Publications by authors named "Stefano Granato"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Treatment of Ureteral Stent-Related Symptoms.

Urol Int 2021 Nov 2:1-16. Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Division of Urology, Department of Oncology, School of Medicine, San Luigi Hospital, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

Background: The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the main classes of drugs used at reducing morbidity related to ureteric stents.

Summary: After establishing a priori protocol, a systematic electronic literature search was conducted in July 2019. The randomized clinical trials (RCTs) selection proceeded in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and was registered (PROSPERO ID 178130). The risk of bias and the quality assessment of the included RCTs were performed. Ureteral Stent Symptom Questionnaire (USSQ), International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and quality of life (QoL) were pooled for meta-analysis. Mean difference and risk difference were calculated as appropriate for each outcome to determine the cumulative effect size. Fourteen RCTs were included in the analysis accounting for 2,842 patients. Alpha antagonist, antimuscarinic, and phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors significatively reduced all indexes of the USSQ, the IPSS and QoL scores relative to placebo. Conversely, combination therapy (alpha antagonist plus antimuscarinic) showed in all indexes of the USSQ, IPSS, and QoL over alpha antagonist or antimuscarinic alone. On comparison with alpha blockers, PDE inhibitors were found to be equally effective for urinary symptoms, general health, and body pain parameters, but sexual health parameters improved significantly with PDE inhibitors. Finally, antimuscarinic resulted in higher decrease in all indexes of the USSQ, the IPSS, and QoL relative to alpha antagonist. Key message: Relative to placebo, alpha antagonist alone, antimuscarinics alone, and PDE inhibitors alone have beneficial effect in reducing stent-related symptoms. Furthermore, there are significant advantages of combination therapy compared with monotherapy. Finally, PDE inhibitors are comparable to alpha antagonist, and antimuscarinic seems to be more effective than alpha antagonist alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000518387DOI Listing
November 2021

New Ultra-minimally Invasive Surgical Treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Systematic Review and Analysis of Comparative Outcomes.

Eur Urol Open Sci 2021 Nov 22;33:28-41. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Oncology, Division of Urology, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

Context: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) is diagnosed in up to 80% of men during their lifetime. Several novel ultra-minimally invasive surgical treatments (uMISTs) for BPH/benign prostatic obstruction (BPO) have become available over the past 5 yr.

Objective: To evaluate the perioperative and functional outcomes of recently introduced uMISTs for BPH/BPO, including Urolift, Rezūm, temporary implantable nitinol device, prostatic artery embolization (PAE), and intraprostatic injection.

Evidence Acquisition: A systematic literature search was conducted in December 2020 using Medline (via PubMed), Embase (via Ovid), Scopus, and Web of Science (registered on PROSPERO as CRD42021225014). The search strategy used PICO criteria and article selection was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. The risk of bias and the quality of the articles included were assessed. A dedicated data extraction form was used to collect the data of interest. Pooled and cumulative analyses were performed to compare perioperative and functional outcomes between study groups. A random-effects model using the DerSimonian and Laird method was used to evaluate heterogeneity. Stata version 15.0 software was used for all statistical analyses.

Evidence Synthesis: The initial electronic search identified 3978 papers, of which 48 ultimately met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Pooled analysis revealed a uMIST benefit in terms of International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS; -9.81 points, 95% confidence interval [CI] -11.37 to -8.25 at 1 mo; -13.13 points, 95% CI -14.98 to -11.64 at 12 mo), maximum flow rate (from +3.66 ml/s, 95% CI 2.8-4.5 to +4.14 ml/s, 95% CI 0.72-7.56 at 12 mo), and postvoid residual volume (-10.10 ml, 95% CI -27.90 to 7.71 at 12 mo). No negative impact was observed on scores for the International Index of Erectile Function-5, Male Sexual Health Questionnaire-Ejaculatory Dysfunction bother and function scales (overall postintervention change in pooled median score of 1.88, 95% CI 1.34-2.42 at the start of follow-up; and 1.04, 95% CI 0.28-1.8 after 1 yr), or the IPSS-Quality of Life questionnaire.

Conclusions: Novel uMISTs can yield fast and effective relief of LUTS without affecting patient quality of life. Only Rezūm, UroLift, and PAE had a minimal impact on patients' sexual function with respect to baseline, especially regarding preservation of ejaculation.

Patient Summary: We reviewed outcomes for recently introduced ultra-minimally invasive surgical treatments for patients with lower urinary tract symptoms caused by benign prostate enlargement or obstruction. The evidence suggests that these novel techniques are beneficial in terms of controlling symptoms while preserving sexual function.

Take Home  Message: Novel ultra-minimally invasive treatments can yield fast and effective relief of lower urinary tract symptoms without affecting a patient's quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euros.2021.08.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8473553PMC
November 2021

Artificial intelligence for target prostate biopsy outcomes prediction the potential application of fuzzy logic.

Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Oncology, Division of Urology, University of Turin, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

Background: In current precision prostate cancer (PCa) surgery era the identification of the best patients candidate for prostate biopsy still remains an open issue. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the prostate target biopsy (TB) outcomes could be predicted by using artificial intelligence approach based on a set of clinical pre-biopsy.

Methods: Pre-biopsy characteristics in terms of PSA, PSA density, digital rectal examination (DRE), previous prostate biopsies, number of suspicious lesions at mp-MRI, lesion volume, lesion location, and Pi-Rads score were extracted from our prospectively maintained TB database from March 2014 to December 2019. Our approach is based on Fuzzy logic and associative rules mining, with the aim to predict TB outcomes.

Results: A total of 1448 patients were included. Using the Frequent-Pattern growth algorithm we extracted 875 rules and used to build the fuzzy classifier. 963 subjects were classified whereas for the remaining 484 subjects were not classified since no rules matched with their input variables. Analyzing the classified subjects we obtained a specificity of 59.2% and sensitivity of 90.8% with a negative and the positive predictive values of 81.3% and 76.6%, respectively. In particular, focusing on ISUP ≥ 3 PCa, our model is able to correctly predict the biopsy outcomes in 98.1% of the cases.

Conclusions: In this study we demonstrated that the possibility to look at several pre-biopsy variables simultaneously with artificial intelligence algorithms can improve the prediction of TB outcomes, outclassing the performance of PSA, its derivates and MRI alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41391-021-00441-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8413110PMC
September 2021

Beyond the Learning Curve of Prostate MRI/TRUS Target Fusion Biopsy after More than 1000 Procedures.

Urology 2021 Sep 2;155:39-45. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Oncology, Division of Urology, University of Turin, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Turin, 10043.

Objective: To evaluate the learning curve (LC) of two urology residents in the execution of fusion biopsy (FB) in terms of overall prostate cancer (PCa) and clinically significant (cs) PCa detection rate (DR) and according to different characteristics of the lesions on MRI MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed data from our prospective maintained FB database between January 2015 and December 2019. FB was performed using the BioJet fusion system (D&K Technologies, Barum, Germany) with a transrectal or transperineal approach. An ANOVA test was used to evaluate the homogeneity of our cohort. Multivariable linear and logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate the relationship between operator experience and DR for PCa and csPCa. Then, the postprocedural complication rate trend was evaluated.

Results: 1005 patients were included. The overall DR of PCa was 61.2% (615/1005) [IC 0.58 - 0.64]; whilst DR for csPCA was 54.6% (549/1005) [IC 0.51 - 0.57]. Operator experience does not seem to influence the DR of overall PCa and csPCa; whilst for lesions <8 mm in diameter, PCa and csPCa DR increased significantly with operator experience (P = 0.048 and P = 0.038, respectively). Postprocedural complications remained stable during the whole study period (P = 0.75).

Conclusion: A standardized FB approach turned out to be feasible, safe, and effective since the beginning of the residents' LC. PCa and csPCa DR remained stable, at 60% and 55% respectively, after more than 1,000 biopsies. However, for lesions smaller than 8 mm, at least 100 FB of experience is needed to correctly sample the area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2021.06.021DOI Listing
September 2021

Three-dimensional Virtual Models' Assistance During Minimally Invasive Partial Nephrectomy Minimizes the Impairment of Kidney Function.

Eur Urol Oncol 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Division of Urology, Department of Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Turin, San Luigi Hospital, Orbassano (Turin), Italy.

Three-dimensional virtual models (3DVMs) are nowadays under scrutiny to improve partial nephrectomy (PN) outcomes. This report aims to analyze their impact on renal function preservation after minimally invasive PN. A total of 100 patients treated with minimally invasive PN with contrast-enhanced computed tomography from which a 3DVM was obtained, and having undergone baseline and 3rd month postoperative renal scans were prospectively enrolled and compared with a control group of 251 patients without 3DVMs. Weighted differential of pre- and postoperative renal scan-based effective renal plasmatic flow (b-WD ERPF) was calculated, according to the availability of 3DVMs and PADUA risk category. Multivariable logistic regression (MLR) models predicting a significant loss of renal function (LORF; ERPF drop >20%) were performed, overall and according to PADUA risk categories. The b-WD ERPF of the 3DVM group showed significantly lower LORF (-10%) than that of the control group (-19.6%, p =  0.02). In MLR, the availability of a 3DVM was found to be the only protective factor against a significant LORF (odds ratio [OR] = 0.3, p =  0.002). Moreover, after stratification as per tumor surgical complexity, this protective role was observed in both PADUA 8-9 and ≥10 category risk patients (OR = 0.3, p =  0.03 and OR = 0.1, p =  0.01). PATIENT SUMMARY: The drop in operated kidney function was significantly lower in surgeries assisted by three-dimensional virtual models (3VDMs), indicating that the availability of a 3VDM is the only protective factor against a significant functional damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euo.2021.04.001DOI Listing
April 2021

Comparison between minimally-invasive partial and radical nephrectomy for the treatment of clinical T2 renal masses: results of a 10-year study in a tertiary care center.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Aug 22;73(4):509-517. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Division of Urology, Department of Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Turin, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

Background: Even if partial nephrectomy (PN) is nowadays considered the standard for managing cT1 renal masses, its role in the management of cT2 kidney tumors is controversial. We aimed to compare oncologic and functional outcomes of minimally invasive radical nephrectomy (RN) and PN in cT2 renal masses.

Methods: Patients with cT2 renal masses underwent minimally-invasive PN or RN performed by a highly experienced single surgeon from 2009 to 2019 were considered. Demographic, perioperative and functional variables were compared. Cumulative incidence plot and competing risks regression (CRR) models were used to test differences in 5-year cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and 5-year other-cause mortality (OCM) rates. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression model was used to test differences in 5-year progression free survival (PFS) rates.

Results: Overall, 52 PN vs. 64 RN patients were identified. Relative to RN, PN patients recorded higher rates of complications (25% vs. 7.8%, P=0.02) but lower upstaging rate (≥pT3a 64.1% vs. 19.2%, P<0.0001). Functional outcomes were in favor of PN (all P<0.001). No differences were recorded between 5-year CSM and OCM according to nephrectomy type. At CRR models, older age and upstaging were independent predictors of 5-year OCM and CSM, respectively (all P<0.01). Finally, only upstaging, high grade tumors and presence of positive surgical margins were identified as independent predictors of 5-year PFS (all P<0.01).

Conclusions: In experienced hands the treatment of cT2 renal neoplasms with minimally-invasive PN is feasible, providing perioperative and oncological safety profiles comparable to RN, with advantages in terms of functional outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04390-1DOI Listing
August 2021

3D imaging technologies in minimally-invasive kidney and prostate cancer surgery: which is the urologists' perception?

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Division of Urology, Departmet of Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Turin, San Luigi Hospital, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

Background: Many specific 3D imaging technologies are currently available for the practising urologists. Aim of the study was to assess their perception about different 3D imaging tools in the field of prostate and kidney cancer surgery.

Methods: All the attendees of the 8th Techno-Urology-Meeting were asked to fill a questionnaire regarding the role of 3D virtual reconstruction PDFs, 3D printing models, Augmented-Reality (AR) and mixed reality technology in the setting of surgical planning, patient counselling, intraoperative guidance and training for kidney and prostate cancer surgery; Moreover the different materials used for 3D printing were compared to assess the most suitable in reproducing the organ and tumor features, as well as their estimated cost and production time.

Results: The population consisted of 180 attendees. Overall, AR was the preferred option for intraoperative guidance and training, in both prostate (55% and 38.3%) and kidney cancer surgery (58.3% and 40%). HoloLens was perceived as the best imaging technology for the surgical planning (50% for prostate and 60% for kidney), whereas printed models for patients counselling (66.7% for prostate and 61.7% for kidney). Fused deposition models were deemed as the best printing technology in representing kidney anatomy and renal tumor location (40%), while silicon (46.7%) and Polyjet (36.7%) models for prostate anatomy and cancer location. Finally, attendees demonstrated poor knowledge of 3D printing costs and production times.

Conclusions: Our study shows the perceptions of a heterogeneous surrogate of practising urologists about the role and potential applications of 3D imaging technologies in daily surgical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04131-XDOI Listing
March 2021

Anastomosis quality score during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: a new simple tool to maximize postoperative management.

World J Urol 2021 Aug 3;39(8):2921-2928. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Division of Urology, Department of Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Turin, San Luigi Hospital, Regione Gonzole 10, 10043, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

Purpose: The urethro-vesical anastomosis represents one of the most challenging steps of robotic prostatectomy (RARP). To maximize postoperative management, we specifically designed our anastomosis quality score (AQS), based on the intraoperative characteristics of the urethra and bladder neck.

Methods: This is a prospective study, conducted from April 2019 to March 2020. All the patients were classified into three different AQS categories (low, intermediate, high) based on the quality of the anastomosis. The postoperative management was modulated accordingly.

Results: We enrolled 333 patients. According to AQS, no differences were recorded in intraoperative complications (p = 0.9). Median hospital stay and catheterization time were longer in AQS 1 group (p < 0.001). Additionally, the occurrence of postoperative complication was higher in AQS 1 category (p = 0.002) but, when focusing on the complications related to the quality of the anastomosis, no differences were found neither for acute urinary retention (p = 0.12) nor urine leakage (p = 0.11). Finally, concerning the continence recovery, no significant differences were found among the three groups for each time point. The highest potency recovery rate at one month of follow-up was recorded in AQS 3 category (p = 0. 03).

Conclusion: The AQS proposed revealed to be a valid too to intraoperatively categorize patients who underwent RARP on the basis of the urethral and bladder neck features. The modulated postoperative management for each specific score category allowed to limit the occurrence of complications and to maximize the functional outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-020-03549-6DOI Listing
August 2021

Implementing telemedicine for the management of benign urologic conditions: a single centre experience in Italy.

World J Urol 2021 Aug 1;39(8):3109-3115. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Division of Urology, Department of Oncology, School of Medicine, San Luigi Hospital, University of Turin, Regione Gonzole 10, 10043, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

Purpose: To assess the use of telemedicine with phone-call visits as a practical tool to follow-up with patients affected by urological benign diseases, whose clinic visits had been cancelled during the acute phase of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: Patients were contacted via phone-call and a specific questionnaire was administered to evaluate the health status of these patients and to identify those who needed an "in-person" ambulatory visit due to the worsening of their condition. Secondarily, the patients' perception of a potential shift towards a "telemedicine" approach to the management of their condition and to indirectly evaluate their desire to return to "in-person" clinic visits.

Results: 607 were contacted by phone-call. 87.5% (531/607) of the cases showed stability of the symptoms so no clinic in-person or emergency visits were needed. 81.5% (495/607) of patients were more concerned about the risk of contagion than their urological condition. The median score for phone visit comprehensibility and ease of communication of exams was 5/5; whilst patients' perception of phone visits' usefulness was scored 4/5. 53% (322/607) of the interviewees didn't own the basic supports required to be able to perform a real telemedicine consult according to the required standards.

Conclusion: Telemedicine approach limits the number of unnecessary accesses to medical facilities and represents an important tool for the limitation of the risk of transmission of infectious diseases, such as COVID-19. However, infrastructures, health workers and patients should reach out to a computerization process to allow a wider diffusion of more advanced forms of telemedicine, such as televisit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-020-03536-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775638PMC
August 2021

The importance of anatomical reconstruction for continence recovery after robot assisted radical prostatectomy: a systematic review and pooled analysis from referral centers.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 04 17;73(2):165-177. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Division of Urology, Department of Oncology, School of Medicine, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, University of Turin, Orbassano, Turin, Italy.

Introduction: Urinary incontinence is one of the most scared sequelae of robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Therefore, different surgical modifications, aimed to restore the original anatomy, were proposed to overcome this issue. The purpose of this study is to assess which is the best reconstruction technique (posterior only: PR; anterior only: AR; total: TR) compared to the standard approach for continence recovery after RARP in a tertiary care center.

Evidence Acquisition: After establishing an a priori protocol, a systematic electronic literature search was conducted in May 2019. The article selection proceeded in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and was registered (PROSPERO registry number 131667). The risk of bias and the quality assessment of the included studies were performed. Simple pooled analysis was performed for continence rates according to the definition of continence (0 pad vs. 0-1 pad) and the different types of reconstruction at 1, 4, 12, 24, 52 weeks after RARP. Complication rate, operative and console time and estimated blood loss were pooled. Two-side test of proportion and T-test were used to compare rates and mean, respectively.

Evidence Synthesis: Six studies meeting the inclusion criteria were found and included in the analysis. All the included studies were of "poor" or "good" quality. A high or moderate risk of bias was recorded. TR showed higher continence recovery rates, compared to their anterior reconstruction counterpart at 1, 4, 12, 24, 52 weeks (P<0.001 at all time-points). At 12 weeks TR showed the highest continence rates (P<0.001), followed by AR and PR. No statistically significant differences were recorded regarding anastomosis-related complication rates (anastomosis stricture P=0.08; urine leakage P=0.1).

Conclusions: In patients undergoing RARP, TR facilitates a faster and higher continence recovery compared to standard approach or PR or AR only.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.20.04146-6DOI Listing
April 2021

Applications of neural networks in urology: a systematic review.

Curr Opin Urol 2020 11;30(6):788-807

Department of Urology, University of California Irvine, Orange, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Over the last decade, major advancements in artificial intelligence technology have emerged and revolutionized the extent to which physicians are able to personalize treatment modalities and care for their patients. Artificial intelligence technology aimed at mimicking/simulating human mental processes, such as deep learning artificial neural networks (ANNs), are composed of a collection of individual units known as 'artificial neurons'. These 'neurons', when arranged and interconnected in complex architectural layers, are capable of analyzing the most complex patterns. The aim of this systematic review is to give a comprehensive summary of the contemporary applications of deep learning ANNs in urological medicine.

Recent Findings: Fifty-five articles were included in this systematic review and each article was assigned an 'intermediate' score based on its overall quality. Of these 55 articles, nine studies were prospective, but no nonrandomized control trials were identified.

Summary: In urological medicine, the application of novel artificial intelligence technologies, particularly ANNs, have been considered to be a promising step in improving physicians' diagnostic capabilities, especially with regards to predicting the aggressiveness and recurrence of various disorders. For benign urological disorders, for example, the use of highly predictive and reliable algorithms could be helpful for the improving diagnoses of male infertility, urinary tract infections, and pediatric malformations. In addition, articles with anecdotal experiences shed light on the potential of artificial intelligence-assisted surgeries, such as with the aid of virtual reality or augmented reality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MOU.0000000000000814DOI Listing
November 2020

Three-dimensional Augmented Reality Robot-assisted Partial Nephrectomy in Case of Complex Tumours (PADUA ≥10): A New Intraoperative Tool Overcoming the Ultrasound Guidance.

Eur Urol 2020 08 30;78(2):229-238. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

Onze-Lieve-Vrouw Hospital, Aalst, Belgium; OLV Robotic Surgery Institute Academy, Melle, Belgium.

Background: Despite technical improvements introduced with robotic surgery, management of complex tumours (PADUA score ≥10) is still a matter of debate within the field of transperitoneal robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN).

Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of our three-dimensional (3D) static and elastic augmented reality (AR) systems based on hyperaccuracy models (HA3D) in identifying tumours and intrarenal structures during transperitoneal RAPN (AR-RAPN), compared with standard ultrasound (US).

Design, Setting, And Participants: A retrospective study was conducted, including 91 patients who underwent RAPN for complex renal tumours, 48 with 3D AR guidance and 43 with 2D US guidance, from July 2017 to May 2019.

Surgical Procedure: In patients who underwent 3D AR-RAPN, virtual image overlapping guided the surgeon during resection and suture phases. In the 2D US group, interventions were driven by US only.

Measurements: Patient characteristics were tested using the Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and the Mann-Whitney test for continuous ones. Intraoperative, postoperative, and surgical outcomes were collected. All results for continuous variables were expressed as medians (range), and frequencies and proportions were reported as percentages.

Results And Limitations: The use of 3D AR guidance makes it possible to correctly identify the lesion and intraparenchymal structures with a more accurate 3D perception of the location and the nature of the different structures relative to the standard 2D US guidance. This translates to a lower rate of global ischaemia (45.8% in the 3D group vs 69.7% in the US group; p = 0.03), higher rate of enucleation (62.5% vs 37.5% in the 3D and US groups, respectively; p = 0.02), and lower rate of collecting system violation (10.4% vs 45.5%; p = 0.003). Postoperatively, 3D AR guidance use correlates to a low risk of surgery-related complications in 3D AR groups and a lower drop in estimated renal plasma flow at renal scan at 3 mo of follow-up (-12.38 in the 3D group vs -18.14 in the US group; p = 0.01). The main limitations of this study are short follow-up time and small sample size.

Conclusions: HA3D models that overlap in vivo anatomy during AR-RAPN for complex tumours can be useful for identifying the lesion and intraparenchymal structures that are difficult to visualise with US only. This translates to a potential improvement in the quality of the resection phase and a reduction in postoperative complications, with better functional recovery.

Patient Summary: Based on our findings, three-dimensional augmented reality robot-assisted partial nephrectomy seems to help surgeons in the management of complex renal tumours, with potential early postoperative benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2019.11.024DOI Listing
August 2020
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