Publications by authors named "Stefano Vallone"

32 Publications

"Don't call me from the left side…": ischemic stroke in a patient with uncommon vertebral artery dissection.

Neurol Sci 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Neurology Clinic, Department of Neuroscience, University Hospital of Modena, via Giardini 1355 Baggiovara, ZIP 41100, Modena, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-021-05369-xDOI Listing
June 2021

Endovascular Therapy for Stroke Due to Basilar-Artery Occlusion.

N Engl J Med 2021 05;384(20):1910-1920

From the Departments of Radiology (L.C.M.L., E.J.R.J.H., J.-A.V.) and Neurology (W.J.S.), St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, the Departments of Neurology (D.W.J.D.) and Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (A.L., P.-J.D.), Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Departments of Radiology (R.T.H.L.) and Neurology (L.J.K.) and the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center, and the Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care (A.A.), University Medical Center Utrecht, and Utrecht University (A.A.), Utrecht, the Departments of Neurology (J.B.) and Radiology (G.J.L.N.), Haaglanden Medical Center, and the Department of Neurology, Haga Hospital (K.F.L.), The Hague, the Departments of Neurology (J.S.) and Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (W.H.Z.), Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, the Departments of Neurology (P.J.N.) and Radiology (C.B.L.M.M., B.J.E.), Amsterdam University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Department of Neurology, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, and the Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Twente, Enschede (J.H.), the Departments of Neurology (M.J.H.W.) and Radiology (A.C.G.M.E.), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, and the Department of Neurology, Amphia Hospital, Breda (M.J.M.R.) - all in the Netherlands; the Interventional Neuroradiology Service (F.J.A.M.) and the Neurology Service (J.J.F.C., F.O.L.), Hospital Geral de Fortaleza, Fortaleza, the Department of Neurology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul and Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre (S.O.M.), and the Stroke Service, Neurology Division, Department of Neuroscience and Behavioral Sciences (F.A.D., O.M.P.-N.), and the Interventional Neuroradiology Service, Department of Medical Imaging, Hematology and Oncology (D.G.A.), Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, São Paulo - all in Brazil; the Institute of Neuroradiology (J.C.G.) and the Department of Neurology (V.P.), Dresden Neurovascular Center, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, and Medizinische Fakultät Carl Gustav Carus (H.S.), Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, the Department of Neurology and Center for Stroke Research, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (C.H.N., H.J.A.), the Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (K.S.), the Department of Neurology, University Hospital Augsburg, Augsburg (H.S.), and the Department of Neurology, Oberschwabenklinik, Ravensburg (C.M.R.) - all in Germany; Rothschild Foundation Hospital, INSERM Unité 1148, University of Paris, Paris (M.M., M.P.); the IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, Department of Neurology and Stroke Center, Maggiore Hospital, Bologna (A.Z.), and the Neuroradiology Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Ospedale Civile S. Agostino-Estense, Modena University Hospital, Modena (S.V.) - both in Italy; the Texas Stroke Institute, Fort Worth (A.J.Y.); and the Stroke Center, Neurology Service, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland (P.M.).

Background: The effectiveness of endovascular therapy in patients with stroke caused by basilar-artery occlusion has not been well studied.

Methods: We randomly assigned patients within 6 hours after the estimated time of onset of a stroke due to basilar-artery occlusion, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive endovascular therapy or standard medical care. The primary outcome was a favorable functional outcome, defined as a score of 0 to 3 on the modified Rankin scale (range, 0 to 6, with 0 indicating no disability, 3 indicating moderate disability, and 6 indicating death) at 90 days. The primary safety outcomes were symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage within 3 days after the initiation of treatment and mortality at 90 days.

Results: A total of 300 patients were enrolled (154 in the endovascular therapy group and 146 in the medical care group). Intravenous thrombolysis was used in 78.6% of the patients in the endovascular group and in 79.5% of those in the medical group. Endovascular treatment was initiated at a median of 4.4 hours after stroke onset. A favorable functional outcome occurred in 68 of 154 patients (44.2%) in the endovascular group and 55 of 146 patients (37.7%) in the medical care group (risk ratio, 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92 to 1.50). Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 4.5% of the patients after endovascular therapy and in 0.7% of those after medical therapy (risk ratio, 6.9; 95% CI, 0.9 to 53.0); mortality at 90 days was 38.3% and 43.2%, respectively (risk ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.12).

Conclusions: Among patients with stroke from basilar-artery occlusion, endovascular therapy and medical therapy did not differ significantly with respect to a favorable functional outcome, but, as reflected by the wide confidence interval for the primary outcome, the results of this trial may not exclude a substantial benefit of endovascular therapy. Larger trials are needed to determine the efficacy and safety of endovascular therapy for basilar-artery occlusion. (Funded by the Dutch Heart Foundation and others; BASICS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01717755; Netherlands Trial Register number, NL2500.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2030297DOI Listing
May 2021

Platelet Function Monitoring Performed after Carotid Stenting during Endovascular Stroke Treatment Predicts Outcome.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jul 5;30(7):105800. Epub 2021 May 5.

Stroke Unit, Neurology Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Ospedale Civile, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria di Modena, Via Giardini 1355, Modena, Emilia Romagna 41126, Italy. Electronic address:

Objectives: Many studies showed that platelet reactivity testing can predict ischemic events after carotid stenting or ischemic stroke. The aim of our study was to assess the role of early platelet function monitoring in predicting 90-days functional outcome, stent thrombosis and hemorrhagic transformation in patients with ischemic stroke treated with endovascular procedures requiring emergent extracranial stenting.

Materials And Methods: We performed a retrospective study on consecutive patients with acute anterior circulation stroke admitted to our hospital between January 2015 and March 2020, in whom platelet reactivity testing was performed within 10 days from stenting. Patients were divided according to validated cutoffs in acetylsalicylic acid and Clopidogrel responders and not responders. Group comparison and regression analyses were performed to identify differences between groups and outcome predictors.

Results: We included in the final analysis 54 patients. Acetylsalicylic acid resistance was an independent predictor of poor 90 days outcome (OR for modified Rankin scale (mRS) ≤ 2: 0.10 95% CI: 0.02 - 0.69) whereas Clopidogrel resistance was an independent predictor of good outcome (OR for mRS ≤ 2: 7.09 95%CI: 1.33 - 37.72). Acetylsalicylic acid resistance was also associated with increased 90-days mortality (OR: 18.42; 95% CI: 1.67 - 203.14).

Conclusion: We found a significant association between resistance to acetylsalicylic acid and poor 90-days functional outcome and between resistance to Clopidogrel and good 90-days functional outcome. If confirmed, our results might improve pharmacological management after acute carotid stenting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105800DOI Listing
July 2021

Different endovascular procedures for stroke with isolated M2-segment MCA occlusion: a real-world experience.

J Thromb Thrombolysis 2021 May 24;51(4):1157-1162. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

Sapienza University Hospital, Rome, Italy.

Acute ischemic stroke with isolated occlusion of the M2-segment middle cerebral artery (MCA) has not been a focus of trials on mechanical thrombectomy (MT) thus far. We aimed to assess outcomes in stroke patients treated with different endovascular procedures versus direct MT alone for isolated M2-MCA occlusion. We conducted a cohort study on data from 506 stroke patients with isolated M2-MCA occlusion who were enrolled in the Italian Registry of Endovascular Treatment in Acute Stroke cohort. We calculated odds ratio (OR) with confidence interval (CI) of different endovascular procedures (vs direct MT alone) for outcomes after adjustment for age, enrollment period, pre-stroke mRS score, NIHSS score, ASPECT score, onset-to-groin time, and procedure time. Endovascular procedures were direct MT alone (n = 156), intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) plus MT (n = 266), MT plus intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT) (n = 43), and IAT alone (n = 41). MT plus IAT was associated with higher rates of TICI 2b/3 (OR 3.281, 95% CI 1.006-10.704), 3-month mRS 0-1 (OR 4.153, 95% CI 1.267-13.612), and 3-month mRS 0-2 (OR 4.497, 95% CI 1.485-13.617). IAT alone was associated with lower rates of TICI 3 (OR 0.348, 95% CI 0.139-0.874) and TICI 2b/3 (OR 0.369, 95% CI 0.144-0.948). IVT plus MT was associated with higher rate of asymptomatic ICH (OR 2.526, 95% CI 1.145-5.571). No significant difference was found between different endovascular procedures and direct MT alone as regards symptomatic ICH and 3-month death. In stroke patients with isolated M2-MCA occlusion, MT plus IAT was associated with better outcomes as compared with direct MT alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11239-021-02378-7DOI Listing
May 2021

Mechanical Thrombectomy for Acute Intracranial Carotid Occlusion with Patent Intracranial Arteries : The Italian Registry of Endovascular Treatment in Acute Stroke.

Clin Neuroradiol 2021 Mar 10;31(1):21-29. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Stroke Unit, Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy.

Purpose: Intracranial carotid artery occlusion represents an underinvestigated cause of acute ischemic stroke as well as an indication for mechanical thrombectomy. We investigated baseline and procedural characteristics, outcomes and predictors of outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke secondary to intracranial carotid artery occlusion.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of the Italian Registry of Endovascular Treatment in Acute Stroke was performed. Patients with intracranial carotid artery occlusion (infraclinoid and supraclinoid) with or without cervical artery occlusion but with patent intracranial arteries were included. The 3‑month functional independence, mortality, successful reperfusion and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage were evaluated.

Results: Intracranial carotid artery occlusion with patent intracranial arteries was diagnosed in 387 out of 4940 (7.8%) patients. The median age was 74 years and median baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was 18. Functional independence was achieved in 130 (34%) patients, successful reperfusion in 289 (75%) and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in 33 (9%), whereas mortality occurred in 111 (29%) patients. In univariate analysis functional independence was associated with lower age, lower NIHSS at presentation, higher rate of successful reperfusion and lower rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. Multivariable regression analysis found age (odds ratio, OR:1.03; P = 0.006), NIHSS at presentation (OR: 1.07; P < 0.001), diabetes (OR: 2.60; P = 0.002), successful reperfusion (OR:0.20; P < 0.001) and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (OR: 4.17; P < 0.001) as the best independent predictors of outcome.

Conclusion: Our study showed a not negligible rate of intracranial carotid artery occlusion with patent intracranial arteries, presenting mostly as severe stroke, with an acceptable rate of 3‑month functional independence. Age, NIHSS at presentation and successful reperfusion were the best independent predictors of outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00062-020-00980-5DOI Listing
March 2021

Complications of mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke: Incidence, risk factors, and clinical relevance in the Italian Registry of Endovascular Treatment in acute stroke.

Int J Stroke 2020 12 6:1747493020976681. Epub 2020 Dec 6.

Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, 9310University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Background: There are limited data concerning procedure-related complications of endovascular thrombectomy for large vessel occlusion strokes.

Aims: We evaluated the cumulative incidence, the clinical relevance in terms of increased disability and mortality, and risk factors for complications.

Methods: From January 2011 to December 2017, 4799 patients were enrolled by 36 centers in the Italian Registry of Endovascular Stroke Treatment. Data on demographic and procedural characteristics, complications, and clinical outcome at three months were prospectively collected.

Results: The complications cumulative incidence was 201 per 1000 patients undergoing endovascular thrombectomy. Ongoing antiplatelet therapy (p < 0.01; OR 1.82, 95% CI: 1.21-2.73) and large vessel occlusion site (carotid-T, p < 0.03; OR 3.05, 95% CI: 1.13-8.19; M2-segment-MCA, p < 0.01; OR 4.54, 95% CI: 1.66-12.44) were associated with a higher risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage/arterial perforation. Thrombectomy alone (p < 0.01; OR 0.50, 95% CI: 0.31-0.83) and younger age (p < 0.04; OR 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97-0.99) revealed a lower risk of developing dissection. M2-segment-MCA occlusion (p < 0.01; OR 0.35, 95% CI: 0.19-0.64) and hypertension (p < 0.04; OR 0.77, 95% CI: 0.6-0.98) were less related to clot embolization. Higher NIHSS at onset (p < 0.01; OR 1.04, 95% CI: 1.02-1.06), longer groin-to-reperfusion time (p < 0.01; OR 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.07), diabetes (p < 0.01; OR 1.67, 95% CI: 1.25-2.23), and LVO site (carotid-T, p < 0.01; OR 1.96, 95% CI: 1.26-3.05; M2-segment-MCA, p < 0.02; OR 1.62, 95% CI: 1.08-2.42) were associated with a higher risk of developing symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage compared to no/asymptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. The subgroup of patients treated with thrombectomy alone presented a lower risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (p < 0.01; OR 0.70; 95% CI: 0.55-0.90). Subarachnoid hemorrhage/arterial perforation and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage after endovascular thrombectomy worsen both functional independence and mortality at three-month follow-up (p < 0.01). Distal embolization is associated with neurological deterioration (p < 0.01), while arterial dissection did not affect clinical outcome at follow-up.

Conclusions: Complications globally considered are not uncommon and may result in poor clinical outcome. Early recognition of risk factors might help to prevent complications and manage them appropriately in order to maximize endovascular thrombectomy benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493020976681DOI Listing
December 2020

Qualitative versus automatic evaluation of CT perfusion parameters in acute posterior circulation ischaemic stroke.

Neuroradiology 2021 Mar 19;63(3):317-330. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, Department of Neurology and Stroke Center, Maggiore Hospital, Bologna, Italy.

Purpose: To compare the diagnostic accuracy (ACC) in the detection of acute posterior circulation strokes between qualitative evaluation of software-generated colour maps and automatic assessment of CT perfusion (CTP) parameters.

Methods: Were retrospectively collected 50 patients suspected of acute posterior circulation stroke who underwent to CTP (GE "Lightspeed", 64 slices) within 24 h after symptom onset between January 2016 and December 2018. The Posterior circulation-Acute Stroke Prognosis Early CT Score (pc-ASPECTS) was used for quantifying the extent of ischaemic areas on non-contrast (NC)CT and colour-coded maps generated by CTP4 (GE) and RAPID (iSchemia View) software. Final pc-ASPECTS was calculated on follow-up NCCT and/or MRI (Philips Intera 3.0 T or Philips Achieva Ingenia 1.5 T). RAPID software also elaborated automatic quantitative mismatch maps.

Results: By qualitative evaluation of colour-coded maps, MTT-CTP4D and Tmax-RAPID showed the highest sensitivity (SE) (88.6% and 90.9%, respectively) and ACC (84% and 88%, respectively) compared with the other perfusion parameters (CBV, CBF). Baseline NCCT and CBF provided by RAPID quantitative perfusion mismatch maps had the lowest SE (29.6% and 6.8%, respectively) and ACC (38% and 18%, respectively). CBF and Tmax assessment provided by quantitative RAPID perfusion mismatch maps showed significant lower SE and ACC than qualitative evaluation. No significant differences were found between the pc-ASPECTSs assessed on colour-coded MTT and Tmax maps neither between the scores assessed on colour-coded CBV-CTP4D and CBF-RAPID maps.

Conclusion: Qualitative analysis of colour-coded maps resulted more sensitive and accurate in the detection of ischaemic changes than automatic quantitative analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00234-020-02517-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7880970PMC
March 2021

Direct thrombectomy for stroke in the presence of absolute exclusion criteria for thrombolysis.

J Neurol 2020 Dec 25;267(12):3731-3740. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Azienda Ospedaliero-Univeristaria, Padua, Italy.

Background: Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT)-ineligible patients undergoing direct thrombectomy tended to have poorer functional outcome as compared with IVT-eligible patients undergoing bridging therapy. We aimed to assess radiological and functional outcomes in large vessel occlusion-related stroke patients receiving direct thrombectomy in the presence of absolute exclusion criteria for IVT vs relative exclusion criteria for IVT and vs non-exclusion criteria for IVT.

Methods: A cohort study on prospectively collected data from 2282 patients enrolled in the Italian Registry of Endovascular Treatment in Acute Stroke cohort for treatment with direct thrombectomy (n = 486, absolute exclusion criteria for IVT alone; n = 384, absolute in combination with relative exclusion criteria for IVT; n = 777, relative exclusion criteria for IVT alone; n = 635, non-exclusion criteria for IVT).

Results: After adjustment for unbalanced variables (model 1), ORs for 3-month death was higher in the presence of absolute exclusion criteria for IVT alone (vs relative exclusion criteria for IVT alone) (1.595, 95% CI 1.042-2.440) and in the presence of absolute exclusion criteria for IVT alone (vs non-exclusion criteria for IVT) (1.235, 95% CI 1.014-1.504). After adjustment for predefined variables (model 2: age, sex, pre-stroke mRS ≤ 1, NIHSS, occlusion in the anterior circulation, onset-to-groin time, and procedure time), ORs for 3-month death was higher in the presence of absolute exclusion criteria for IVT alone (vs relative exclusion criteria for IVT alone) (1.235, 95% CI 1.014-1.504) and in the presence of absolute exclusion criteria for IVT alone (vs non-exclusion criteria for IVT) (1.246, 95% CI 1.039-1.495). No significant difference was found between the groups as regards any type of intracerebral hemorrhage and parenchymal hematoma within 24 h, successful and complete recanalization after procedure, and modified Rankin Scale score 0-2 at 3 months. After adjustment for predefined variables of model 2, ORs for death were higher in the presence of recent administration of IV heparin (OR: 2.077), platelet count < 100,000/mm (OR: 4.798), bacterial endocarditis (OR: 15.069), neoplasm with increased hemorrhagic risk (OR: 6.046), and severe liver disease (OR: 6.124).

Conclusions: Radiological outcomes were similar after direct thrombectomy in patients with absolute, relative, and non- exclusion criteria for IVT, while an increase of fatal outcome was observed in the presence of some absolute exclusion criterion for IVT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-020-10098-wDOI Listing
December 2020

Endovascular Thrombectomy for Acute Ischemic Stroke Beyond 6 Hours From Onset: A Real-World Experience.

Stroke 2020 07 17;51(7):2051-2057. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Stroke Unit and Neurosonology Lab (A.P.), Padua University Hospital.

Background And Purpose: To evaluate outcome and safety of endovascular treatment beyond 6 hours of onset of ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation, in routine clinical practice.

Methods: From the Italian Registry of Endovascular Thrombectomy, we extracted clinical and outcome data of patients treated for stroke of known onset beyond 6 hours. Additional inclusion criteria were prestroke modified Rankin Scale score ≤2 and ASPECTS score ≥6. Patients were selected on individual basis by a combination of CT perfusion mismatch (difference between total hypoperfusion and infarct core sizes) and CT collateral score. The primary outcome measure was the score on modified Rankin Scale at 90 days. Safety outcomes were 90-day mortality and the occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. Data were compared with those from patients treated within 6 hours.

Results: Out of 3057 patients, 327 were treated beyond 6 hours. Their mean age was 66.8±14.9 years, the median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 16, and the median onset to groin puncture time 430 minutes. The most frequent site of occlusion was middle cerebral artery (45.1%). Functional independence (90-day modified Rankin Scale score, 0-2) was achieved by 41.3% of cases. Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 6.7% of patients, and 3-month case fatality rate was 17.1%. The probability of surviving with modified Rankin Scale score, 0-2 (odds ratio, 0.58 [95% CI, 0.43-0.77]) was significantly lower in patients treated beyond 6 hours as compared with patients treated earlier No differences were found regarding recanalization rates and safety outcomes between patients treated within and beyond 6 hours. There were no differences in outcome between people treated 6-12 hours from onset (278 patients) and those treated 12 to 24 hours from onset (49 patients).

Conclusions: This real-world study suggests that in patients with large vessel occlusion selected on the basis of CT perfusion and collateral circulation assessment, endovascular treatment beyond 6 hours is feasible and safe with no increase in symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.027974DOI Listing
July 2020

General Anesthesia Versus Conscious Sedation and Local Anesthesia During Thrombectomy for Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Stroke 2020 07 10;51(7):2036-2044. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Interventional Neuroradiology Unit and Stroke Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera-Universitaria, Padova, Italy (F.C., C.B.).

Background And Purpose: As numerous questions remain about the best anesthetic strategy during thrombectomy, we assessed functional and radiological outcomes in stroke patients treated with thrombectomy in presence of general anesthesia (GA) versus conscious sedation (CS) and local anesthesia (LA).

Methods: We conducted a cohort study on prospectively collected data from 4429 patients enrolled in the Italian Registry of Endovascular Treatment in Acute Stroke.

Results: GA was used in 2013 patients, CS in 1285 patients, and LA in 1131 patients. The rates of 3-month modified Rankin Scale score of 0-1 were 32.7%, 33.7%, and 38.1% in the GA, CS, and LA groups: GA versus CS: odds ratios after adjustment for unbalanced variables (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]), 0.811 (95% CI, 0.602-1.091); and GA versus LA: aOR, 0.714 (95% CI, 0.515-0.990). The rates of modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2 were 42.5%, 46.6%, and 52.4% in the GA, CS, and LA groups: GA versus CS: aOR, 0.902 (95% CI, 0.689-1.180); and GA versus LA: aOR, 0.769 (95% CI, 0.566-0.998). The rates of 3-month death were 21.5%, 19.7%, and 14.8% in the GA, CS, and LA groups: GA versus CS: aOR, 0.872 (95% CI, 0.644-1.181); and GA versus LA: aOR, 1.235 (95% CI, 0.844-1.807). The rates of parenchymal hematoma were 9%, 12.6%, and 11.3% in the GA, CS, and LA groups: GA versus CS: aOR, 0.380 (95% CI, 0.262-0.551); and GA versus LA: aOR, 0.532 (95% CI, 0.337-0.838). After model of adjustment for predefined variables (age, sex, thrombolysis, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, onset-to-groin time, anterior large vessel occlusion, procedure time, prestroke modified Rankin Scale score of <1, antiplatelet, and anticoagulant), differences were found also between GA versus CS as regards modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2 (aOR, 0.659 [95% CI, 0.538-0.807]) and GA versus LA as regards death (aOR, 1.413 [95% CI, 1.095-1.823]).

Conclusions: GA during thrombectomy was associated with worse 3-month functional outcomes, especially when compared with LA. The inclusion of an LA arm in future randomized clinical trials of anesthesia strategy is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.028963DOI Listing
July 2020

The Relation Between Aortic Arch Branching Types and the Laterality of Cardio-Embolic Stroke.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Jul 13;29(7):104917. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Neuroscience, Stroke Unit - Neurology Clinic, Ospedale Civile di Baggiovara, AOU di Modena, Italy; Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35511, Egypt. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: The trajectory of cardiogenic emboli could be affected by anatomical and flow characteristics of the aortic arch. We aimed to study the relation between the different aortic arch patterns and the laterality of cardiogenic emboli.

Methods: 192 cardioembolic strokes were classified into 3 groups according to the type of the aortic arch; type 1 (n = 69), type 2 (n = 49), type 3 (n = 74). The side and site of the cerebral vessels occlusion were divided into anterior and posterior circulation strokes, and anterior strokes were further subdivided into right or left internal carotid, middle or anterior cerebral arteries occlusion.

Results: Overall, the anterior circulation embolic occlusions were more common than the posterior, and middle cerebral artery more commonly affected than internal carotid artery. The left side propensity was higher either in the total patients' pool or after segregation into atrial fibrillation (AF) and non AF cardio-embolic cases in all types of aortic arch except for type 1 aortic arch in the non AF cases. This propensity tended to get higher with advancement of the aortic arch types but failed to show statistically significant difference between the 3 arch types, however combination of type 2 and 3 arches into a single group showed statistically significant rise in the left side propensity in the total cardioembolic cases (P = 0.039) and in the non AF cardioembolic cases (P = 0.029). The bovine arch also showed increased left side propensity.

Conclusion: Cardioemboli tends to have left anterior cerebrovascular predilection especially with AF. Different geometrical patterns of aortic arch branching seem to affect the laterality of cardioemboli and increase its left side predilection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.104917DOI Listing
July 2020

Novel pathogenic TGFBR1 and SMAD3 variants identified after cerebrovascular events in adult patients with Loeys-dietz syndrome.

Eur J Med Genet 2019 Oct 18;62(10):103727. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

Stroke Unit, Neurology Clinic, Department of Neuroscience, Ospedale Civile "S. Agostino-Estense", Modena University Hospital, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

Introduction: Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder due to heterozygous pathogenic variants in transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling-related genes. LDS types 1-6 are distinguished depending on the involved gene. LDS is characterized by multiple arterial aneurysms and dissections in addition to variable neurological and systemic manifestations. Patient 1: a 68-year-old man was admitted due to an aphasic transient ischemic attack (TIA). Brain CT-scan and CT angiography revealed a chronic and asymptomatic right vertebral artery dissection. Stroke diagnostic panel was unremarkable. His history showed mild stroke familiarity. At age of 49, he was treated for dissecting-aneurysm of the ascending aorta and started anticoagulation therapy. Seven years later, he underwent surgery for dissecting aneurysm involving aortic arch, descending-thoracic aorta, left subclavian artery, and both iliac arteries. Patient 2: a 47-year-old man presented a left hemiparesis due to right middle cerebral artery (MCA) and anterior cerebral artery (ACA) occlusion caused by right internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection after sport activity. Despite i.v. thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy, he developed malignant cerebral infarction and underwent decompressive hemicraniectomy. Digital subtraction angiography showed bilateral carotid and vertebral kinking, aneurysmatic dilatation on both common iliac arteries and proximal ectasia of the descending aorta. His father and his uncle died because of an ischemic stroke and a cerebral aneurysm rupture with a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), respectively.

Discussion: in both cases, considering the family history and the multiple dissections and aneurysms, LDS molecular analysis was performed. In patient 1, the novel NM_005902.3 (SMAD3): c.840T > G; p.(Asn280Lys) likely pathogenic variant was identified, thus leading to a diagnosis of LDS type 3. In patient 2, the novel NM_004612.2 (TGFBR1): c.1225T > G; p.(Trp409Gly) likely pathogenic variant was found, allowing for a diagnosis of LDS type 1.

Conclusion: LDS is characterized by genetic and clinical variability. Our report suggests that this genetically-determined connective tissue disorder is probably underestimated, as it might firstly show up with cerebrovascular events, although mild systemic manifestations. These findings could lead to identify people at risk of severe vascular complications (i.e., through genetic consult on asymptomatic relatives), in order to perform adequate vascular assessments and follow-up to prevent complications such as stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2019.103727DOI Listing
October 2019

IER-SICH Nomogram to Predict Symptomatic Intracerebral Hemorrhage After Thrombectomy for Stroke.

Stroke 2019 04 14;50(4):909-916. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Neurology Unit (E.D.), Ospedale San Giovanni Bosco, Torino, Italy.

Background and Purpose- As a reliable scoring system to detect the risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage after thrombectomy for ischemic stroke is not yet available, we developed a nomogram for predicting symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with large vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation who received bridging of thrombectomy with intravenous thrombolysis (training set), and to validate the model by using a cohort of patients treated with direct thrombectomy (test set). Methods- We conducted a cohort study on prospectively collected data from 3714 patients enrolled in the IER (Italian Registry of Endovascular Stroke Treatment in Acute Stroke). Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage was defined as any type of intracerebral hemorrhage with increase of ≥4 National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score points from baseline ≤24 hours or death. Based on multivariate logistic models, the nomogram was generated. We assessed the discriminative performance by using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results- National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, onset-to-end procedure time, age, unsuccessful recanalization, and Careggi collateral score composed the IER-SICH nomogram. After removing Careggi collateral score from the first model, a second model including Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score was developed. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the IER-SICH nomogram was 0.778 in the training set (n=492) and 0.709 in the test set (n=399). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the second model was 0.733 in the training set (n=988) and 0.685 in the test set (n=779). Conclusions- The IER-SICH nomogram is the first model developed and validated for predicting symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage after thrombectomy. It may provide indications on early identification of patients for more or less postprocedural intensive management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.023316DOI Listing
April 2019

Combined intravenous and endovascular treatment versus primary mechanical thrombectomy. The Italian Registry of Endovascular Treatment in Acute Stroke.

Int J Stroke 2019 12 24;14(9):898-907. Epub 2019 May 24.

Stroke Unit, University Hospital "Umberto I", Rome.

Background: Whether mechanical thrombectomy alone may achieve better or at least equal clinical outcome than mechanical thrombectomy combined with intravenous thrombolysis is a matter of debate.

Methods: From the Italian Registry of Endovascular Stroke Treatment, we extracted all cases treated with intravenous thrombolysis followed by mechanical thrombectomy or with primary mechanical thrombectomy for anterior circulation stroke due to proximal vessel occlusion. We included only patients who would have qualified for intravenous thrombolysis. We compared outcomes of the two groups by using multivariate regression analysis and propensity score method.

Results: We included 1148 patients, treated with combined intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy therapy (n = 635; 55.3%), or with mechanical thrombectomy alone (n = 513; 44.7%). Demographic and baseline clinical characteristics did not differ between the two groups, except for a shorter onset to groin puncture time (p < 0.05) in the mechanical thrombectomy group. A shift in the 90-day modified Rankin Scale distributions toward a better outcome was found in favor of the combined treatment (adjusted common odds ratio  = 1.3; 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.66). Multivariate analyses on binary outcome show that subjects who underwent combined treatment had higher probability to survive with modified Rankin Scale 0-3 (odds ratio = 1.42; 95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.95) and lower case fatality rate (odds ratio = 0.6; 95% confidence interval: 0.44-0.9). Hemorrhagic transformation did not differ between the two groups.

Conclusion: These data seem to indicate that combined intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy could be associated with lower probability of death or severe dependency after three months from stroke due to large vessel occlusion, supporting the current guidelines of treating eligible patients with intravenous thrombolysis before mechanical thrombectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493019851279DOI Listing
December 2019

IER-START nomogram for prediction of three-month unfavorable outcome after thrombectomy for stroke.

Int J Stroke 2020 06 25;15(4):412-420. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Ospedale San Giovanni Bosco, Torino, Italy.

Background: The applicability of the current models for predicting functional outcome after thrombectomy in strokes with large vessel occlusion (LVO) is affected by a moderate predictive performance.

Aims: We aimed to develop and validate a nomogram with pre- and post-treatment factors for prediction of the probability of unfavorable outcome in patients with anterior and posterior LVO who received bridging therapy or direct thrombectomy <6 h of stroke onset.

Methods: We conducted a cohort study on patients data collected prospectively in the Italian Endovascular Registry (IER). Unfavorable outcome was defined as three-month modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 3-6. Six predictors, including NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, age, pre-stroke mRS score, bridging therapy or direct thrombectomy, grade of recanalization according to the thrombolysis in cerebral ischemia (TICI) grading system, and onset-to-end procedure time were identified a priori by three stroke experts. To generate the IER-START, the pre-established predictors were entered into a logistic regression model. The discriminative performance of the model was assessed by using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC).

Results: A total of 1802 patients with complete data for generating the IER-START was randomly dichotomized into training ( = 1219) and test ( = 583) sets. The AUC-ROC of IER-START was 0.838 (95% confidence interval [CI]): 0.816-0.869) in the training set, and 0.820 (95% CI: 0.786-0.854) in the test set.

Conclusions: The IER-START nomogram is the first prognostic model developed and validated in the largest population of stroke patients currently candidates to thrombectomy which reliably calculates the probability of three-month unfavorable outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493019837756DOI Listing
June 2020

Vein of Galen varix associated with straight sinus arachnoid granulation.

Acta Neurol Belg 2020 Apr 29;120(2):463-464. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Neuroradiology Unit, Department of Neuroscience, University Hospitals of Modena, Via P. Giardini, 1355, Modena, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13760-018-1010-0DOI Listing
April 2020

Congenital Arteriovenous Malformation of the Scalp Involving the Orbit.

J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg 2018 Nov 15;79(6):541-549. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Modena, Via Giardini 1355, 41121 Modena, Italy.

Background:  Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the scalp are rare and infrequently encountered by the neurosurgeon.

Case Description:  We report a unique case of a 42-year-old patient who presented with a progressive worsening of visual acuity in the right eye (lower quadrantanopia) and palpebral ptosis. Physical examination revealed a right exophthalmos and a right frontoparietal scalp soft swelling when the patient was in the supine position. Neurologic work-up showed a scalp AVM extending into the orbit and connected to an intraorbital cavernous angioma. The patient was treated with a frontotemporal craniotomy and decompression of the orbit.

Conclusions:  In the rare case of intraorbital extension of a scalp AVM, neurologic symptoms may appear when the size of the vascular malformation increases with age. The aims of surgery should be decompression of the orbit and aesthetic preservation, rather than complete excision. A review of the literature is also provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1641178DOI Listing
November 2018

Familial paraganglioma syndrome: a rare cause of carotid artery occlusion.

J Neurol 2016 Dec 20;263(12):2544-2546. Epub 2016 Oct 20.

Stroke Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Neurology Clinic, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Nuovo Ospedale Civile "S.Agostino-Estense", AUSL Modena, Via Giardini 1355 Baggiovara, 41100, Modena, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-016-8317-7DOI Listing
December 2016

"Opening the Unopenable": Endovascular Treatment in a Patient with Three Months' Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion and Hemispheric Symptomatic Hypoperfusion.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2016 Aug 27;25(8):2016-8. Epub 2016 May 27.

Stroke Unit-Neurology Clinic, Department of Neuroscience, Nuovo Ospedale Civile S. Agostino-Estense, AUSL Modena, Modena, Italy.

Background: Internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) is defined as "untouchable" by all specialists; no treatment is indicated because intervention risks (carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or endovascular treatment) are usually much more than benefits.(1,2) We report the case of a patient admitted to our hospital with an atherothrombotic ischemic stroke due to symptomatic acute ICAO, who developed a recurrent stroke with hemispheric hypoperfusion and was treated in the emergency department with ICAO revascularization after 60 days of occlusion finding.

Case Description: D.G., a 62-year-old man, came to our attention for a transient episode of left weakness and hypoesthesia. The electrocardiogram revealed a new diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. CT angiography showed right ICAO; computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies with perfusion imaging revealed a severe hemispheric hypoperfusion. Full anticoagulation therapy was started, and antihypertensive therapy was reduced to help collateral circulation. Some weeks later, the patient was readmitted to the stroke unit for 2 episodes of left-hand weakness. Cerebral angiography confirmed right ICAO from the proximal tract to the siphon. After some days, the patient suffered a femoral hemorrhagic lesion, with active bleeding, and was treated with surgical intervention. On the following day, the patient presented with left hemiplegia with hemianesthesia (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score = 14). The patient was treated in the emergency department with a complex endovascular treatment with complete recanalization of ICAO by positioning 3 stents through the intravenous infusion of abciximab. After intensive rehabilitation, at the 3- and 6-month follow-up evaluations, the patient regained autonomy.

Conclusion: In literature, treatment of chronic ICAO is not indicated. Endovascular recanalization may be beneficial to patients with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion due to ICAO, when all conservative medical therapies have failed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2016.04.019DOI Listing
August 2016

CT perfusion and angiographic assessment of pial collateral reperfusion in acute ischemic stroke: the CAPRI study.

J Neurointerv Surg 2016 Dec 22;8(12):1211-1216. Epub 2016 Jan 22.

Interventional Neuroradiology Unit, Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy.

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between a novel angiographic score for collaterals and CT perfusion (CTP) parameters in patients undergoing endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke (AIS).

Methods: 103 patients (mean age 66.7±12.7; 48.5% men) with AIS in the anterior circulation territory, imaged with non-contrast CT, CT angiography, and CTP, admitted within 8 h from symptom onset and treated with any endovascular approach, were retrospectively included in the study. Clinical, neuroradiological data, and all time intervals were collected. Careggi Collateral Score (CCS) was used for angiographic assessment of collaterals and the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) for semiquantitative analysis of CTP maps. Two centralized core laboratories separately reviewed angiographic data, whereas CT findings were evaluated by an expert neuroradiologist. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed considering CCS both as an ordinal and a dichotomous variable.

Results: 37/103 patients (35.9%) received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator. Median (IQR) ASPECTS was 9 (6-10) for admission CT, 9 (5-10) for cerebral blood volume (CBV) maps, 3 (2-3) for mean transit time maps, 3 (2-4), for cerebral blood flow maps, and 5 (3-7) for CTP mismatch. Univariate analysis showed a significant correlation between CCS and ASPECTS for all CTP parameters. Multivariate analysis confirmed an independent association only between CCS and CBV (p=0.020 when CCS was considered as a dichotomous variable, p=0.026 with ordinal CCS).

Conclusions: A correlation between angiographic assessment of the collateral circulation and CTP seems to be present, suggesting that CCS may provide an indirect evaluation of the infarct core volume to consider for patient selection in AIS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2015-012155DOI Listing
December 2016

Intraoperative Functional and Perfusion Monitoring During Surgery for Giant Serpentine Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysms.

World Neurosurg 2015 Aug 17;84(2):592.e15-21. Epub 2015 Mar 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, NOCSAE Modena Hospital, Modena, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Giant serpentine aneurysms are a rare entity, which can be managed using either endovascular or surgical techniques. Although the perioperative morbidity and mortality have decreased since the development of bypass revascularization procedures, their surgical treatment is still challenging. Intraoperative functional and perfusion monitoring techniques can be precious to make better decisions and improve outcomes.

Case Description: We report on the case of a giant, unruptured, partially thrombosed, serpentine middle cerebral artery aneurysm that was treated with partial endovascular coiling of intra-aneurysmal vascular channels, surgical resection of the aneurysm, and end-to-end M1-temporal M2 anastomosis.

Conclusions: Intraoperative continuous motor evoked potentials monitoring, flowmetry, and indocyanine-green angiography provide precise and reproducible information about cerebral function and perfusion, respectively, allowing for more rational decision making during surgery for these challenging malformations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2015.03.014DOI Listing
August 2015

The Italian Registry of Endovascular Treatment in Acute Stroke: rationale, design and baseline features of patients.

Neurol Sci 2015 Jun 8;36(6):985-93. Epub 2015 Jan 8.

Interventional Neuroradiology Unit, "Careggi" University Hospital, Florence, Italy,

Endovascular treatment (ET) showed to be safe in acute stroke, but its superiority over intravenous thrombolysis is debated. As ET is rapidly evolving, it is not clear which role it may deserve in the future of stoke treatments. Based on an observational design, a treatment registry allows to study a broad range of patients, turning into a powerful tool for patients' selection. We report the methodology and a descriptive analysis of patients from a national registry of ET for stroke. The Italian Registry of Endovascular Treatment in Acute Stroke is a multicenter, observational registry running in Italy from 2010. All patients treated with ET in the participating centers were consecutively recorded. Safety measures were symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, procedural adverse events and death rate. Efficacy measures were arterial recanalization and 3-month good functional outcome. From 2008 to 2012, 960 patients were treated in 25 centers. Median age was 67 years, male gender 57 %. Median baseline NIHSS was 17. The most frequent occlusion site was Middle cerebral artery (46.9 %). Intra-arterial thrombolytics were used in 165 (17.9 %) patients, in 531 (57.5 %) thrombectomy was employed, and 228 (24.7 %) patients received both treatments. Baseline features of this cohort are in line with data from large clinical series and recent trials. This registry allows to collect data from a real practice scenario and to highlight time trends in treatment modalities. It can address unsolved safety and efficacy issues on ET of stroke, providing a useful tool for the planning of new trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-014-2053-5DOI Listing
June 2015

Intravenous thrombolysis or endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke associated with cervical internal carotid artery occlusion: the ICARO-3 study.

J Neurol 2015 Feb 2;262(2):459-68. Epub 2014 Dec 2.

Stroke Unit and Division of Internal and Cardiovascular Medicine, Santa Maria della Misericordia Hospital, University of Perugia, Via G. Dottori 1, 06100, Perugia, Italy,

The aim of the ICARO-3 study was to evaluate whether intra-arterial treatment, compared to intravenous thrombolysis, increases the rate of favourable functional outcome at 3 months in acute ischemic stroke and extracranial ICA occlusion. ICARO-3 was a non-randomized therapeutic trial that performed a non-blind assessment of outcomes using retrospective data collected prospectively from 37 centres in 7 countries. Patients treated with endovascular treatment within 6 h from stroke onset (cases) were matched with patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis within 4.5 h from symptom onset (controls). Patients receiving either intravenous or endovascular therapy were included among the cases. The efficacy outcome was disability at 90 days assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), dichotomized as favourable (score of 0-2) or unfavourable (score of 3-6). Safety outcomes were death and any intracranial bleeding. Included in the analysis were 324 cases and 324 controls: 105 cases (32.4 %) had a favourable outcome as compared with 89 controls (27.4 %) [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.25, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.79, p = 0.1]. In the adjusted analysis, treatment with intra-arterial procedures was significantly associated with a reduction of mortality (OR 0.61, 95 % CI 0.40-0.93, p = 0.022). The rates of patients with severe disability or death (mRS 5-6) were similar in cases and controls (30.5 versus 32.4 %, p = 0.67). For the ordinal analysis, adjusted for age, sex, NIHSS, presence of diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation, the common odds ratio was 1.15 (95 % IC 0.86-1.54), p = 0.33. There were more cases of intracranial bleeding (37.0 versus 17.3 %, p = 0.0001) in the intra-arterial procedure group than in the intravenous group. After the exclusion of the 135 cases treated with the combination of I.V. thrombolysis and I.A. procedures, 67/189 of those treated with I.A. procedures (35.3 %) had a favourable outcome, compared to 89/324 of those treated with I.V. thrombolysis (27.4 %) (adjusted OR 1.75, 95 % CI 1.00-3.03, p = 0.05). Endovascular treatment of patients with acute ICA occlusion did not result in a better functional outcome than treatment with intravenous thrombolysis, but was associated with a higher rate of intracranial bleeding. Overall mortality was significantly reduced in patients treated with endovascular treatment but the rates of patients with severe disability or death were similar. When excluding all patients treated with the combination of I.V. thrombolysis and I.A. procedures, a potential benefit of I.A. treatment alone compared to I.V. thrombolysis was observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-014-7550-1DOI Listing
February 2015

Intra-arterial therapy as a rescue strategy after clinically failed intravenous thrombolysis may increase the likelihood of a good outcome in patients with severe ischaemic stroke. A retrospective two centre study.

Interv Neuroradiol 2014 May-Jun;20(3):329-35. Epub 2014 Jun 17.

Karolinska University Hospital; Stockholm, Sweden.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intra-arterial therapy as a rescue strategy after clinically failed intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) in acute ischaemic stroke patients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of consecutive acute ischaemic stroke patients treated with rescue therapy. The results from this study group were compared with those obtained from a control group consisting of 260 consecutive patients treated with IVT alone. The study group consisted of 52 patients with a mean age of 63 years and a median NIHSS score at admission of 17. Recanalization was achieved in 92% with a symptomatic haemorrhage rate of 9.6%. Rescue patients admitted with a severe stroke (NIHSS score >12) had a significantly better outcome at 90 days compared to patients with the same score but treated with IVT alone. No difference was seen for patients with a lower score at admission. This study indicates that rescue therapy may increase the proportion of patients with independent outcome if presenting with a severe stroke (NIHSS score >12) without increasing the rate of symptomatic haemorrhage.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4178768PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.15274/INR-2014-10030DOI Listing
September 2014

Pearls & Oy-sters: rapidly progressive dementia: prions or immunomediated?

Neurology 2014 Apr;82(17):e149-52

From the Department of Neuroscience (F.C., J.M., M.T., F.V., S.V., E.G., F.B., P.N.), S. Agostino-Estense Hospital and University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena; and IRCCS Institute of Neurological Sciences of Bologna and Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences (DIBINEM) (C.S., R.L., P.P.), University of Bologna, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000000354DOI Listing
April 2014

Treatment of wide-neck basilar tip aneurysms using the Web II device.

Neuroradiol J 2013 Dec 18;26(6):669-77. Epub 2013 Dec 18.

Neuroradiology Department, IRCCS Institute of Neurological Sciences of Bologna; Bologna, Italy -

Endovascular treatment has assumed a major role in the management of intracranial aneurysms. Although current techniques have proven extremely effective in the embolization of a large number of intracranial aneurysms, wide-necked basilar tip aneurysms represent a subset that continues to pose technical challenges in treatment. This study reports our experience with WEB II, a new embolization device employed in four patients with this type of aneurysm.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4202876PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/197140091302600610DOI Listing
December 2013

Endovascular treatment of intracranial arterio-venous malformations with Onyx embolization: preliminary experience.

Radiol Med 2003 Nov-Dec;106(5-6):512-20

Radiologia Vascolare ed Interventistica, Ospedale Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy.

Purpose: Intracranial arterio-venous malformations (AVM) often represent a complex clinical problem as regards indications to treatment, the choice of treatment and the technical difficulties related to treatment. In the last twenty years, endovascular treatment of intracranial arterio-venous malformations was primarily based on an acrylic glue (Hystoacril) whose endovascular use is not free from risks. A new product for endovascular embolization, named ONYX, has been recently been made commercially available. It is a bio-compatible liquid polymer that precipitates and solidifies in contact with blood, thus forming a soft and spongy embolus. The aim of this study was to evaluate our preliminary results in the endovascular embolization of intracranial AVM with Onyx.

Materials And Methods: Ten patients were treated (7 men, 3 women; mean age: 29 years, range: 12-48 years) for a total of 37 embolizations, 22 with Onyx and 15 with acrylic resin.

Results: Nidus occlusion was complete in 2 cases, >90% in 2 cases, >50 and <90% in 3 cases and <50% in the remaining 3 cases. The following complications were recorded: two transient and one mild permanent neurological deficits, two clinically silent cases of moderate subarachnoid haemorrhage, four catheters glued to the injection site, three cases of treatment discontinuation due to continuous and massive reflux of Onyx into the afferent artery peduncle.

Conclusions: This early experience showed that while Onyx has good embolization potential it also presents some disadvantages, which need to be overcome before this product can be considered easy and safe to use on a large scale.
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February 2004