Publications by authors named "Stefano Barco"

103 Publications

Reversal of cardiopulmonary exercise intolerance in patients with post-thrombotic obstruction of the inferior vena cava.

Thromb Res 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Clinic for Angiology, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: It is unclear whether cardiopulmonary exercise intolerance in patients with chronic obstruction of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is reversible following endovascular IVC reconstruction.

Methods: In 17 patients (mean age 45 ± 15 years, 71% men) with post-thrombotic syndrome due to IVC obstruction and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (mean 58 ± 3%), we performed cardiopulmonary exercise testing before and 3 months after IVC reconstruction (mean 4.1 ± 1.5 implanted stents). The median time from latest episode of deep vein thrombosis to intervention was 150 (interquartile range 102-820) days.

Results: At baseline, 12 (71%) patients reported New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II or III symptoms, 76% did not achieve >85% of predicted oxygen uptake at peak exercise (mean 61.8 ± 13.7%). After IVC reconstruction, the following changes were observed at anaerobic threshold: work rate increased by 14.6 W, 95%CI (-0.7; 30.0), oxygen uptake increased by 1.8 ml/kg, 95%CI (0.3; 3.3). Oxygen pulse increased by 1.95 ml per beat, 95%CI (1.12; 2.78), corresponding to a mean relative increase of 22.5%, 95%CI (12.4; 32.7) (p < 0.001). The following changes were observed at peak exercise: work rate increased by 48.1 W, 95%CI (27.8; 68.4), oxygen uptake increased by 6.4 ml/kg, 95%CI (3.8; 9.1). Oxygen pulse increased by 2.68 ml per beat, 95%CI (1.60; 3.76), corresponding to a mean relative increase of 29.4%, 95%CI (17.7; 41.2) (p < 0.001). At follow-up, 5 (29%) patients remained in NYHA class II.

Conclusions: In patients with chronic IVC obstruction, cardiopulmonary exercise intolerance as a result of impaired cardiac filling is at least partially reversible following endovascular IVC reconstruction.

Study Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02433054.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2021.03.025DOI Listing
April 2021

Clinical presentation and long-term follow-up of 45 patients with Mondor disease: A single-center longitudinal study.

Vasc Med 2021 Apr 8:1358863X211000420. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Clinic of Angiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Mondor disease is characterized by an acute painful thrombophlebitis occurring at specific anatomical sites. Data on its incidence, characteristics of clinical presentation, and course are unavailable to date. We studied the course of Mondor disease in patients diagnosed and followed at the University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland) between 2004 and 2020. The primary study outcomes were a diagnosis of active cancer either at the time of clinical diagnosis of Mondor disease or within 1 year, as well as 1-year all-cause death and recurrent Mondor disease. We included 45 patients and classified them into one of the three Mondor disease subgroups: thoracic ( = 26), penile ( = 12), or axillary ( = 7). The median age was 39 (Q1-Q3: 30-45) years and 44% of patients were men. Surgery was the likely cause of Mondor disease in 53.8% of patients with a thoracic form, 41.7% of those with a penile location, and all of those with an axillary location. Known active cancer was present in nine (20%) of 45 patients at baseline. One-year follow-up was available for 43 patients (median 94 months), whereas 6-month data were available for the remaining two patients. During the available follow-up, no patient had a new diagnosis of cancer. In conclusion, one in five patients with Mondor disease had known cancer at the time of diagnosis. During follow-up, the rate of new cancer diagnosis and death was negligible, providing reassurance about the good prognosis of this condition. Based on these preliminary data, extended cancer screening besides what is recommended by current guidelines for the general population might not be necessary in patients with Mondor disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1358863X211000420DOI Listing
April 2021

Ophthalmic complications of Lemierre syndrome.

Acta Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Clinic of Angiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Purpose: Lemierre syndrome is a life-threatening condition characterized by head/neck bacterial infection, local suppurative thrombophlebitis and septic embolic complications in a range of sites of distant organs. No prior study focused on the course and characteristics of ophthalmic complications of Lemierre syndrome.

Methods: We analysed data of 27 patients with ophthalmic complications from a large cohort of 712 cases with Lemierre syndrome reported globally between 2000 and 2017. We focused on initial manifestations, early (in-hospital) course and long-term ophthalmic deficits at the time of hospital discharge or during postdischarge follow-up. The study protocol was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews PROSPERO (CRD42016052572).

Results: Nine (33%) patients were women; the median age was 20 (Q1-Q3: 15-33) years. Fusobacterium spp. was involved in 56% of cases. The most prevalent initial manifestations were decreased vision (35%) and periocular oedema (38%), followed by impaired eye movements/nerve palsy (28%) and proptosis (28%). Venous involvement, notably cerebral vein thrombosis (70%) and ophthalmic vein thrombosis (55%), explained the symptomatology in most cases. Septic embolism (7%), orbital abscesses (2%) and carotid stenosis (14%) were also present. Ophthalmic sequelae were reported in 9 (33%) patients, often consisting of blindness or reduced visual acuity, and nerve paralysis/paresis.

Conclusion: Ophthalmic complications represent a severe manifestation of Lemierre syndrome, often reflecting an underlying cerebral vein thrombosis. Visual acuity loss and long-term severe complications are frequent. We call for an interdisciplinary approach to the management of patients with Lemierre syndrome and the routine involvement of ophthalmologists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.14871DOI Listing
April 2021

Sex-specific differences in the presentation, clinical course, and quality of life of patients with acute venous thromboembolism according to baseline risk factors. Insights from the PREFER in VTE.

Eur J Intern Med 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis (CTH), University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany; Clinic of Angiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Introduction: Sex and the presence of specific provoking risk factors, along with age, influence the presentation and prognosis of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We investigated the presentation, course and quality of life in women and men with acute VTE classified according to their VTE provoking factors.

Methods: PREFER in VTE is an international, non-interventional registry of patients with a first episode of acute symptomatic VTE. Baseline provoking factors were classified as follows: major transient, minor transient, active cancer, and none identifiable. The primary outcome was recurrent VTE. Quality of life and treatment satisfaction were secondary outcomes.

Results: Of 3,455 patients with acute VTE, 1,623 (47%) were women. The mean age at the time of VTE was 61 (SD 18) in women, 60 (SD 15) in men. The distribution of provoking risk factors was similar between sexes, despite a tendency for higher frequency of minor and major transient risk factors in women, and cancer or unprovoked VTE in men. At 12-month follow-up, VTE recurrence was reported in 74 (6.5%) women and 80 (6.4%) men (absolute risk difference -0.1%, 95% CI -1.9%; +2.1%). In patients with unprovoked VTE, the VTE recurrence rate was 38/612 (6.2%) in women and 53/798 (6.6%) in men (absolute risk difference -0.4, 95% CI -3.0; +2.1%). Multivariable Cox regressions confirmed the absence of sex differences. Quality of life and treatment satisfaction scores one year after VTE were lower in women than in men irrespective of the provoking risk factors (p<0.001 for both scores).

Conclusions: Despite differences in the provoking risk factors for VTE, women and men had a similar rate VTE recurrence at one year. After acute VTE, women had lower quality of life and treatment satisfaction scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2021.03.014DOI Listing
March 2021

Comment on "Worldwide Distribution of PK Deficiency: the Defect Seems Mainly Concentrated in West African Countries and the United States".

Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis 2021 1;13(1):e2021027. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis (CTH), University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4084/MJHID.2021.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938929PMC
March 2021

Sex differences in Lemierre syndrome: Individual patient-level analysis.

Thromb Res 2021 Mar 6;202:36-39. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Clinic of Angiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2021.03.002DOI Listing
March 2021

Reader comments: Chest surgery in Lemierre syndrome.

Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 2021 Jan 11;34(2):336. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Clinic of Angiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08998280.2020.1868277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901433PMC
January 2021

Re: Internal Jugular Vein and Cerebral Venous Sinus Infective Thrombophlebitis Detected With 99mTc-HMPAO White Blood Cell Scintigraphy.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 Feb 20. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany Clinic of Angiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000003536DOI Listing
February 2021

In-hospital outcomes of catheter-directed thrombolysis in patients with pulmonary embolism.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2020 Nov 25. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis (CTH), University Medical Center Mainz (Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz), Langenbeckstrasse 1, 55131 Mainz, Germany.

Aims: Catheter-directed treatment of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is technically advancing. Recent guidelines acknowledge this treatment option for patients with overt or imminent haemodynamic decompensation, particularly when systemic thrombolysis is contraindicated. We investigated patients with PE who underwent catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) in the German nationwide inpatient cohort.

Methods And Results: Data from hospitalizations with PE (International Classification of Disease code I26) between 2005 and 2016 were collected by the Federal Office of Statistics in Germany. Patients with PE who underwent CDT (OPS 8-838.60 or OPS code 8-83b.j) were compared with patients receiving systemic thrombolysis (OPS code 8-020.8), and those without thrombolytic or other reperfusion treatment. The analysis was not prespecified; therefore, our findings can only be considered to be hypothesis generating. We analysed data from 978 094 hospitalized patients with PE. Of these, 41 903 (4.3%) patients received thrombolytic treatment [systemic thrombolysis in 4.2%, CDT in 0.1% (1175 patients)]. Among patients with shock, CDT was associated with lower in-hospital mortality compared to systemic thrombolysis [odds ratios (OR) 0.30 (95% 0.14-0.67); P = 0.003]. Intracranial bleeding occurred in 14 (1.2%) patients who received CDT. Among haemodynamically stable patients with right ventricular dysfunction (intermediate-risk PE), CDT also was associated with a lower risk of in-hospital mortality compared to systemic thrombolysis {OR 0.55 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40-0.75]; P < 0.001} or no thrombolytic treatment [0.45 (95% CI 0.33-0.62); P < 0.001].

Conclusion: In the German nationwide inpatient cohort, based on administrative data, CDT was associated with lower in-hospital mortality rates compared to systemic thrombolysis, but the overall rate of intracranial bleeding in patients who received CDT was not negligible. Prospective controlled data are urgently needed to determine the true value of this treatment option in acute PE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjacc/zuaa026DOI Listing
November 2020

The 2019 European guidelines on pulmonary embolism illustrated with the aid of an exemplary case report.

Eur Heart J Case Rep 2021 Feb 4;5(2):ytaa542. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis (CTH), University Medical Center Mainz, Langenbeckstraße 1, Building 403, Room 117, 55131 Mainz, Germany.

Background: The European Society of Cardiology guidelines for the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) developed in collaboration with the European Respiratory Society (ERS) has been updated in 2019. Recommendations were added or updated on all stages of the evaluation and management of pulmonary embolism, encompassing diagnosis, early treatment, and long-term management.

Case Summary: We illustrate an exemplary case, assembled for the purposes of this review, of a 70-year-old woman who presented at the emergency department with dyspnoea and thoracic pain. She was diagnosed with intermediate-high-risk acute PE and promptly treated with low molecular weight heparin. After 24 h of stay in intensive care unit, she was transferred to the cardiology department and switched to non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulant apixaban 10 mg b.i.d. for 7 days and then 5 mg b.i.d. After discharge from the hospital 8 days later, she received standard-dose apixaban 5 mg b.i.d. for 6 months; the dose was reduced to 2.5 mg b.i.d. for long-term secondary prevention. During follow-up, investigations for PE sequelae were performed due to persisting dyspnoea.

Discussion: This exemplary case report puts into context the main novel recommendations from the 2019 ESC Guidelines, including the combination of clinical (pre-test) probability and adjusted D-dimer cut-offs for diagnosis of acute PE, the key role of right ventricular dysfunction in risk stratification, the choice and dosage of oral anticoagulant agents in early and extended anticoagulation, and the identification and management of chronic sequelae in the long-term follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjcr/ytaa542DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7873787PMC
February 2021

Quality of Life 3 and 12 Months Following Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Analysis From a Prospective Multicenter Cohort Study.

Chest 2021 Feb 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany; Department of Cardiology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece. Electronic address:

Background: Few data are available on the long-term course and predictors of quality of life (QoL) following acute pulmonary embolism (PE).

Research Question: What are the kinetics and determinants of disease-specific and generic health-related QoL 3 and 12 months following an acute PE?

Study Design And Methods: The Follow-up after Acute Pulmonary Embolism (FOCUS) study prospectively followed up consecutive adult patients with objectively diagnosed PE. Patients were considered for study who completed the Pulmonary Embolism Quality of Life (PEmb-QoL) questionnaire at predefined visits 3 and 12 months following PE. The course of disease-specific QoL as assessed using the PEmb-QoL and the impact of baseline characteristics using multivariable mixed effects linear regression were studied; also assessed was the course of generic QoL as evaluated by using the EuroQoL Group 5-Dimension 5-Level utility index and the EuroQoL Visual Analog Scale.

Results: In 620 patients (44% women; median age, 62 years), overall disease-specific QoL improved from 3 to 12 months, with a decrease in the median PEmb-QoL score from 19.4% to 13.0% and a mean individual change of -4.3% (95% CI, -3.2 to -5.5). Female sex, cardiopulmonary disease, and higher BMI were associated with worse QoL at both 3 and 12 months. Over time, the association with BMI became weaker, whereas older age and previous VTE were associated with worsening QoL. Generic QoL also improved: the mean ± SD EuroQoL Group 5-Dimension 5-Level utility index increased from 0.85 ± 0.22 to 0.87 ± 0.20 and the visual analog scale from 72.9 ± 18.8 to 74.4 ± 19.1.

Interpretation: In a large cohort of survivors of acute PE, the change of QoL was quantified between months 3 and 12 following diagnosis, and factors independently associated with lower QoL and slower recovery of QoL were identified. This information may facilitate the planning and interpretation of clinical trials assessing QoL and help guide patient management.

Clinical Trial Registration: German Clinical Trials; No.: DRKS00005939.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2021.01.071DOI Listing
February 2021

Construct validity of the Post-COVID-19 Functional Status Scale in adult subjects with COVID-19.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2021 Feb 3;19(1):40. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Research and Development, CIRO+, PO Box 4080, 6080 AB, Horn, Haelen, The Netherlands.

Background: An increasing number of subjects are recovering from COVID-19, raising the need for tools to adequately assess the course of the disease and its impact on functional status. We aimed to assess the construct validity of the Post-COVID-19 Functional Status (PCFS) Scale among adult subjects with confirmed and presumed COVID-19.

Methods: Adult subjects with confirmed and presumed COVID-19, who were members of an online panel and two Facebook groups for subjects with COVID-19 with persistent symptoms, completed an online survey after the onset of infection-related symptoms. The number and intensity of symptoms were evaluated with the Utrecht Symptom Diary, health-related quality of life (HrQoL) with the 5-level EQ-5D questionnaire, impairment in work and activities with the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire and functional status with the PCFS Scale.

Results: 1939 subjects were included in the analyses (85% women, 95% non-hospitalized during infection) about 3 months after the onset of infection-related symptoms. Subjects classified as experiencing 'slight', 'moderate' and 'severe' functional limitations presented a gradual increase in the number/intensity of symptoms, reduction of HrQoL and impairment in work and usual activities. No differences were found regarding the number and intensity of symptoms, HrQoL and impairment in work and usual activities between subjects classified as experiencing 'negligible' and 'no' functional limitations. We found weak-to-strong statistical associations between functional status and all domains of HrQoL (r: 0.233-0.661). Notably, the strongest association found was with the 'usual activities' domain of the 5-level EQ-5D questionnaire.

Conclusion: We demonstrated the construct validity of the PCFS Scale in highly-symptomatic adult subjects with confirmed and presumed COVID-19, 3 months after the onset of symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12955-021-01691-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7856622PMC
February 2021

Venous thromboembolism in patients hospitalized for knee joint replacement surgery.

Sci Rep 2020 12 31;10(1):22440. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, University Medical Center Mainz (Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz), Mainz, Germany.

Patients undergoing knee joint replacement (KJR) are at high risk of postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE), but data on the time trends of VTE rate in this population are sparse. In this analysis of the German nationwide inpatient sample, we included all hospitalizations for elective primary KJR in Germany 2005-2016. Overall, 1,804,496 hospitalized patients with elective primary KJR (65.1% women, 70.0 years [IQR 63.0-76.0]) were included in the analysis. During hospitalization, VTE was documented in 23,297 (1.3%) patients. Total numbers of primary KJR increased from 129,832 in 2005 to 167,881 in 2016 (β-(slope)-estimate 1,978 [95% CI 1,951 to 2,004], P < 0.001). In-hospital VTE decreased from 2,429 (1.9% of all hospitalizations for KJR) to 1,548 (0.9%) cases (β-estimate - 0.77 [95% CI - 0.81 to - 0.72], P < 0.001), and in-hospital death rate from 0.14% (184 deaths) to 0.09% (146 deaths) (β-estimate - 0.44 deaths per year [95% CI - 0.59 to - 0.30], P < 0.001). Infections during hospitalization were associated with a higher VTE risk. VTE events were independently associated with in-hospital death (OR 20.86 [95% CI 18.78-23.15], P < 0.001). Annual number of KJR performed in Germany increased by almost 30% between 2005 and 2016. In parallel, in-hospital VTE rates decreased from 1.9 to 0.9%. Perioperative infections were associated with higher risk for VTE. Patients who developed VTE had a 21-fold increased risk of in-hospital death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79490-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775461PMC
December 2020

Incidence of symptomatic venous thromboembolism following hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019: Prospective results from a multi-center study.

Thromb Res 2021 02 11;198:135-138. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Thrombosis and pulmonary embolism appear to be major causes of mortality in hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. However, few studies have focused on the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after hospitalization for COVID-19.

Methods: In this multi-center study, we followed 1529 COVID-19 patients for at least 45 days after hospital discharge, who underwent routine telephone follow-up. In case of signs or symptoms of pulmonary embolism (PE) or deep vein thrombosis (DVT), they were invited for an in-hospital visit with a pulmonologist. The primary outcome was symptomatic VTE within 45 days of hospital discharge.

Results: Of 1529 COVID-19 patients discharged from hospital, a total of 228 (14.9%) reported potential signs or symptoms of PE or DVT and were seen for an in-hospital visit. Of these, 13 and 12 received Doppler ultrasounds or pulmonary CT angiography, respectively, of whom only one patient was diagnosed with symptomatic PE. Of 51 (3.3%) patients who died after discharge, two deaths were attributed to VTE corresponding to a 45-day cumulative rate of symptomatic VTE of 0.2% (95%CI 0.1%-0.6%; n = 3). There was no evidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in these patients. Other deaths after hospital discharge included myocardial infarction (n = 13), heart failure (n = 9), and stroke (n = 9).

Conclusions: We did not observe a high rate of symptomatic VTE in COVID-19 patients after hospital discharge. Routine extended thromboprophylaxis after hospitalization for COVID-19 may not have a net clinical benefit. Randomized trials may be warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2020.12.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7836837PMC
February 2021

Self-Expandable Nitinol Stents for the Treatment of Nonmalignant Deep Venous Obstruction.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2020 Dec 4;13(12):e009673. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Clinic for Angiology, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland (T.S., S.G., L.M., R.K., S.B., N.K.).

Background: Angioplasty with stent placement is a therapeutic option for patients with acute thrombotic, postthrombotic, and nonthrombotic obstruction of the iliofemoral veins or inferior vena cava. Previous studies of steel-alloy stents described variable patency rate across indications.

Methods: The prospective Swiss Venous Stent Registry includes patients treated with self-expandable nitinol stents for deep venous obstruction. Routine follow-up visits include serial duplex ultrasound for stent patency assessment. The primary outcome was primary stent patency. The secondary outcome was venous thromboembolisms. We studied the rate of stent occlusion and potentially contributing factors.

Results: We included 379 patients: 160 with acute thrombotic, 193 with postthrombotic, and 26 with nonthrombotic deep vein obstruction. The mean age was 46±18 years; 55% were women. The cumulative 3-year primary patency rate was 80.5% (95% CI, 73.0%-88.0%) for acute thrombotic, 59.2% (95% CI, 50.4%-68.0%) for postthrombotic, and 100% for nonthrombotic obstruction (log-rank, <0.0001). Annualized rates of stent occlusion or venous thromboembolism were 7.8 (acute thrombotic), 15.0 (postthrombotic), and 0 (nonthrombotic) events/100 patient-years. In a multivariable Cox regression model, postthrombotic femoral veins at baseline (hazard ratio, 2.64 [95% CI, 1.53-4.56]) and the number of stents (hazard ratio, 1.22 [95% CI, 1.06-1.40]) were associated with stent occlusion after conditioning for age, sex, and clinically relevant factors.

Conclusions: The rate of stent occlusion (patency loss) and venous thromboembolism varies substantially across indications, also with dedicated venous nitinol stents. Patients with postthrombotic femoral veins and those who received multiple stents were characterized by the highest risk. Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02433054.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.120.009673DOI Listing
December 2020

Clinical Outcomes of Incidental Venous Thromboembolism in Cancer and Noncancer Patients: The SWIss Venous ThromboEmbolism Registry (SWIVTER).

Thromb Haemost 2020 Nov 17. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Clinic of Angiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Objective:  In patients with cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE), the risk of recurrence is similar after incidental and symptomatic events. It is unknown whether the same applies to incidental VTE not associated with cancer.

Methods And Results:  We compared baseline characteristics, anticoagulation therapy, all-cause mortality, and VTE recurrence rates at 90 days between patients with incidental ( = 131; 52% without cancer) and symptomatic ( = 1,931) VTE included in the SWIss Venous ThromboEmbolism Registry (SWIVTER). After incidental VTE, 114 (87%) patients received anticoagulation therapy for at least 3 months. The mortality rate was 9.2% after incidental and 8.4% after symptomatic VTE for hazard ratio (HR) 1.10 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-2.50). After adjustment for competing risk of death, recurrence rate was 3.1 versus 2.8%, respectively, for sub-HR 1.07 (95% CI 0.39-2.93). These results were consistent among cancer (mortality: 15.9% vs. 12.6%; HR 1.32, 95% CI 0.67-2.59; recurrence: 4.8% vs. 4.7%; HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.30-3.42) and noncancer patients (mortality: 2.9% vs. 2.1%; HR 1.37, 95% CI 0.33-5.73; recurrence: 1.5% vs. 2.3%; HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.09-4.58). Patients with incidental VTE who received anticoagulation therapy for at least 3 months had lower mortality (4% vs. 41%) and recurrence rate (1% vs. 18%) compared with those who did not.

Conclusion:  In SWIVTER, more than half of incidental VTE events occurred in noncancer patients who often received anticoagulation therapy. Among noncancer patients, early mortality and recurrence rates were similar after incidental versus symptomatic VTE. Our findings suggest that anticoagulation therapy for incidental VTE may be beneficial regardless of the presence of cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1720977DOI Listing
November 2020

Anticoagulation in splanchnic and cerebral vein thrombosis: Still groping in the dark.

Res Pract Thromb Haemost 2020 Oct 14;4(7):1080-1082. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rth2.12427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7590299PMC
October 2020

Lemierre syndrome: Current evidence and rationale of the Bacteria-Associated Thrombosis, Thrombophlebitis and LEmierre syndrome (BATTLE) registry.

Thromb Res 2020 12 8;196:494-499. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany; Clinic of Angiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Lemierre syndrome is a rare but potentially fatal condition characterized by septic thrombophlebitis of the head and neck district, preferentially affecting adolescents and young adults and manifesting as a complication of a local bacterial infection - typically, a pharyngotonsillitis or an abscess. It is historically associated with the Gram-negative anaerobic rod Fusobacterium necrophorum and with thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein. However, its definition has never been firmly established, and its spectrum within the continuum of bacteria-associated thrombophlebitis may be larger than what presumed so far. Recent evidence suggests that its prognosis remains serious even one hundred years after its first description, with considerable rates of in-hospital complications, death, and long-term sequelae. There are no specific guidelines on its management other than usual antibiotic stewardship, with ongoing debate on the potential role of therapeutic-dose anticoagulation. We provide an overview of current evidence on the definition, epidemiology, clinical presentation, prognosis and management of this condition and present the background and rationale of the Bacteria-Associated Thrombosis/Thrombophlebitis and LEmierre syndrome (BATTLE) registry: an ambispective, disease-specific, non-population based, multicentre clinical registry of global reach and multidisciplinary scope, specifically designed to address the limitations of current evidence and to provide patients and physicians with clinically viable information to guide management and improve the outcomes of those affected by these conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2020.10.002DOI Listing
December 2020

c.451dupT in KLKB1 is common in Nigerians, confirming a higher prevalence of severe prekallikrein deficiency in Africans compared to Europeans.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 01 18;19(1):147-152. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis (CTH), University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Essentials Prekallikrein (PK) deficiency is a recessive trait with isolated aPTT prolongation. KLKB1 c.451dupT is common in Nigerians (7/600 alleles) and absent in a European group (0/600). To date, all genotyped PK-deficient patients of African ancestry were homozygous for 451dupT. Diagnostics of isolated aPTT prolongation in African descendants should include PK testing. ABSTRACT: Background Severe prekallikrein deficiency (PK deficiency) is an autosomal-recessive condition thought to be very rare. Recently we reported that the previously unnoticed variant c.451dupT, p.Ser151Phefs*34 in KLKB1, which is listed in databases aggregating genome data, causes PK deficiency and is common in Africans according to gnomAD (allele frequency 1.43%). Patients/Methods The most common African (c.451dupT) and European (c.1643G>A, p.Cys548Tyr) PK deficiency causing KLKB1 variants were analyzed in two population-based collectives of 300 Nigerian and 300 German subjects. Genome databases were evaluated for variant frequencies and ethnicity of the subjects. The geographic origin of PK-deficient cases due to 451dupT was assessed. Results Two of five patients with PK deficiency caused by homozygous 451dupT were African, one African American, one from Oman, and one of unknown origin. The frequency of 451dupT was 1.17% in the Nigerian collective (7/600 alleles); none had Cys548Tyr. Subjects with 451dupT were found among different Nigerian ethnicities. Both variants were absent in the European collective. Database research was compatible with these findings, even though mainly data of African Americans (451dupT: 1.12%-1.78%) was accessible. A relevant number of non-American Africans are included only in the 1000Genomes collective: 451dupT frequency was 1.29% in native Africans and 1.56% in African Caribbeans. Conclusions This study underlines the higher prevalence of PK deficiency among people with African descent compared to Europeans. In order to avoid delay of necessary surgical procedures in patients of African origin, diagnostic algorithms for isolated, unexplained, activated partial thromboplastin time prolongation in these subjects should include PK deficiency screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15137DOI Listing
January 2021

Age-sex specific pulmonary embolism-related mortality in the USA and Canada, 2000-18: an analysis of the WHO Mortality Database and of the CDC Multiple Cause of Death database.

Lancet Respir Med 2021 01 12;9(1):33-42. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, University Medical Center Mainz, Mainz, Germany; Department of Cardiology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece.

Background: Pulmonary embolism (PE)-related mortality is decreasing in Europe. However, time trends in the USA and Canada remain uncertain because the most recent analyses of PE-related mortality were published in the early 2000s.

Methods: For this retrospective epidemiological study, we accessed medically certified vital registration data from the WHO Mortality Database (USA and Canada, 2000-17) and the Multiple Cause of Death database produced by the Division of Vital Statistics of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC; US, 2000-18). We investigated contemporary time trends in PE-related mortality in the USA and Canada and the prevalence of conditions contributing to PE-related mortality reported on the death certificates. We also estimated PE-related mortality by age group and sex. A subgroup analysis by race was performed for the USA.

Findings: In the USA, the age-standardised annual mortality rate (PE as the underlying cause) decreased from 6·0 deaths per 100 000 population (95% CI 5·9-6·1) in 2000 to 4·4 deaths per 100 000 population (4·3-4·5) in 2006. Thereafter, it continued to decrease to 4·1 deaths per 100 000 population (4·0-4·2) in women in 2017 and plateaued at 4·5 deaths per 100 000 population (4·4-4·7) in men in 2017. Among adults aged 25-64 years, it increased after 2006. The median age at death from PE decreased from 73 years to 68 years (2000-18). The prevalence of cancer, respiratory diseases, and infections as a contributing cause of PE-related death increased in all age categories from 2000 to 2018. The annual age-standardised PE-related mortality was consistently higher by up to 50% in Black individuals than in White individuals; these rates were approximately 50% higher in White individuals than in those of other races. In Canada, the annual age-standardised mortality rate from PE as the underlying cause of death decreased from 4·7 deaths per 100 000 population (4·4-5·0) in 2000 to 2·6 deaths per 100 000 population (2·4-2·8) in 2017; this decline slowed after 2006 across age groups and sexes.

Interpretation: After 2006, the initially decreasing PE-related mortality rates in North America progressively reached a plateau in Canada, while a rebound increase was observed among young and middle-aged adults in the USA. These findings parallel recent upward trends in mortality from other cardiovascular diseases and might reflect increasing inequalities in the exposure to risk factors and access to health care.

Funding: None.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30417-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7550106PMC
January 2021

Risk stratification of normotensive pulmonary embolism: One more ride on the merry-go-round.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2020 Jun;9(4):256-258

Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, University Medical Center Mainz, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2048872620936600DOI Listing
June 2020

[A novel tool to monitor the individual functional status after COVID-19: the Post-COVID-19 Functional Status (PCFS) scale].

G Ital Cardiol (Rome) 2020 Oct;21(10):757

Clinic of Angiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurigo, Svizzera - Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germania.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1714/3431.34198DOI Listing
October 2020

Incidence of acute pulmonary embolism in COVID-19 patients: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur J Intern Med 2020 12 17;82:29-37. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis (CTH), University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany; Department of Cardiology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece.

Background: Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) has been described as a frequent and prognostically relevant complication of COVID-19 infection.

Aim: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the in-hospital incidence of acute PE among COVID-19 patients based on studies published within four months of COVID-19 outbreak.

Material And Methods: Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed in abstracting data and assessing validity. We searched Medline, Scopus and Web of Science to locate all articles published up to August 1, 2020 reporting the incidence of acute PE (or lung thrombosis) in COVID-19 patients. The pooled in-hospital incidence of acute PE among COVID-19 patients was calculated using a random effects model and presenting the related 95% confidence interval (CI). Statistical heterogeneity was measured using the Higgins I statistic.

Results: We analysed data from 7178 COVID-19 patients [mean age 60.4 years] included in twenty-three studies. Among patients hospitalized in general wards and intensive care unit (ICU), the pooled in-hospital incidence of PE (or lung thrombosis) was 14.7% of cases (95% CI: 9.9-21.3%, I=95.0%, p<0.0001) and 23.4% (95% CI:16.7-31.8%, I2=88.7%, p<0.0001), respectively. Segmental/sub-segmental pulmonary arteries were more frequently involved compared to main/lobar arteries (6.8% vs18.8%, p<0.001). Computer tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) was used only in 35.3% of patients with COVID-19 infection across six studies.

Conclusions: The in-hospital incidence of acute PE among COVID-19 patients is higher in ICU patients compared to those hospitalized in general wards. CTPA was rarely used suggesting a potential underestimation of PE cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2020.09.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7498252PMC
December 2020

Tailoring anticoagulant treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation using a novel bleeding risk score.

Heart 2020 Sep 9. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Objectives: Current international guidelines advocate the application of bleeding risk scores only to identify modifiable risk factors, but not to withhold treatment in patients at high risk of bleeding. VTE-BLEED (ActiVe cancer, male with uncontrolled hyperTension, anaEmia, history of BLeeding, agE and rEnal Dysfunction) is a simple bleeding risk score that predicts major bleeding (MB) in patients with venous thromboembolism, but has never been evaluated in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We sought to evaluate VTE-BLEED in patients with AF included in the Randomised Evaluation of Long-term anticoagulant therapY (RE-LY) trial, to assess whether score classes (high vs low bleeding risk) interact with the tested dabigatran doses (150 vs 110 mg twice daily), and to investigate whether dose reductions based on this interaction might help to lower the incidence of the composite outcome MB, stroke/systemic embolism or death.

Methods: The score was calculated in the safety population of RE-LY (n=18 040) and recalibrated for AF (AF-adapted VTE-BLEED or AF-BLEED). HRs were calculated to evaluate the score's predictive accuracy for MB. The risk ratios (RRs) for the composite outcome comparing dabigatran 150 and 110 mg twice daily were calculated for the high-risk group.

Results: AF-BLEED classified 3534 patients (19.6%) at high bleeding risk, characterised by a 2.9-fold to 3.4-fold higher risk of bleeding than low bleeding risk patients, across the treatment arms. High bleeding risk patients randomised to 110 mg twice daily had a lower incidence of the composite outcome than those randomised to 150 mg twice daily, for an RR of 0.52 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.78). Compared with the label criteria for dose reduction, AF-BLEED identified an additional 11% of patients who might have benefited from dose reduction.

Conclusions: AF-BLEED identified patients with AF at high risk of bleeding. Our findings raise the hypothesis that dabigatran 110 mg twice daily might be considered in patients classified as high risk according to the AF-BLEED score. This study provides a basis for future studies to explore safe dose reductions of direct oral anticoagulants in selected patient groups based on bleeding scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2019-316305DOI Listing
September 2020

Enoxaparin for primary thromboprophylaxis in ambulatory patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (the OVID study): a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2020 Sep 9;21(1):770. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Clinic of Angiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Objectives: The OVID study will demonstrate whether prophylactic-dose enoxaparin improves survival and reduces hospitalizations in symptomatic ambulatory patients aged 50 or older diagnosed with COVID-19, a novel viral disease characterized by severe systemic, pulmonary, and vessel inflammation and coagulation activation.

Trial Design: The OVID study is conducted as a multicentre open-label superiority randomised controlled trial.

Participants: Inclusion Criteria 1. Signed patient informed consent after being fully informed about the study's background. 2. Patients aged 50 years or older with a positive test for SARS-CoV2 in the past 5 days and eligible for ambulatory treatment. 3. Presence of respiratory symptoms (i.e. cough, sore throat, or shortness of breath) or body temperature >37.5° C. 4. Ability of the patient to travel to the study centre by private transportation, performed either by an accompanying person from the same household or by the patient themselves 5. Ability to comply with standard hygiene requirements at the time of in-hospital visit, including a face mask and hand disinfectant. 6. Ability to walk from car to study centre or reach it by wheelchair transport with the help of an accompanying person from the same household also complying with standard hygiene requirements. 7. Ability to self-administer prefilled enoxaparin injections after instructions received at the study centre or availability of a person living with the patient to administer enoxaparin. Exclusion Criteria 1. Any acute or chronic condition posing an indication for anticoagulant treatment, e.g. atrial fibrillation, prior venous thromboembolism (VTE), acute confirmed symptomatic VTE, acute coronary syndrome. 2. Anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis deemed necessary in view of the patient's history, comorbidity or predisposing strong risk factors for thrombosis:  a. Any of the following events occurring in the prior 30 days: fracture of lower limb, hospitalization for heart failure, hip/knee replacement, major trauma, spinal cord injury, stroke,  b. previous VTE,  c. histologically confirmed malignancy, which was diagnosed or treated (surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy) in the past 6 months, or recurrent, or metastatic, or inoperable. 3. Any clinically relevant bleeding (defined as bleeding requiring hospitalization, transfusion, surgical intervention, invasive procedures, occurring in a critical anatomical site, or causing disability) within 30 days prior to randomization or sign of acute bleeding. 4. Intracerebral bleeding at any time in the past or signs/symptoms consistent with acute intracranial haemorrhage. 5. Haemoglobin <8 g/dL and platelet count <50 x 10 cells/L confirmed by recent laboratory test (<90 days). 6. Subjects with any known coagulopathy or bleeding diathesis, including known significant liver disease associated with coagulopathy. 7. Severe renal insufficiency (baseline creatinine clearance <30 mL/min calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault formula) confirmed by recent laboratory test (<90 days). 8. Contraindications to enoxaparin therapy, including prior heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and known hypersensitivity. 9. Current use of dual antiplatelet therapy. 10. Participation in other interventional studies over the past 30 days. 11. Non-compliance or inability to adhere to treatment or lack of a family environment or support system for home treatment. 12. Cognitive impairment and/or inability to understand information provided in the study information. Patient enrolment will take place at seven Swiss centres, including five university hospitals and two large cantonal hospitals.

Intervention And Comparator: Patients randomized to the intervention group will receive subcutaneous enoxaparin at the recommended dose of 4,000 IU anti-Xa activity (40 mg/0.4 ml) once daily for 14 days. Patients randomized to the comparator group will receive no anticoagulation.

Main Outcomes: Primary outcome: a composite of any hospitalization or all-cause death occurring within 30 days of randomization.

Secondary Outcomes: (i) a composite of cardiovascular events, including deep vein thrombosis (including catheter-associated), pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction/myocarditis, arterial ischemia including mesenteric and extremities, acute splanchnic vein thrombosis, or ischemic stroke within 14 days, 30 days, and 90 days of randomization; (ii) each component of the primary efficacy outcome, within 14 days, 30 days, and 90 days of randomization; (iii) net clinical benefit (accounting for the primary efficacy outcome, composite cardiovascular events, and major bleeding), within 14 days, 30 days, and 90 days of enrolment; (iv) primary efficacy outcome, within 14 days, and 90 days of enrolment; (v) disseminated intravascular coagulation (ISTH criteria, in-hospital diagnosis) within 14 days, 30 days, and 90 days of enrolment.

Randomisation: Patients will undergo block stratified randomization (by age: 50-70 vs. >70 years; and by study centre) with a randomization ratio of 1:1 with block sizes varying between 4 and 8. Randomization will be performed after the signature of the informed consent for participation and the verification of the eligibility criteria using the electronic data capture software (REDCAP, Vanderbilt University, v9.1.24).

Blinding (masking): In this open-label study, no blinding procedures will be used.

Numbers To Be Randomised (sample Size): The sample size calculation is based on the parameters α = 0.05 (2-sided), power: 1-β = 0.8, event rate in experimental group, pexp = 0.09 and event rate in control group, pcon = 0.15. The resulting total sample size is 920. To account for potential dropouts, the total sample size was fixed to 1000 with 500 patients in the intervention group and 500 in the control group.

Trial Status: Protocol version 1.0, 14 April 2020. Protocol version 3.0, 18 May 2020 Recruiting start date: June 2020. Last Patient Last Visit: March 2021.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04400799 First Posted: May 26, 2020 Last Update Posted: July 16, 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04678-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7479300PMC
September 2020

Braided or laser-cut self-expanding nitinol stents for the common femoral vein in patients with post-thrombotic syndrome.

J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2020 Sep 2. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Clinic of Angiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: Chronic obstruction of the common femoral vein in patients with post-thrombotic syndrome after iliofemoral or iliocaval deep vein thrombosis has remained a challenge for endovascular treatment. The patency rates and clinical outcomes of laser-cut and braided nitinol stents extending to the common femoral vein have not yet been studied.

Methods: From the Swiss and Arnsberg Venous Stent Registries, we included 150 patients with post-thrombotic syndrome (mean age, 44 ± 16 years; 48% women) with laser-cut (n = 101) or braided nitinol (n = 49) stents placed into the common femoral vein across the inguinal ligament. Routine follow-up included duplex ultrasound examinations and assessment of clinical scores. The primary study outcomes were the primary and secondary patency rates at 12 months.

Results: Overall, the mean number of implanted stents was 2.6 ± 1.7. The proximal stent landing zone was the inferior vena cava in 32 patients (21%), the iliac vein in 106 patients (76%), and the common femoral vein in 5 patients (3%). The primary patency rate was 67.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 58.0%-76.6%) in the laser-cut group and 86.7% (95% CI, 75.3%-98.1%) in the braided stent group (log-rank, P = .016). The corresponding secondary patency rates were 93.9% (95% CI, 89.2%-98.6%) and 100% (log-rank, P = .10). The median improvement in the Villalta score from baseline to the latest follow-up was 4 points (interquartile range, 2-6 points), without significant differences between the two groups. Symptomatic common femoral vein stent fractures were observed in four patients (4%) with laser-cut stents but in no patient with braided stents.

Conclusions: The use of braided nitinol stents for common femoral vein obstruction appeared to be associated with favorable primary patency rates at 12 months compared with laser-cut nitinol stents. Further studies are needed to confirm that braided nitinol stents remain patent and might be less prone to fractures in the long term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvsv.2020.08.027DOI Listing
September 2020

Survival and quality of life after early discharge in low-risk pulmonary embolism.

Eur Respir J 2021 Feb 4;57(2). Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis (CTH), University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Introduction: Early discharge of patients with acute low-risk pulmonary embolism requires validation by prospective trials with clinical and quality-of-life outcomes.

Methods: The multinational Home Treatment of Patients with Low-Risk Pulmonary Embolism with the Oral Factor Xa Inhibitor Rivaroxaban (HoT-PE) single-arm management trial investigated early discharge followed by ambulatory treatment with rivaroxaban. The study was stopped for efficacy after the positive results of the predefined interim analysis at 50% of the planned population. The present analysis includes the entire trial population (576 patients). In addition to 3-month recurrence (primary outcome) and 1-year overall mortality, we analysed self-reported disease-specific (Pulmonary Embolism Quality of Life (PEmb-QoL) questionnaire) and generic (five-level five-dimension EuroQoL (EQ-5D-5L) scale) quality of life as well as treatment satisfaction (Anti-Clot Treatment Scale (ACTS)) after pulmonary embolism.

Results: The primary efficacy outcome occurred in three (0.5%, one-sided upper 95% CI 1.3%) patients. The 1-year mortality was 2.4%. The mean±sd PEmb-QoL decreased from 28.9±20.6% at 3 weeks to 19.9±15.4% at 3 months, a mean change (improvement) of -9.1% (p<0.0001). Improvement was consistent across all PEmb-QoL dimensions. The EQ-5D-5L was 0.89±0.12 at 3 weeks after enrolment and improved to 0.91±0.12 at 3 months (p<0.0001). Female sex and cardiopulmonary disease were associated with poorer disease-specific and generic quality of life; older age was associated with faster worsening of generic quality of life. The ACTS burden score improved from 40.5±6.6 points at 3 weeks to 42.5±5.9 points at 3 months (p<0.0001).

Conclusions: Our results further support early discharge and ambulatory oral anticoagulation for selected patients with low-risk pulmonary embolism. Targeted strategies may be necessary to further improve quality of life in specific patient subgroups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.02368-2020DOI Listing
February 2021

Management of high-risk pulmonary embolism in an "unstable medical environment": Not only a matter of hemodynamic.

Thromb Res 2020 11 20;195:193-194. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Cardiology, Santa Maria della Misericordia Hospital, Rovigo, Italy. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2020.07.036DOI Listing
November 2020