Publications by authors named "Stella McMillin"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Generalized dermatophytosis caused by in 8 juvenile black bears in California.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2021 Nov 28:10406387211061143. Epub 2021 Nov 28.

California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, University of California-Davis, CA, USA.

From 2014-2019, 8 juvenile black bears () from different geographic regions were presented to the California Department of Fish and Wildlife because of emaciation, alopecia, and exfoliative dermatitis that resulted in death or euthanasia. Autopsy and histopathology revealed that all 8 bears had generalized hyperkeratotic dermatitis, folliculitis, and furunculosis. Skin structures were heavily colonized by fungal hyphae and arthrospores; fungal cultures of skin from 7 bears yielded , a zoophilic dermatophyte reported only rarely in non-equid species. Additional skin conditions included mites (5), ticks (2), and coagulase-negative sp. infections (2). No other causes of morbidity or mortality were identified. Molecular comparisons performed at the University of Texas Fungal Reference Laboratory determined that all isolates produced identical banding patterns, potentially representing a clonal population. Dermatophytosis is commonly localized and limited to the stratum corneum of the epidermis and hair follicles. Generalized disease with dermal involvement is rare in immunocompetent individuals; illness, malnutrition, age, or immunosuppression may increase susceptibility. Underlying causes for the severe disease impact in these bears were not evident after physical or postmortem examination. The mechanism by which bears from different geographic locations had severe, -associated dermatophytosis from a potentially clonal dermatophyte could not be explained and warrants further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10406387211061143DOI Listing
November 2021

Early detection of wildlife morbidity and mortality through an event-based surveillance system.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 07 14;288(1954):20210974. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

EpiCenter for Disease Dynamics, One Health Institute, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.

The ability to rapidly detect and respond to wildlife morbidity and mortality events is critical for reducing threats to wildlife populations. Surveillance systems that use pre-diagnostic clinical data can contribute to the early detection of wildlife morbidities caused by a multitude of threats, including disease and anthropogenic disturbances. Here, we demonstrate proof of concept for use of a wildlife disease surveillance system, the 'Wildlife Morbidity and Mortality Event Alert System', that integrates pre-diagnostic clinical data in near real-time from a network of wildlife rehabilitation organizations, for early and enhanced detection of unusual wildlife morbidity and mortality events. The system classifies clinical pre-diagnostic data into relevant clinical classifications based on a natural language processing algorithm, generating alerts when more than the expected number of cases is recorded across the rehabilitation network. We demonstrated the effectiveness and efficiency of the system in alerting to events associated with both common and emerging diseases. Tapping into this readily available unconventional general surveillance data stream offers added value to existing wildlife disease surveillance programmes through a relatively efficient, low-cost strategy for the early detection of threats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2021.0974DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8277475PMC
July 2021

Imidacloprid Poisoning of Songbirds Following a Drench Application of Trees in a Residential Neighborhood in California, USA.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2019 08 26;38(8):1724-1727. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, USA.

In March 2017, 26 American goldfinches (Spinus tristis) were found dead following a drench application of imidacloprid in California (USA). Identical seed fragments were present in the digestive tracts. Imidacloprid was detected in 4 separate pooled samples from 18 birds, in crop/gizzard contents (4.8 ± 1.3 ppm; range 2.2-8.5 ppm) and liver tissues (3.9 ± 0.6 ppm; range 2.1-4.8 ppm). We suspect that fallen elm (Ulmus sp.) seeds were contaminated with imidacloprid during the drench application and subsequently ingested, resulting in acute toxicity and death. Environ Toxicol Chem 2019;38:1724-1727. © 2019 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.4473DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6852563PMC
August 2019

Polymelia and Syndactyly in a Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni).

J Wildl Dis 2016 Jan 10;52(1):114-7. Epub 2015 Nov 10.

3  California Department of Fish and Wildlife, 601 Locust Street, Redding, California 96001 USA.

A hatch-year Swainson's Hawk (Buteo swainsoni) recovered from Modoc County, California, US, on 12 August 2012 had malformations of the rear limbs consisting of bilateral polymelia and syndactyly. We describe the malformations and evaluate potential causes. Postmortem examination revealed varus rotation of both femurs and abnormal appendages originating from the distal medial surface of the tibiotarsi with two nonfunctional digits on the right leg and one digit on the left leg. There was syndactyly between digits III and IV of both feet. Avian pox viral dermatitis was present on the skin of the ventral abdomen. A definitive cause of the skeletal malformations was not identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/2014-05-121DOI Listing
January 2016

Rotenone formulation fate in Lake Davis following the 2007 treatment.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2012 May 23;31(5):1032-41. Epub 2012 Mar 23.

Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California Davis, Davis, California, USA.

In September 2007, Lake Davis (near Portola, California) was treated by the California Department of Fish and Game with CFT Legumine, a rotenone formulation, to eradicate the invasive northern pike (Esox lucius). The objective of this report is to describe the fate of the five major formulation constituents-rotenone, rotenolone, methyl pyrrolidone (MP), diethylene glycol monethyl ether (DEGEE), and Fennedefo 99-in water, sediment, and brown bullhead catfish (Ameiurus nebulosus; a rotenone-resistant species) by determination of their half-lives (t(1/2)) and pseudo first-order dissipation rate constants (k). The respective t(1/2) values in water for rotenone, rotenolone, MP, DEGEE, and Fennedefo 99 were 5.6, 11.1, 4.6, 7.7, and 13.5 d; in sediments they were 31.1, 31.8, 10.0, not able to calculate, and 48.5 d; and in tissues were 6.1, 12.7, 3.7, 3.2, and 10.4 d, respectively. Components possessing low water solubility values (rotenone and rotenolone) persisted longer in sediments (not detectable after 157 d) and tissues (<212 d) compared with water, whereas the water-miscible components (MP and DEGEE) dissipated more quickly from all matrices, except for Fennedefo 99, which was the most persistent in water (83 d). None of the constituents was found to bioaccumulate in tissues as a result of treatment. In essence, the physicochemical properties of the chemical constituents effectively dictated their fate in the lake following treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.1795DOI Listing
May 2012
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