrome were 1.5 (1.3-1.8) and 2.3 (1.9-2.7) in Indonesian men and 1.7 (1.2-2.5) and 2.9 (2.1-4.1) in Dutch men. The ORs of metabolic syndrome were 1.4 (1.2-1.6) and 2.3 (2.0-2.7) in Indonesian women and 1.0 (0.8-1.3) and 4.2 (3.2-5.4) in Dutch women.

Conclusion: More Indonesian women than men have metabolic syndrome, whereas the opposite is true for the Dutch population. In both the Indonesian and the Dutch populations, hypertension is the primary contributor to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. In both populations, abdominal adiposity was more strongly associated with metabolic syndrome than overall adiposity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13098-019-0503-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6947940PMC
January 2020

Genome-wide association and Mendelian randomisation analysis provide insights into the pathogenesis of heart failure.

Nat Commun 2020 01 9;11(1):163. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Department of Biostatistics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A small proportion of HF cases are attributable to monogenic cardiomyopathies and existing genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have yielded only limited insights, leaving the observed heritability of HF largely unexplained. We report results from a GWAS meta-analysis of HF comprising 47,309 cases and 930,014 controls. Twelve independent variants at 11 genomic loci are associated with HF, all of which demonstrate one or more associations with coronary artery disease (CAD), atrial fibrillation, or reduced left ventricular function, suggesting shared genetic aetiology. Functional analysis of non-CAD-associated loci implicate genes involved in cardiac development (MYOZ1, SYNPO2L), protein homoeostasis (BAG3), and cellular senescence (CDKN1A). Mendelian randomisation analysis supports causal roles for several HF risk factors, and demonstrates CAD-independent effects for atrial fibrillation, body mass index, and hypertension. These findings extend our knowledge of the pathways underlying HF and may inform new therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-13690-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6952380PMC
January 2020

Association of cardiovascular structure and function with cerebrovascular changes and cognitive function in older patients with end-stage renal disease.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 01 7;12(2):1496-1511. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Department of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

The Dutch prospective multicenter cohort study COPE (Cognitive decline in Older Patients with End stage renal disease) aimed to investigate the association of cardiovascular structure and function with cerebrovascular changes and cognitive function in 85 older patients with chronic kidney disease stage 4 and 5, awaiting either dialysis or conservative care. MRI was performed measuring aortic stiffness (pulse wave velocity [PWV]) and cardiac systolic function (ejection fraction and cardiac index). Outcomes were MRI-derived cerebrovascular changes (microbleeds, lacunes and white matter hyperintensities) and cognitive function (memory, executive function and psychomotor speed). Mean age was 76 years and 66% were male. No statistically significant associations were observed between cardiovascular parameters and cerebrovascular changes. Cognitive function was worse in patients with high compared to low PWV in all three cognitive domains. Although there were clinically relevant associations of high PWV with poor cognition in all domains, after adjustment for age, sex and education only the Trail Making Test A remained statistically significant (p=0.030). In conclusion, this study suggests that a higher PWV might be associated with lower cognitive function, suggesting that arterial stiffness may be an underlying mechanism of development of cognitive impairment in older patients with ESRD. Larger studies should replicate and extend these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.102696DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7053617PMC
January 2020