Publications by authors named "Stefanie Geith"

10 Publications

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Clinical effect of ethanol co-use in patients with acute drug toxicity involving the use of central nervous system depressant recreational drugs.

Eur J Emerg Med 2022 Aug 8;29(4):291-300. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Division of Clinical Toxicology and Poison Control Centre Munich, Department of Internal Medicine II, TUM School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Germany.

Background And Importance: Patients who use recreational drugs frequently co-ingest ethanol, which is considered a central nervous system (CNS) depressant. The clinical relevance of this in acute toxicity involving other CNS depressants is not well described.

Objective: To assess the clinical impact of ethanol co-use in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute toxicity involving the use of CNS depressant drugs.

Design, Settings And Participants: A retrospective multicentre study using data from the Euro-DEN Plus database from January 2014 to December 2019.

Outcomes Measure And Analysis: Comparison of epidemiologic and clinical characteristics, ED and hospital management of patients with CNS depressant intoxication with or without ethanol co-use.

Main Results: Although 7644 (17.5%) of the 43 633 presentations were included, ethanol was co-ingested in 3811 (49.9%). In total 53.3% required medical treatment, 14 patients died. Patients with ethanol co-use more frequently presented with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) ≤8 (34.1% vs. 22.4%; P   <  0.001), vomiting (8.1% vs. 4.6%; P   <  0.001), anxiety (12 % vs. 6.4%; P   <  0.001), agitation/aggression (22% vs. 14.7%; P   <  0.001), seizures (3.8% vs. 2.4%; P   <  0.001) and hypotension (7.5% vs. 4.6%; P   <  0.001). They more often required ambulance transport (85.5% vs. 76.5%; P   <  0.001), medical treatment (57.3% vs. 48.0%; P   <  0.001), hospitalization (27.7% vs. 18.9%; P   <  0.001), and admission to intensive care (12.2% vs. 4.0%; P   <  0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that GCS ≤8 was particularly common in patients who combined ethanol with opioids or gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)/gamma-butyrolactone (GBL).

Conclusion: Co-use of ethanol with CNS-depressant drugs appears to increase the risk of adverse effects and is associated with a higher need for medical treatment, especially when ethanol is combined with opioids or GHB/GBL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEJ.0000000000000932DOI Listing
August 2022

Clinical effect of ethanol co-use in patients with acute drug toxicity involving the use of central nervous system depressant recreational drugs.

Eur J Emerg Med 2022 Aug 8;29(4):291-300. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Division of Clinical Toxicology and Poison Control Centre Munich, Department of Internal Medicine II, TUM School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Germany.

Background And Importance: Patients who use recreational drugs frequently co-ingest ethanol, which is considered a central nervous system (CNS) depressant. The clinical relevance of this in acute toxicity involving other CNS depressants is not well described.

Objective: To assess the clinical impact of ethanol co-use in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute toxicity involving the use of CNS depressant drugs.

Design, Settings And Participants: A retrospective multicentre study using data from the Euro-DEN Plus database from January 2014 to December 2019.

Outcomes Measure And Analysis: Comparison of epidemiologic and clinical characteristics, ED and hospital management of patients with CNS depressant intoxication with or without ethanol co-use.

Main Results: Although 7644 (17.5%) of the 43 633 presentations were included, ethanol was co-ingested in 3811 (49.9%). In total 53.3% required medical treatment, 14 patients died. Patients with ethanol co-use more frequently presented with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) ≤8 (34.1% vs. 22.4%; P   <  0.001), vomiting (8.1% vs. 4.6%; P   <  0.001), anxiety (12 % vs. 6.4%; P   <  0.001), agitation/aggression (22% vs. 14.7%; P   <  0.001), seizures (3.8% vs. 2.4%; P   <  0.001) and hypotension (7.5% vs. 4.6%; P   <  0.001). They more often required ambulance transport (85.5% vs. 76.5%; P   <  0.001), medical treatment (57.3% vs. 48.0%; P   <  0.001), hospitalization (27.7% vs. 18.9%; P   <  0.001), and admission to intensive care (12.2% vs. 4.0%; P   <  0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that GCS ≤8 was particularly common in patients who combined ethanol with opioids or gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)/gamma-butyrolactone (GBL).

Conclusion: Co-use of ethanol with CNS-depressant drugs appears to increase the risk of adverse effects and is associated with a higher need for medical treatment, especially when ethanol is combined with opioids or GHB/GBL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEJ.0000000000000932DOI Listing
August 2022

Sustained low efficiency dialysis should not be interrupted for performing transpulmonary thermodilution measurements.

Ann Intensive Care 2018 Nov 23;8(1):113. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Division of Clinical Toxicology and Poison Control Centre Munich, Department of Internal Medicine II, TUM School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Background: Treatment of multiple organ failure frequently requires enhanced hemodynamic monitoring. When renal replacement is indicated, it remains unclear whether transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD) measurements are influenced by renal replacement therapy (RRT) and whether RRT should be paused for TPTD measurements. Our aim was therefore to investigate the effect of pausing RRT on TPTD results in two dialysis catheter locations.

Materials And Methods: In total, 62 TPTD measurements in 24 patients (APACHE: 32 ± 7 [mean ± standard deviation (SD)]) were performed using the PiCCO™ system (Pulsion, Germany). Patients were treated with sustained low efficiency dialysis (SLED; Genius™ system, Fresenius, Germany) as RRT. Measurements were taken during ongoing hemodialysis (HD, HDO), during paused HD (HDP) and immediately after termination of HD and blood restitution (HDT). Dialysis catheters were placed either in the superior vena cava (SVC, 19 times) or in the inferior vena cava (IVC, 5 times). Statistical analysis was performed to assess the effects of the measurement setting, SLED (blood flow rate) and the catheter location, on cardiac index (CI), global end-diastolic volume index (GEDVI) and extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) as measured by TPTD. Multilevel models were used for the analysis due to the triplicate measurements and due to 12 out of 19 SVC and 2 out of 5 IVC patients having more than one TPTD measured.

Results: CI and GEDVI were significantly higher at time point HDP compared to both HDO and HDT. In contrast, values for EVLWI were lower at HDP when compared to HDO and HDT. These findings were independent of the site of dialysis catheter insertion and blood flow rate.

Conclusions: PiCCO™ measurements assessed at paused SLED significantly deviate from ongoing and terminated SLED. Therefore, the dialysis system should not be paused for measurements. TPTD measurements in patients with PiCCO monitoring seem sufficiently reliable during ongoing SLED as well as after its termination. An effect of dialysis catheter location (SVC vs IVC) and blood flow rate on PiCCO™ measurements could not be shown.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13613-018-0455-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6251800PMC
November 2018

Lethal outcome of granulomatous acanthamoebic encephalitis in a man who was human immunodeficiency virus-positive: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2018 Jul 12;12(1):201. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

Division of Clinical Toxicology & Poison Control Centre Munich, Department of Internal Medicine II, TUM School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675, Munich, Germany.

Background: Acanthamoeba species can cause disseminating infections in immunocompromised individuals.

Case Presentation: Here, we report a case of granulomatous acanthamoebic encephalitis with a lethal outcome in a 54-year-old German man who was human immunodeficiency virus-positive. The diagnosis was based on symptoms of progressive neurological deficits, including sensorimotor paralysis of his right leg and deteriorating alertness. Due to the rapid course and rather late diagnosis of the infection, effective treatment could not be applied and he died 12 days after hospital admission.

Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the second case of granulomatous acanthamoebic encephalitis reported within Germany. Our case highlights the importance of early diagnosis of granulomatous acanthamoebic encephalitis to prevent fatal outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13256-018-1734-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6042392PMC
July 2018

[Intoxications in Children and Adolescents in Germany].

Klin Padiatr 2018 Jul 18;230(4):205-214. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Abteilung für Klinische Toxikologie & Giftnotruf München, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München.

Background: In Germany, intoxications cause the bulk of emergencies in children, to be prevented or attenuated by preventive measures. Therefore, knowledge about intoxications is essential for pediatricians. The present work provides general and epidemiologic data about intoxications and most frequent categories and single toxicants.

Methods: Data of intoxications in children and adolescents from 6 German poison centers (2012-2016 and 2002-2016) were retrospectively analyzed. Categorical data are given as mean±standard deviation, most frequent toxicants as a score.

Results: Calls, especially from non-professionals, increased since 2002. Two third of intoxications occurred in small and pre-school children, more frequently in boys (50%) than girls (44%), in adolescents girls predominated (>60%).<14 years intoxications occur mainly at home, day care or school (>95%), in adolescents suicide attempts and abuse come to the fore (13%). 90% of the cases are asymptomatic or mild, with increasing symptoms at higher ages (adolescents 13% vs. small children 1%). Intoxications with drugs are predominantly in adolescents, surfactant containing cleaning agents and cosmetics, sanitary cleaner, tobacco, glow lights and solute descaler in children.

Discussion And Conclusions: Increasing incoming calls from professionals and non-professionals point out the importance of the poison centers. Although intoxications in children and adolescents mainly proceed without or mild symptoms, the relevance of preventive measures especially for children<7 should not be underestimated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0594-9480DOI Listing
July 2018

[Intoxications in Children and Adolescents in Germany].

Klin Padiatr 2018 Jul 18;230(4):205-214. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Abteilung für Klinische Toxikologie & Giftnotruf München, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München.

Background: In Germany, intoxications cause the bulk of emergencies in children, to be prevented or attenuated by preventive measures. Therefore, knowledge about intoxications is essential for pediatricians. The present work provides general and epidemiologic data about intoxications and most frequent categories and single toxicants.

Methods: Data of intoxications in children and adolescents from 6 German poison centers (2012-2016 and 2002-2016) were retrospectively analyzed. Categorical data are given as mean±standard deviation, most frequent toxicants as a score.

Results: Calls, especially from non-professionals, increased since 2002. Two third of intoxications occurred in small and pre-school children, more frequently in boys (50%) than girls (44%), in adolescents girls predominated (>60%).<14 years intoxications occur mainly at home, day care or school (>95%), in adolescents suicide attempts and abuse come to the fore (13%). 90% of the cases are asymptomatic or mild, with increasing symptoms at higher ages (adolescents 13% vs. small children 1%). Intoxications with drugs are predominantly in adolescents, surfactant containing cleaning agents and cosmetics, sanitary cleaner, tobacco, glow lights and solute descaler in children.

Discussion And Conclusions: Increasing incoming calls from professionals and non-professionals point out the importance of the poison centers. Although intoxications in children and adolescents mainly proceed without or mild symptoms, the relevance of preventive measures especially for children<7 should not be underestimated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0594-9480DOI Listing
July 2018

Independent validation of the ICU requirement score in a cohort of acutely poisoned adults.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2018 07 16;56(7):664-666. Epub 2017 Nov 16.

a Department of Clinical Toxicology , Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich , Munich , Germany.

Objective: To independently validate the predictive value of the intensive care requirement score (IRS) in unselected poisoned patients.

Design: Retrospective chart review.

Patients And Methods: Five hundred and seventeen out of 585 admissions for acute intoxications could be analyzed. Eleven were excluded for a condition already requiring intensive care unit (ICU) support at admission (e.g., preclinical intubation). A further 57 admissions were excluded due to missing data. The IRS was calculated using a point-scoring system including age, Glasgow Coma Scale, heart rate, type of intoxication, and preexisting conditions. It was then compared to a composite endpoint indicating an ICU requirement (death in hospital, vasopressors, need for ventilation). The endpoint and the point-scoring system were identical to the original publication of the score.

Results And Conclusion: Twenty-three out of 517 patients had a complicated clinical course as defined by meeting the endpoint definition. Twenty-one out of 23 complicated courses had a positive IRS (defined as greater or equal 6 points), as compared to 255/494 patients with an uncomplicated clinical course (p < .001, Fisher's exact test). One patient (with a positive IRS) died. The negative predictive value of the IRS was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1), the sensitivity was 0.91 and the specificity 0.48. In conclusion, the IRS is significantly linked to outcome. While a negative IRS virtually excludes the need for ICU care, a positive IRS has a positive predictive value too low to be used for risk stratification. The IRS could also be applied to unselected admissions of poisoned patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2017.1401635DOI Listing
July 2018

An internet-based survey of 96 German-speaking users of "bath salts": frequent complications, risky sexual behavior, violence, and delinquency.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2018 03 28;56(3):219-222. Epub 2017 Jul 28.

a Department of Clinical Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar , Technical University of Munich , Munich , Germany.

Objective: To define the demographics of German-speaking "bath salt" users.

Design: Prospective web-based survey of volunteer users of "bath salts". Subject recruitment/exclusion: Participation was solicited by posts in web forums frequented by users of synthetic cathinones. An invitation to participate was also disseminated via regional drug information centers. Responses were discarded if participants refused data analysis, provided incomplete surveys, were under 18 years of age (five cases), and in case of clearly improbable answers (i.e., two cases with profanity typed in free-form input fields). Overall 96 out of 180 participants provided complete questionnaires. These were further analyzed.

Results And Conclusions: 74% of respondents were male. 41% were under the age of 30 and a further 38% between 30 and 39 years old. Cathinones were used on more than 10 days in the preceding year by 62% of study subjects. The nasal and intravenous routes of administration were most often used. About 80% of respondents reported binge use. There were frequent co-administrations of opioids and opiates. The most common complication was prolonged confusion (47%). 16% had been involuntarily confined. One third had thoughts of violence and 16% acted on these thoughts either against themselves or others. About 44% reported high-risk sexual activity under the influence of cathinones. About 31% had driven or ridden a bike while intoxicated. About 6% had problems with law-enforcement for selling cathinones and 16% for crimes committed under the influence of cathinones. In conclusion, cathinone users are typically young males in their twenties and thirties. Most are experienced drug users, particularly of alcohol and opiates/opioids. The impact on society is tremendous as evidenced by high rates of self-reported violence, high-risk sexual activity, crimes, and traffic violations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2017.1353094DOI Listing
March 2018

Synthetic cathinones in Southern Germany - characteristics of users, substance-patterns, co-ingestions, and complications.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2017 Jul 28;55(6):573-578. Epub 2017 Mar 28.

a Department of Clinical Toxicology , Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich , Munich , Germany.

Objective: To define the characteristics of synthetic cathinone users admitted to hospital including clinical and laboratory parameters and the complications of use.

Design: Retrospective single-center study of patients treated for acute cathinone intoxication and complications of cathinone use between January 2010 and January 2016.

Setting: A specialized clinical toxicology unit at an academic tertiary care center in Southern Germany serving a population of about 4 million.

Patients And Methods: 81 consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed use of cathinones who presented for acute intoxication or complications of cathinone use were retrospectively analyzed.

Results And Conclusions: The patients were predominantly male (64%, 52/81) with a median age of 34 years. 60 were admitted for signs of acute intoxication while 21 suffered from complications of cathinone use. 70% of acutely intoxicated patients had an increased creatinine phosphokinase. Only a minority of patients presented with a sympathomimetic toxidrome. Three patients had infectious complications, 10 prolonged psychosis, 6 rhabdomyolyses and/or kidney failure, and two patients died. Based on presentations, cathinone use has increased with the first cases seen in 2010. Opiates/opioids are the main co-ingested drugs of abuse. The pattern of cathinone use shifted from methylone in 2010/2011 to 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 3-methylmethcathinone (3-MMC) in 2014/2015. We conclude that in our setting "typical" cathinone users are males in their thirties. They are seldom drug naïve and regularly co-ingest illicit drugs. Preventive measures have to be tailored to these difficult to reach patients. Present efforts to educate young clubbers in their late teens may fail to reach the pertinent demographic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2017.1301463DOI Listing
July 2017
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