Publications by authors named "Stefano D"

184 Publications

Morphologic Spectrum of Rhabdomyomatous Mesenchymal Hamartomas (Striated Muscle Hamartomas) in Pediatric Dermatopathology.

Am J Dermatopathol 2021 Dec 28. Epub 2021 Dec 28.

Department of Pathology, UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA.

Background: Rhabdomyomatous mesenchymal hamartomas (RMHs), also termed striated muscle hamartomas, are rare benign tumors of skin and subcutis, which mostly occur at birth with a predilection for the head and neck. Simple surgical excision is the treatment modality of choice with excellent prognosis.

Objective: To review the spectrum of the different clinical and pathologic features of RMHs in pediatric patients and recognize their characteristics to avoid confusion with other lesions in their list of differential diagnosis.

Methods: Six cases of RMH diagnosed at our institution from 2009 to 2021 were retrieved from our files and reviewed retrospectively after anonymization by an honest broker. This review is IRB-approved by the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, study STUDY19080192.

Results: The patients' age ranged from 6 days to 8 years, with a female predominance (2:1). In all cases, the lesion was present at birth. All lesions, except for 2, occurred in the head and neck regions. One patient had multiple additional small nodules in the face, whereas all others presented with solitary RMHs. The size of the lesions varied, and their composition included bundles of skeletal muscle (the landmark finding) associated with variable amounts of adipose, fibrous, vascular, nerve, and adnexal structures.

Conclusions: RMH is a benign hamartomatous lesion with a variable phenotypic spectrum. RMHs predominate in the head and neck. Familiarity with these lesions, including their presentation in less frequent anatomical sites, is important to avoid diagnostic misinterpretations and potential overtreatment. This study represents one of the largest series of RMHs in the literature, including an unusual case in a perianal location.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DAD.0000000000002062DOI Listing
December 2021

Stability of Dental Implants and Thickness of Cortical Bone: Clinical Research and Future Perspectives. A Systematic Review.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Nov 25;14(23). Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Dental School, Vita-Salute University IRCCS San Raffaele, 20132 Milan, Italy.

Dental surgery implantation has become increasingly important among procedures that aim to rehabilitate edentulous patients to restore esthetics and the mastication ability. The optimal stability of dental implants is correlated primarily to the quality and quantity of bone. This systematic literature review describes clinical research focusing on the correlation between cortical bone thickness and primary/secondary stability of dental fixtures. To predict successful outcome of prosthetic treatment, quantification of bone density at the osteotomy site is, in general, taken into account, with little attention being paid to assessment of the thickness of cortical bone. Nevertheless, local variations in bone structure (including cortical thickness) could explain differences in clinical practice with regard to implantation success, marginal bone resorption or anchorage loss. Current knowledge is preliminarily detailed, while tentatively identifying which inconclusive or unexplored aspects merit further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14237183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8658728PMC
November 2021

Myocardial Late Contrast Enhancement CT in Troponin-Positive Acute Chest Pain Syndrome.

Radiology 2021 Dec 7:211288. Epub 2021 Dec 7.

From the Clinical and Experimental Radiology Unit, Experimental Imaging Center, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Olgettina 60, 20132 Milan, Italy (A.P., D.V., D.D.S., F.D.C., A.E.); School of Medicine, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy (A.P., D.V., E.B., F.D.C., A.E.); Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Dr Dragiša Mišović Dedinje, Belgrade, Serbia (M.T.); Interventional Cardiology Unit, Cardio-Thoracic-Vascular Department, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy (F.M., M.M.); UOC Diagnostica per Immagini e Radiologia Interventistica, Policlinico Universitario Campus Bio-Medico, Rome, Italy (D.D.S.); Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology Unit, University of Turin, Turin, Italy (M.G., R.F., F.G., M.R.); Clinical Cardiology Unit, Cardio-Thoracic-Vascular Department, IRCCS San Raffaele University Hospital, Milan, Italy (M.O., M.S., A.M.); Department of Cardiac Electrophysiology and Arrhythmology, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy (G.P., S.S.); Cardiovascular Imaging Unit, Cardio-Thoracic-Vascular Department, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy (E.A.); and Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Ospedale Maria Vittoria, Turin, Italy (G.C.).

Background Acute chest pain with mild troponin rise and inconclusive diagnosis after clinical evaluation represents a diagnostic challenge. Triple-rule-out (TRO) CT may exclude coronary artery disease (CAD), as well as acute aortic syndrome and pulmonary embolism, but cannot help identify other causes of myocardial injury. Purpose To investigate the diagnostic value of a comprehensive CT protocol including both an angiographic and a late contrast enhancement (LCE) scan in participants with troponin-positive acute chest pain. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, consecutive patients with troponin-positive acute chest pain or anginal equivalent and inconclusive diagnosis after clinical evaluation (symptoms, markers, electrocardiography, and echocardiography) who underwent TRO CT between June 2018 and September 2020 were enrolled. TRO CT was performed to evaluate the presence of obstructive CAD (stenosis ≥50%), acute aortic syndrome, and pulmonary embolism. If the findings on the TRO CT scan were negative, an LCE CT scan was acquired after 10 minutes to assess the presence and pattern of scar and quantify the myocardial extracellular volume fraction. CT-based diagnoses were compared with diagnoses obtained with reference standard methods, including invasive coronary angiography, cardiac MRI, and endomyocardial biopsy. Results Eighty-four patients (median age, 69 years [interquartile range, 50-77 years]; 45 men) were enrolled. TRO CT helped identify obstructive CAD in 35 participants (42%), acute aortic syndrome in one (1.2%), and pulmonary embolism in six (7.1%). LCE CT scans were acquired in the remaining 42 participants. The following diagnoses were reached with use of LCE CT: myocarditis (22 of 42 participants [52%]), takotsubo cardiomyopathy (four of 42 [10%]), amyloidosis (three of 42 [7.1%]), myocardial infarction with nonobstructed coronary arteries (three of 42 [7.1%]), dilated cardiomyopathy (two of 42 [4.8%]), and negative or inconclusive findings (eight of 42 [19%]). The addition of LCE CT improved the diagnostic rate of TRO CT from 42 of 84 participants (50% [95% CI: 38.9, 61.1]) to 76 of 84 (90% [95% CI: 82.1, 95.8]) ( < .001). Conclusion A CT protocol including triple-rule-out and late contrast enhancement CT scans improved diagnostic rate in participants presenting with acute chest pain syndrome. © RSNA, 2021 See also the editorial by Nagpal and Bluemke in this issue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.211288DOI Listing
December 2021

OPTIMADE, an API for exchanging materials data.

Sci Data 2021 08 12;8(1):217. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

UCLouvain, Institut de la Matière Condensée et des Nanosciences (IMCN), Chemin des Étoiles 8, Louvain-la-Neuve, 1348, Belgium.

The Open Databases Integration for Materials Design (OPTIMADE) consortium has designed a universal application programming interface (API) to make materials databases accessible and interoperable. We outline the first stable release of the specification, v1.0, which is already supported by many leading databases and several software packages. We illustrate the advantages of the OPTIMADE API through worked examples on each of the public materials databases that support the full API specification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00974-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8361091PMC
August 2021

Imaging findings in a case of myo-pericarditis associated with SARS CoV-2 disease.

J Cardiol Cases 2021 Nov 3;24(5):210-214. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Unit of Diagnostic Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Departmental Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome, Italy.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is known to use the host protein angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 as a co-receptor to gain intracellular entry into different organs, including the heart. Cardiac involvement is one of the clinical manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is associated with a worse prognosis; in this setting, few cases of myo-pericarditis with complete imaging documentation have been reported. We discuss a case of a woman admitted to the emergency department with dyspnea. Nasopharyngeal swab showed positive results for SARS-CoV-2. A subsequent 12-lead electrocardiogram showed modifications of T-wave in leads V1 to V6 while blood tests revealed increased levels of troponin I. Coronary computed tomography angiography was performed, excluding hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) was also performed, showing findings fulfilling Lake Louise criteria for the diagnosis of acute myo-pericarditis. To date, myocardial inflammation was recognized as connected with COVID-19 mortality. CMR is an indispensable tool for non-invasive diagnosis of this pathology; however, most clinical studies demonstrated the presence of intramyocardial edema using T1 and T2 mapping sequences. In our case, extensive intramyocardial edema was well demonstrated using TIRM sequences, with a short TI to obtain fat suppression. < Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may cause acute myo-pericarditis. Clinicians need to be aware of cardiovascular involvement during COVID-19 due to its mortality. Cardiac magnetic resonance, used in the right clinical setting, can easily diagnose myocarditis in a non-invasive way.>.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jccase.2021.07.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8328569PMC
November 2021

Cortical Thickness, Bone Density, and the Insertion Torque/Depth Integral: A Study Using Polyurethane Foam Blocks.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2021 May-Jun;36(3):423-431

Purpose: Bone density and implant primary stability parameters have been introduced that are based on calculating (1) the average of the instantaneous torque needed to keep the rotation speed of a bone density probe constant while it descends into bone or (2) the integral of the instantaneous torque-depth curve at implant insertion (I), a quantity that is equal to the insertion energy multiplied by a constant. This study aimed to determine how these two quantities are affected by the presence and thickness of a cortical bone layer.

Materials And Methods: An instantaneous torque-measuring micromotor was used to measure the density of six double-layer polyurethane foam blocks mimicking different cortical/cancellous bone combinations. Twenty measurements per block were collected, averaged, and compared. The insertion torque and the integral (I) of the instantaneous torque-depth curve at implant insertion were recorded when 20 3.75 × 12-mm cylindrical implants were inserted in each of nine blocks, including three single-layer blocks simulating the absence of a cortical layer, under three final cortical (countersink) preparations: 4.0, 3.7, and 3.5 mm. The relationship between the insertion torque, the integral of the instantaneous torque-depth curve at implant insertion (I), cortical thickness, and the final diameter preparation were investigated with regression and best-fit slope analyses.

Results: Bone density measurements showed that the average of the instantaneous torque at probing allowed differentiation of five of six different bone classes (hard-hard, hard-normal, hard-soft, normal-normal, normal-soft, soft-soft); the post hoc analysis of variance (ANOVA) comparisons were all statistically significant except for the hard-soft-normal-soft pair. The insertion torque and the integral (I) of the instantaneous torque-depth curve at implant insertion increased proportionally with cortical bone thickness (Pearson's r > 0.96 in all cases).

Conclusion: When the final preparation varied from 3.7 mm to 3.5 mm, the insertion torque-thickness plot slope did not change significantly, while that of the instantaneous torquedepth curve integral (I)-thickness plot did change, suggesting that the torque-depth curve at implant insertion integral (I) may detect the increase in implant stability consequent to slight anatomical changes or changes in the site preparation protocol better than the insertion torque when measuring the cortical bone layer stress while undergoing insertion. These findings concerning bone density and primary stability should be investigated further using different experimental settings. If confirmed, they might generate improvements in the predictability of implant and prosthetic rehabilitation outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11607/jomi.8419DOI Listing
June 2021

A retrospective preliminary histomorphometric and clinical investigation on sinus augmentation using enzyme-deantigenic, collagen-preserving equine bone granules and plasma rich in growth factors.

Int J Implant Dent 2021 06 11;7(1):60. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Dental School, Vita-Salute University IRCCS San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.

Background: Enzyme-deantigenic equine bone (EDEB) is a substitute of autogenous bone. Mixing it with plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) seems a viable option to achieve enhanced bone formation in alveolar bone augmentation surgeries. This retrospective study aims to first report the histomorphometric and clinical outcomes achieved when using the EDEB/PRGF mixture for performing sinus augmentation procedures followed by delayed implant placement.

Materials And Methods: Records of 11 patients who underwent 14 sinus augmentation surgeries using EDEB/PRGF followed by delayed implant placement were retrospectively collected and analyzed to assess histomorphometric data concerning newly formed bone (NFB) and residual biomaterial (RB) recorded at implant placement, marginal bone loss (MBL) values of implants placed in the augmented sinuses, and implant and prosthetic success and survival rates.

Results: At 5.6 ± 1.1 months after grafting, NFB and RB were 34.0 ± 9.1% and 11.3 ± 2.2% respectively, and no histologic signs of inflammation or immune reaction were observed in any of the 34 bone biopsies being collected. Further, 86.5 ± 4.3 months after implant placement, MBL was 0.40 ± 0.07 mm. No implant or prosthesis failed, and the implant success and survival rates were 100% CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of the present study, grafting EDEB/PRGF for lateral sinus augmentation and delayed implant placement seems to be safe. Compared to published data concerning EDEB alone, results of the present study do not suggest that the EDEB/PRGF combination may provide a histomorphometric or medium-/long-term clinical advantage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40729-021-00336-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192666PMC
June 2021

Diagnosing coronary thrombosis using multiphase post-mortem CT angiography (MPMCTA): A case study.

Med Sci Law 2021 Jan;61(1_suppl):77-81

Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

While post-mortem angiography (PMA) is gradually establishing its role in Forensic Radiology, the available literature in Italy lacks a solid foundation, particularly regarding its use in criminal court proceedings. An illustrative example of multiphase post-mortem CT angiography (MPMCTA) is presented here to encourage the systematic implementation of PMA methods. To demonstrate concordance between MPMCTA and the reference standard (autopsy and histology) in a case of acute coronary thrombosis, we report a case where MPMCTA, autopsy, histological and toxicological analyses were performed on a previously healthy 51-year-old man. MPMCTA detected a right coronary artery filling defect that could be ascribed to coronary thrombosis, which was later confirmed by autopsy and histological examinations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0025802420923175DOI Listing
January 2021

Accuracy of 3-dimensional printing of dental casts: A proposal for quality standardization.

J Prosthet Dent 2021 Jan 14. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Adjunct Professor, Dental School, Vita-Salute University IRCCS San Raffaele, Milan, Italy; Private Practitioner, Milan, Italy.

Statement Of Problem: A digital workflow in fixed prosthodontics may use a 3D printer to obtain a cast for porcelain application. Standards exist that define the accuracy of traditional casts, but the accuracy requirements of 3D-printed casts have not been defined.

Purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate how the accuracy of 3D-printed casts affected prosthesis fit and whether they correctly reproduced interproximal contacts.

Material And Methods: Copings with different die spacings were used to test different 3D-printed casts of the same dental arch. The accuracy of the 3D casts was assessed by imaging and comparing the resulting standard tessellation language (STL) files with the original through a matching software program. Accuracy scores were then correlated with a score measuring how well the copings fit the casts. The first data set was obtained from a patient receiving restoration of the 4 maxillary incisors. The teeth were prepared, the dental arch was imaged intraorally, and 10 resin casts were printed with four 3D printers. Two sets of 4 zirconia test copings were prepared, and 3 clinicians assessed their fit on each cast. A further set of casts was created from a second patient requiring prosthetic restoration for 5 adjacent teeth to assess whether undersizing affected the best fit of the copings on their dies.

Results: The clinical scores and accuracy scores did not correlate. The results suggested that printed dies showing a certain degree of undersizing might provide a better fit than those showing better correspondence to the actual anatomic structure. The oversized dies were the worst. Only 7 of 17 casts being assessed were deemed suitable for veneering of the copings. The undersized casts tested clinically better than casts printed by using the same printer under standard settings.

Conclusions: This retrospective study indicated that 3D-printed casts that do not allow copings to fit appropriately usually show mean excess oversizing. Axially undersizing the printed dies on casts might allow a better fit of copings to be veneered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prosdent.2020.09.045DOI Listing
January 2021

Reply: Horizontal aorta in transcatheter aortic valve replacement - several open questions.

EuroIntervention 2020 10 9;16(9):e781-e782. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Interventional Cardiology Unit, GVM Care & Research Maria Cecilia Hospital, Cotignola, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-19-00709RDOI Listing
October 2020

Event-Related Potentials in ADHD Associated With Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: A Possible Biomarker of Symptoms Severity?

Front Neurol 2020 10;11:546. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Child Neurology Unit, Neuroscience and Neurorehabilitation Department, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is associated with a high rate of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), usually with more severe symptoms than in idiopathic cases. Event-related potentials have been used in idiopathic ADHD, and they have been proposed as a possible biomarker of symptoms severity. Aim of this study was to investigate event-related potential (ERP) characteristics in patients with ADHD secondary to TSC, compared to patients with drug-naive idiopathic ADHD and healthy controls (HCs), to investigate whether (1) distinct clinical features can be due to different pathophysiological mechanisms, and (2) ERPs may reliably predict ADHD symptoms severity in TSC. We enrolled 13 patients with idiopathic ADHD (iADHD), 6 patients with ADHD associated with TSC (tscADHD), and 14 age-matched HCs (7-17 years). All of them underwent ERP recording, with mismatch negativity (MMN) preceding the P300 recording. All patients underwent neurocognitive evaluations. Mismatch negativity latency was shorter in iADHD ( = 0.04) and tscADHD ( = 0.06) than in HC, with no difference between patients' groups. Mismatch negativity amplitude was significantly higher in patients (both iADHD and tscADHD) than in HC. The P300 amplitude was significantly lower in iADHD patients than in both tscADHD patients ( = 0.03) and HCs ( < 0.001). No difference was found between tscADHD patients and HCs ( = 0.2). While patients with iADHD present lower P300 amplitude than HC, in tscADHD patients P300 amplitude was not different from that in HC, suggesting that in TSC P300 amplitude does not really reflect symptom severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7366845PMC
July 2020

Implant and Prosthetic Success Following Peri-implant Guided Bone Regeneration in the Esthetic Zone Using an Equine Cortical Bone Membrane and an Equine Enzyme-Treated Bone Graft: A Retrospective Study with 9-year Follow-Up.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2020 Jul/Aug;35(4):824-832

Purpose: A barrier membrane consisting of an equine-derived, demineralized cortical bone sheet has been made available, yet evidence of its effectiveness is currently only anecdotal. This study aimed to obtain preliminary evidence concerning the medium-term prosthetic and implant success rates that may be achieved when such a membrane is used in combination with an equine, enzyme-treated bone graft, concomitantly to implant placement in the esthetic zone.

Materials And Methods: Records of patients who had one or two implants placed in the anterior sectors of the two arches and had peri-implant bone regeneration carried out using the equine-derived membrane and equine-derived collagen-preserving bone granules were retrospectively collected. Peri-implant marginal bone loss (MBL) was used to assess implant survival. When available, histologic data concerning the equine membrane and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were analyzed as well.

Results: Records of 32 patients (ages 36 to 73 years), corresponding to 44 implants placed, were retrieved and analyzed. The mean follow-up was 113.9 ± 10.2 months. Two implants failed. The implant success rate was 90.9%. Twelve membrane samples could be retrieved and analyzed, showing the membrane was still occlusive at 4.2 ± 1.1 months and only beginning to undergo remodeling. Twelve CBCT scans showed that 65.1 ± 9.8 months after surgery, a newly formed cortical layer could be observed in the zone that had undergone grafting.

Conclusion: The equine cortical bone membrane and the enzyme-treated bone graft used in this case series achieved a medium-term implant and prosthetic success rate that was not dissimilar to that of other resorbable membranes and grafts for peri-implant guided bone regeneration augmentation. Preliminary medium-term histologic and CBCT data suggest that the membrane may be occlusive for a period of at least 4 months and may contribute to preserve the ridge thickness over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11607/jomi.7906DOI Listing
August 2020

Li diffusion in Si and LiSi: Nuclear quantum effects and anharmonicity.

J Chem Phys 2020 Jun;152(24):244101

Institute for Condensed Matter and Nanosciences, European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility, Université Catholique de Louvain, Chemin des étoiles 8, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.

The diffusion of Li in bulk Si and crystalline LiSi is investigated over a wide range of temperatures employing first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, transition state theory, and the kinetic Monte Carlo method. Nuclear quantum effects are incorporated by computing the vibrational spectrum and its effect on the effective energy barrier. The Li diffusion coefficient in bulk Si calculated with such quantum effects is ∼33% lower than the classical limit near room temperature due to higher effective energy barrier and tends to the classical limit at a high temperature (>1000 K). The presence of anharmonicity, estimated by the quasiharmonic approximation and the cBΩ model, increases the diffusion coefficient by ∼60%. For Li diffusion in LiSi with multiple vacancy jumps, we obtain an effective diffusion barrier of 0.27 eV ± 0.01 eV. In the Li-Si system, the quantum mechanical effects are only marginally significant at room temperature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0007648DOI Listing
June 2020

Implant Diameter, Length, and the Insertion Torque/Depth Integral: A Study Using Polyurethane Foam Blocks.

Dent J (Basel) 2020 Jun 4;8(2). Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Adjunct Professor, Dental School, Vita-Salute University IRCCS San Raffaele, 20132 Milan, Italy.

The amount of energy necessary to place an implant in its seat, described as the integral of the torque-depth curve at insertion (I), has been validated as a reliable measure of primary stability. This study aimed to investigate whether (I) may detect the variations in primary stability caused by changes in the implant length or diameter better than the insertion torque (IT). Cylindric implants featuring a double-etched, sandblasted surface with different diameters or lengths were placed into monolithic polyurethane foam blocks with different densities that mimicked human bone. (I)-, (I)*-, IT-, IT*-diameter and -length plots ((I)* and IT* were the derived values corrected for undersizing) were drawn and the relation between (I), (I)*, IT, and IT* and the fixture diameter or length was investigated with correlation analysis. (I)* and IT* correlated better than (I) and IT with the fixture diameter; (I), (I)*, IT, and IT* correlated equally well with the fixture length. In all cases, the slopes of the lines best fitting the experimental data were greater for (I) or (I)* than IT or IT*, respectively. (I) or (I)* were better detectors than IT or IT* of the changes in primary stability that can be achieved by increasing the fixture diameter or length.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/dj8020056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7345030PMC
June 2020

The Limited Predictive Power of the Pauling Rules.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2020 May 20;59(19):7569-7575. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences, Université catholique de Louvain, Chemin des étoiles 8, 1348, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.

The Pauling rules have been used for decades to rationalise the crystal structures of ionic compounds. Despite their importance, there has been no statistical assessment of the performances of these five empirical rules so far. Here, we rigorously and automatically test all five Pauling rules for a large data set of around 5000 known oxides. We discuss each Pauling rule separately, stressing their limits and range of application in terms of chemistries and structures. We conclude that only 13 % of the oxides simultaneously satisfy the last four rules, indicating a much lower predictive power than expected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202000829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7217010PMC
May 2020

Ridge Preservation Using an Innovative Enzyme-deantigenic Equine Bone Paste: A Case Report with 36-month Follow-up.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2019 Oct 1;20(10):1229-1234. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Aim: This study aimed to report a successful clinical, histological, and histomorphometric outcome of a novel equine-derived bone paste for a ridge preservation surgery involving a single post-extractive socket.

Background: After tooth avulsion, unless the implant position is not carried out straightforwardly, the alveolar process undergoes resorption: to limit it, post-extractive sockets may be grafted according to the ridge preservation principles. Grafting materials should display proper biological properties and optimal handling characteristics. Bone pastes may facilitate grafting operations, avoid granules' dispersion, and maximize the contact of the graft with the surrounding bone. An innovative equine-derived bone paste has been recently introduced on the market, but its use has never been documented in the medical literature.

Case Description: This report describes the treatment of a patient who received the equine-derived bone paste in a post-extractive socket to allow the preservation of the alveolar ridge and was later rehabilitated with a crown supported by a single implant.

Conclusion: The handling properties of the equine-derived bone paste were excellent. At the 36-month follow-up, the peri-implant bone levels had been maintained, with the implant being successful according to the Albrektsson and Zarb criteria. Histologic outcome showed that the bone paste was fully biocompatible; histomorphometric analysis showed that a significant amount of newly formed bone could be observed in the grafted socket.

Clinical Significance: Alveolar ridge preservation using bone grafts is a well-known approach, yet there is still no agreement about which bone graft might be considered the most suitable for this indication. The novel equine-derived bone paste used in the present study appears a promising option for effective socket preservation and may promote secondary intention healing. How to cite this article: Di Stefano DA, Arosio P, Cinci L, Ridge Preservation Using an Innovative Enzyme-deantigenic Equine Bone Paste: A Case Report with 36-month Follow-up. J Contemp Dent Pract 2019;20(10):1229-1234.
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October 2019

A Preshaped Titanium Mesh for Guided Bone Regeneration with an Equine-Derived Bone Graft in a Posterior Mandibular Bone Defect: A Case Report.

Dent J (Basel) 2019 Aug 1;7(3). Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Dental School, Vita e Salute University and IRCCS San Raffaele, 20132 Milan, Italy.

One of the most often used bone augmentation techniques is the guided bone regeneration procedure. The authors report the case of a 75-year-old man with an atrophic right posterior mandible who underwent bone augmentation through guided bone regeneration with a preshaped titanium mesh adapted on a stereolithographic model of the patient's jaw. The graft volume was simulated with a light-curing resin. The actual site was grafted with a mixture of autogenous and equine-derived bone. Five months later, the mesh was retrieved, three cylindrical implants were positioned, and a bone biopsy was collected for histomorphometric analysis. A provisional prosthesis was delivered three and a half months later. Definitive rehabilitation was accomplished after one additional month. The graft allowed for effective bone formation (newly formed bone, residual biomaterial, and medullar spaces were, respectively, 39%, 10%, and 51% of the core volume). The patient has functioned successfully throughout six and a half years of follow-up. Using the preshaped titanium mesh in association with the enzyme-treated equine bone substitute provided effective bone regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/dj7030077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6784736PMC
August 2019

Impact of horizontal aorta on procedural and clinical outcomes in second-generation transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

EuroIntervention 2019 Oct 4;15(9):e749-e756. Epub 2019 Oct 4.

Cardiovascular Interventions Unit, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a horizontal aorta (HA) on device success and short-term clinical outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).

Methods And Results: We retrospectively assessed 547 consecutive patients treated with transfemoral second-generation non-balloon-expandable (NBE) (n=447) and balloon-expandable (BE) (n=100) TAVI for symptomatic severe aortic stenosis. Aortic angulation (AA) was evaluated with preprocedural computed tomography. Patients were dichotomised according to a previously established AA cut-point: HA group (AA ≥48°, n=230) and normal aorta (NA) group (AA <48°, n=317). Endpoints were considered according to the Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 definitions. Fluoroscopy time (32.8±16.4 vs 30.3±13.9 minutes, p=0.060) and radiation dose (kerma area product 120.8±99.7 vs 103.7±81.1 Gy·cm2, p=0.033) were higher in the HA group as compared to the NA group. No difference in device success was observed between patients with and without an HA (88.3% vs 88.0%, p=0.929). No differences in device success and 30-day outcomes were observed when comparing HA and NA patients, according to BE and NBE prostheses.

Conclusions: The presence of an HA has no impact on device success and short-term clinical outcomes of TAVI with either second-generation NBE or BE devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-19-00455DOI Listing
October 2019

Bone Density and Implant Primary Stability. A Study on Equine Bone Blocks.

Dent J (Basel) 2019 Jul 1;7(3). Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Dental School, Vita-Salute University and IRCCS San Raffaele, Via Olgettina 58, 20132 Milan, Italy.

Previous results on synthetic blocks mimicking bone indicate that bone density can be measured by the friction encountered by a rotating probe while it descends into bone, and that primary implant stability may be measured through the integral (I) of the torque-depth curve at implant insertion. This study aims to repeat those tests on collagen-preserving equine bone blocks as they better reproduce the mechanical properties of natural bone. Fifteen cancellous equine blocks had their density measured using a measuring probe. This was compared to their known physical density through linear regression analysis. Implant placement was carried out into six cancellous equine blocks and primary stability was measured using (I), as well as the insertion torque (IT), the implant stability quotient (ISQ), and the reverse torque (RT). The relation between (I), (IT), (ISQ), and (RT) was investigated by correlation analysis. Bone density measured using the probe correlated significantly with actual density, both with (r = 0.764) and without irrigation (r = 0.977). (I) correlated significantly with IT and RT under all irrigation conditions, and with ISQ only without irrigation (r = 0.886). The results suggest that the probe provides actual bone density measurements. They also indicate that (I) measures primary implant stability and is more sensitive to density variations than IT, RT, and ISQ. Results are consistent with those obtained on synthetic blocks but suggest that equine bone blocks may better reproduce the mechanical properties of human cancellous alveolar bone. This should be the subject of additional studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/dj7030073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6784737PMC
July 2019

Chemical, Clinical and Histomorphometric Comparison between Equine Bone Manufactured through Enzymatic Antigen-Elimination and Bovine Bone Made Non-Antigenic Using a High-Temperature Process in Post-Extractive Socket Grafting. A Comparative Retrospective Clinical Study.

Dent J (Basel) 2019 Jul 1;7(3). Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Department of Health Sciences, Interdepartmental Forensic Medicine Section, University of Florence, Viale G. Pieraccini 6, 50139 Florence, Italy.

Enzyme-deantigenic equine bone (EDEB) and anorganic bovine bone (ABB) are two xenografts made non-antigenic through different processing methods. This study aimed to characterize them for the presence of native bone collagen and other proteins and to compare their histomorphometric outcome when they were used to graft post-extractive sockets. The records of 46 patients treated with EDEB ( = 22) or ABB ( = 24) and followed-up for at least four months after delayed implant placement, were retrospectively collected. Samples of EDEB and ABB were analyzed using Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis for the presence of collagen and other proteins. For histomorphometric analysis on bone specimens, newly formed bone and residual biomaterial percentages were calculated. Results of the present study show that EDEB contains type I bone collagen in its native conformation, while no proteins were detected in ABB. Grafting EDEB resulted in a significantly greater quantity of newly formed bone and less residual biomaterial. Our findings suggest that the manufacturing process can greatly affect the graft behavior and a process preserving collagen in its native form may favor bone tissue regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/dj7030070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6784468PMC
July 2019

Distribution of Trabecular Bone Density in the Maxilla and Mandible.

Implant Dent 2019 Aug;28(4):340-348

Dental School Director, Full Professor and Rector Vita-Salute University IRCCS San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.

Introduction: Implant osseointegration is strongly influenced by the bone quality at the implant insertion site. The present work aims to create distribution diagrams showing the average bone density at each position within the jaws.

Materials And Methods: Data were retrospectively collected from 4 oral surgeons who sought bone-density measurements during implant placement using a torque-measuring implant micromotor. Statistical analyses were performed to investigate whether bone density correlated with the patients' sex and age and whether the bone-density values at different positions within each arch correlated to each other.

Results: Records of 2408 patients and 6060 bone-density readings were retrieved, and density distribution diagrams were created. Density values showed a significant variation within subjects. Within the same jaw, density between adjacent positions showed significant differences. Density at a given position correlated significantly with that at the other positions in most cases. Bone density was significantly lower in women than in men; no significant correlation was found between bone density and the patient age.

Conclusions: Bone density of patients displays significant interindividual variation, thus meaningful assessment must be conducted on a patient-by-patient basis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ID.0000000000000893DOI Listing
August 2019

Correlation between Implant Geometry, Bone Density, and the Insertion Torque/Depth Integral: A Study on Bovine Ribs.

Dent J (Basel) 2019 Mar 5;7(1). Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy.

During insertion of dental implants, measurement of dynamic parameters such as the torque-depth curve integral or insertion energy might convey more information about primary stability than traditional static parameters such as the insertion or removal torque. However, the relationship between these dynamic parameters, bone density, and implant geometry is not well understood. The aim of this investigation was to compare static and dynamic implant stability measurements concerning three different implant designs when implants were inserted into bovine bone ribs and dynamic parameters were collected using an instantaneous torque measuring implant motor. Standard implant osteotomies were created in segments of bovine ribs. After measuring the bone density using the implant motor, 10 cylindrical, 10 hybrid tapered-cylindrical, and 10 modified cylindrical implants were placed, and their primary stability was assessed by measuring the torque⁻depth curve integral, along with insertion and removal torque. The relationship between these quantities, bone density, and implant geometry was investigated by means of regression and covariance analysis. The regression lines describing the relationship between the torque⁻depth integral and bone density differed significantly from those describing the relationship between insertion torque, removal torque, and bone density for all three designs. The torque⁻depth curve integral provides different information about immediate primary stability than insertion and removal torque and in certain clinical conditions might be more reliable than these static parameters for assessing implant primary stability. Further research should be carried out to investigate the findings of the present study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/dj7010025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6473399PMC
March 2019

Downregulation of Pro-Inflammatory and Pro-Angiogenic Pathways in Prostate Cancer Cells by a Polyphenol-Rich Extract from Olive Mill Wastewater.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Jan 14;20(2). Epub 2019 Jan 14.

School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20900 Monza, Italy.

Dietary phytochemicals are particularly attractive for chemoprevention and are able to modulate several signal transduction pathways linked with cancer. Olive oil, a major component of the Mediterranean diet, is an abundant source of phenolic compounds. Olive oil production is associated with the generation of a waste material, termed 'olive mill wastewater' (OMWW) that have been reported to contain water-soluble polyphenols. Prostate cancer (PCa) is considered as an ideal cancer type for chemopreventive approaches, due to its wide incidence but relatively long latency period and progression time. Here, we investigated activities associated with potential preventive properties of a polyphenol-rich olive mill wastewater extract, OMWW (A009), on three in vitro models of PCa. A009 was able to inhibit PCa cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, and invasion. Molecularly, we found that A009 targeted NF-κB and reduced pro-angiogenic growth factor, VEGF, CXCL8, and CXCL12 production. IL-6/STAT3 axis was also regulated by the extract. A009 shows promising properties, and purified hydroxytyrosol (HyT), the major polyphenol component of A009, was also active but not always as effective as A009. Finally, our results support the idea of repositioning a food waste-derived material for nutraceutical employment, with environmental and industrial cost management benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6359159PMC
January 2019

The actin remodeling protein cofilin is crucial for thymic αβ but not γδ T-cell development.

PLoS Biol 2018 07 9;16(7):e2005380. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

Institute of Immunology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Cofilin is an essential actin remodeling protein promoting depolymerization and severing of actin filaments. To address the relevance of cofilin for the development and function of T cells in vivo, we generated knock-in mice in which T-cell-specific nonfunctional (nf) cofilin was expressed instead of wild-type (WT) cofilin. Nf cofilin mice lacked peripheral αβ T cells and showed a severe thymus atrophy. This was caused by an early developmental arrest of thymocytes at the double negative (DN) stage. Importantly, even though DN thymocytes expressed the TCRβ chain intracellularly, they completely lacked TCRβ surface expression. In contrast, nf cofilin mice possessed normal numbers of γδ T cells. Their functionality was confirmed in the γδ T-cell-driven, imiquimod (IMQ)-induced, psoriasis-like murine model. Overall, this study not only highlights the importance of cofilin for early αβ T-cell development but also shows for the first time that an actin-binding protein is differentially involved in αβ versus γδ T-cell development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2005380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6053251PMC
July 2018

The effect of undersizing and tapping on bone to implant contact and implant primary stability: A histomorphometric study on bovine ribs.

J Adv Prosthodont 2018 Jun 12;10(3):227-235. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, Chieti-Pescara University "G. D'Annunzio", Chieti, Italy.

Purpose: Implant site preparation may be adjusted to achieve the maximum possible primary stability. The aim of this investigation was to study the relation among bone-to-implant contact at insertion, bone density, and implant primary stability intra-operatively measured by a torque-measuring implant motor, when implant sites were undersized or tapped.

Materials And Methods: Undersized (n=14), standard (n=13), and tapped (n=13) implant sites were prepared on 9 segments of bovine ribs. After measuring bone density using the implant motor, 40 implants were placed, and their primary stability assessed by measuring the integral of the torque-depth insertion curve. Bovine ribs were then processed histologically, the bone-to-implant contact measured and statistically correlated to bone density and the integral.

Results: Bone-to-implant contact and the integral of the torque-depth curve were significantly greater for undersized sites than tapped sites. Moreover, a correlation between bone to implant contact, the integral and bone density was found under all preparation conditions. The slope of the bone-to-implant/density and integral/density lines was significantly greater for undersized sites, while those corresponding to standard prepared and tapped sites did not differ significantly.

Conclusion: The integral of the torque-depth curve provided reliable information about bone-to-implant contact and primary implant stability even in tapped or undersized sites. The linear relations found among the parameters suggests a connection between extent and modality of undersizing and the corresponding increase of the integral and, consequently, of primary stability. These results might help the physician determine the extent of undersizing needed to achieve the proper implant primary stability, according to the planned loading protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4047/jap.2018.10.3.227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6004356PMC
June 2018

Evaluation of Peri-implant Bone Stress on D1 Bone Using a Computerized Torque-Measuring Implant Motor: A Study on Photoelastic Resin Blocks.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2018 July/August;33(4):770–778. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

Purpose: Recently, a torque-measuring micromotor that calculates the integral (I) of torque-depth curve at implant insertion was developed. This device was used to investigate the correlation between (I) and mechanical stress in photoelastic resin blocks with the density of D1 bone.

Materials And Methods: Using the micromotor, 40 implants (3.75 × 12 mm) were placed in 40 D1 blocks that had been prepared in four different ways. Four groups of 10 blocks each were prepared according to tunnel length (12 or 14 mm) and debris removal (yes or no). After insertion, peri-implant mechanical stress and its correlation with (I) were assessed by photoelastic and linear regression analysis, respectively. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis tests investigated differences in mechanical stress patterns and dynamic parameters among the groups.

Results: (I) significantly correlated with mechanical stress in D1 resin under all conditions, except for 12-mm implant sites still containing debris. The correlation was significant concerning the whole dataset (r = 0.979) and separately for the coronal (r = 0.940), middle (r = 0.964), and apical (r = 0.948) portions of the implants. Peak torque did not correlate significantly with peri-implant mechanical stress. Longer implant sites and debris removal were significantly associated with lower peri-implant mechanical stress.

Conclusion: (I) provides a reliable measure of mechanical stress in D1 bone during implant placement. Preparation of longer osteotomies and routine removal of all debris might reduce peri-implant bone stress significantly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11607/jomi.6079DOI Listing
October 2018

Editorial: Different Classes of Natural Products as Promising Scaffolds for the Development of Therapeutic Agents: New Drugs from "Old" Natural Products.

Curr Med Chem 2018;25(10):1092-1093

University of Padova Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences Via Marzolo 5, 35121, Padova, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/092986732510180409145323DOI Listing
June 2018

Sinus augmentation and concomitant implant placement in low bone-density sites. A retrospective study on an undersized drilling protocol and primary stability.

Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2018 Apr 22;20(2):151-159. Epub 2017 Nov 22.

Milan, Italy.

Background: Recently, a torque-measuring micromotor has been shown to provide a reliable, quantitative intraoperative evaluation of bone density and implant primary stability. This may be particularly useful for determining bone quality of residual bone and consequently the most appropriate site preparation in the posterior maxilla, where bone often is of low density and quality.

Purpose: This work aimed to assess the medium-term success of implants placed during 1-stage sinus augmentations using an undersized drilling protocol. In case of low bone density, the relationship between residual bone height (RBH) and primary stability was also investigated.

Materials And Methods: Clinical records of patients who underwent sinus augmentation and concomitant implant placement following a 12.5% undersized drilling protocol were retrospectively analyzed. In all patients, bone density measured intraoperatively was ≤ 0.45 g/cm . A minimum of 60 months of follow-up was required for inclusion.

Results: Records of 106 patients who received 253 implants were reviewed. No significant difference in the implant success rate was found for patients who had less than 4 mm of RBH and those who had more.

Conclusions: Underpreparation of the implant-placement sites enabled achievement of successful implant-supported rehabilitation of the posterior maxilla even when both RBH and bone density were low.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cid.12558DOI Listing
April 2018
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