Publications by authors named "Stefanie Beck-Wödl"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The adult phenotype of Schaaf-Yang syndrome.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2020 10 19;15(1):294. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Institute of Human Genetics, University Hospital Essen, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

Background: MAGEL2-associated Schaaf-Yang syndrome (SHFYNG, OMIM #615547, ORPHA: 398069), which was identified in 2013, is a rare disorder caused by truncating variants of the paternal copy of MAGEL2, which is localized in the imprinted region on 15q11.2q13. The phenotype of SHFYNG in childhood partially overlaps with that of the well-established Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS, OMIM #176270). While larger numbers of younger individuals with SHFYNG have been recently published, the phenotype in adulthood is not well established. We recruited 7 adult individuals (aged 18 to 36) with molecularly confirmed SHFYNG and collected data regarding the clinical profile including eating habits, sleep, behavior, personal autonomy, psychiatric abnormalities and other medical conditions, as well as information about the respective phenotypes in childhood.

Results: Within our small cohort, we identified a range of common features, such as disturbed sleep, hypoactivity, social withdrawal and anxiety, but also noted considerable differences at the level of personal autonomy and skills. Behavioral problems were frequent, and a majority of individuals displayed weight gain and food-seeking behavior, along with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual function. Classical symptoms of SHFYNG in childhood were reported for most individuals.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate a high variability of the functional abilities and social participation of adults with SHFYNG. A high prevalence of obesity within our cohort was notable, and uncontrollable food intake was a major concern for some caregivers. The phenotypes of PWS and SHFYNG in adulthood might be more difficult to discern than the phenotypes in childhood. Molecular genetic testing for SHFYNG should therefore be considered in adults with the suspected diagnosis of PWS, if testing for PWS has been negative.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-020-01557-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7574436PMC
October 2020

Association of Age at Onset and First Symptoms With Disease Progression in Patients With Metachromatic Leukodystrophy.

Neurology 2021 01 12;96(2):e255-e266. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

From Department of Paediatric Neurology and Developmental Medicine (C.K., S.E., C.R., J.B., A.B., N.K., I.K.-M., S.G.), University Children's Hospital; Department of Medical Genetics (S.B.-W.), University Hospital Tübingen; Clinical Neurogenetics Section (L.S.), Department of Neurology and Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen; and German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) Tübingen (L.S.), Germany Crona Kliniken.

Objective: To compare disease progression between different onset forms of metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) and to investigate the influence of the type of first symptoms on the natural course and dynamic of disease progression.

Methods: Clinical, genetic, and biochemical parameters were analyzed within a nationwide study of patients with late-infantile (LI; onset age ≤2.5 years), early-juvenile (EJ; onset age 2.6 to <6 years), late-juvenile (LJ; onset age 6 to <16 years), and adult (onset age ≥16 years) forms of MLD. First symptoms were categorized as motor symptoms only, cognitive symptoms only, or both. Standardized clinical endpoints included loss of motor and language functions, as well as dysphagia/tube feeding.

Results: Ninety-seven patients with MLD were enrolled. Patients with LI (n = 35) and EJ (n = 18) MLD exhibited similarly rapid disease progression, all starting with motor symptoms (with or without additional cognitive symptoms). In LJ (n = 38) and adult-onset (n = 6) patients, the course of the disease was as rapid as in the early-onset forms, when motor symptoms were present at disease onset, while patients with only cognitive symptoms at disease onset exhibited significantly milder disease progression, independently of their age at onset. A certain genotype-phenotype correlation was observed.

Conclusions: In addition to age at onset, the type of first symptoms predicts the rate of disease progression in MLD. These findings are important for counseling and therapy.

Classification Of Evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that in patients with MLD, age at onset and the type of first symptoms predict the rate of disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011047DOI Listing
January 2021

Natural history of Krabbe disease - a nationwide study in Germany using clinical and MRI data.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2020 09 10;15(1):243. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Child Neurology, Children's Hospital, University of Tübingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 1, 72072, Tübingen, Germany.

Background: Krabbe disease or globoid cell leukodystrophy is a severe neurodegenerative disorder caused by a defect in the GALC gene leading to a deficiency of the enzyme ß-galactocerebrosidase. The aim of this work was to describe the natural disease course covering the whole spectrum of the disease.

Methods: Natural history data were collected with a standardized questionnaire, supplemented by medical record data. We defined different forms of the disease according to Abdelhalim et al. (2014). Developmental and disease trajectories were described based on the acquisition and loss of milestones as well as the time of first clearly identifiable symptoms and needs such as spasticity, seizures and tube feeding. MRI was assessed using the scoring system by Loes et al. (1999) and in addition a pattern recognition approach, based on Abdelhalim et al. (2014).

Results: Thirty-eight patients were identified, from 27 of these patients 40 MRIs were available; 30 (79%) had an infantile onset, showing first symptoms in their first year of life, almost all (27 out of 30) starting in the first six months. A later onset after the first year of life was observed in 8 patients (21%, range 18 months to 60 years). Irritability, abnormalities in movement pattern as well as general developmental regression were the first symptoms in the infantile group; disease course was severe with rapid progression, e.g. loss of visual fixation, need for tube feeding and then an early death. Gait disorders were the first symptoms in all patients of the later onset groups; progression was variable. The different forms of the disease were characterized by different MRI patterns (infantile: diffuse white matter involvement and cerebellar structures specifically affected, later onset: parieto-occipital white matter and splenium affected, adult: motor tracts specifically affected).

Conclusion: This is the first description of the natural history of Krabbe disease in a larger European cohort using developmental, clinical and MRI data. We would like to highlight the very different clinical and MRI characteristics of the later onset forms. These data are important for counselling affected patients and families and may serve as a basis for future treatment trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-020-01489-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7488349PMC
September 2020

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 11: Does the genetic defect determine timing of cerebellar pathology?

Eur J Med Genet 2020 Jul 28;63(7):103938. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Institute of Medical Genetics and Applied Genomics, University of Tübingen, 72076, Tübingen, Germany; Centre for Rare Diseases, University of Tuebingen, 72076, Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address:

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) comprises a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by hypoplasia and degeneration of the cerebellum and ventral pons. To date at least 18 different clinical subtypes of PCH associated with pathogenic variants in 19 different genes have been described. Only recently, bi-allelic variants in TBC1D23 have been reported as the underlying molecular defect in seven index cases with a suspected non-degenerative form of PCH, PCH type 11 (PCH11). We used exome sequencing to investigate an individual with global developmental delay, ataxia, seizures, and progressive PCH. Brain volume was evaluated over a disease course of 14 years using volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Volume alterations were compared to age-matched controls as well as data from children with PCH2. We identified a homozygous frameshift variant in exon 9 of 18 of TBC1D23 predicting a loss of protein function. Brain morphometry revealed a pattern of pontine, brain stem, and supratentorial volume loss similar to PCH2 patients although less pronounced. Intriguingly, cerebral MRI findings at the age of 1 and 15 years clearly showed progressive atrophy of the cerebellum, especially the hemispheres. In four of the cases reported in the literature cerebellar hemispheres could be evaluated on the MRIs displayed, they also showed atrophic foliae. While pontine hypoplasia and pronounced microcephaly are in line with previous reports on PCH11, our observations of clearly postnatal atrophy of the cerebellum argues for a different pathomechanism than in the other forms of PCH and supports the hypothesis that TBC1D23 deficiency predominantly interferes with postnatal rather than with prenatal cerebellar development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2020.103938DOI Listing
July 2020

Clinical, ocular motor, and imaging profile of Niemann-Pick type C heterozygosity.

Neurology 2020 04 31;94(16):e1702-e1715. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

From the Department of Neurology (T.B.-E., C.S., M.M., M.S., S.A.S.), German Center for Vertigo and Balance Disorders (T.B.-E., D.N., M.S.), and Institute of Radiology (D.A.C.), Ludwig Maximilians University, University Hospital Grosshadern, Munich, Germany; Departments of Neurology (T.B.-E.) and Nuclear Medicine (A.R.), Inselspital, University Hospital Bern, Switzerland; Department of Nuclear Medicine (M.B., A.R.), University Hospital, LMU Munich; Department of Neurology (B.M.), University Hospital, Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel Campus; Institute for Medical Genetics and Genomics (S.B.-W.), Tübingen, Germany; Center for Neurodegenerative Science (C. K.-R., J.B.), Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, MI; Munich Cluster for Systems Neurology (SyNergy) (A.R.), Munich, Germany; and University of Bern (A.R.), Switzerland.

Objective: To characterize subclinical abnormalities in asymptomatic heterozygote mutation carriers as markers of neurodegeneration.

Methods: Motor function, cognition, mood, sleep, and smell function were assessed in 20 first-degree heterozygous relatives of patients with Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) (13 male, age 52.7 ± 9.9 years). Video-oculography and abdominal ultrasound with volumetry were performed to assess oculomotor function and size of liver and spleen. NPC biomarkers in blood were analyzed. F-fluorodesoxyglucose PET was performed (n = 16) to detect patterns of brain hypometabolism.

Results: NPC heterozygotes recapitulated characteristic features of symptomatic NPC disease and demonstrated the oculomotor abnormalities typical of NPC. Hepatosplenomegaly (71%) and increased cholestantriol (33%) and plasma chitotriosidase (17%) levels were present. The patients also showed signs seen in other neurodegenerative diseases, including hyposmia (20%) or pathologic screening for REM sleep behavior disorder (24%). Cognitive function was frequently impaired, especially affecting visuoconstructive function, verbal fluency, and executive function. PET imaging revealed significantly decreased glucose metabolic rates in 50% of participants, affecting cerebellar, anterior cingulate, parieto-occipital, and temporal regions, including 1 with bilateral abnormalities.

Conclusion: NPC heterozygosity, which has a carrier frequency of 1:200 in the general population, is associated with abnormal brain metabolism and functional consequences. Clinically silent heterozygous gene variations in may be a risk factor for late-onset neurodegeneration, similar to the concept of heterozygous mutations underlying Parkinson disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000009290DOI Listing
April 2020

Phenotypic variation between siblings with Metachromatic Leukodystrophy.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2019 06 11;14(1):136. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Department of Paediatric Neurology and Developmental Medicine, University Children's Hospital Tübingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Strasse 1, 72076, Tübingen, Germany.

Background: Metachromatic Leukodystrophy (MLD) is a rare autosomal-recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in the ARSA gene. While interventional trials often use untreated siblings as controls, the genotype-phenotype correlation is only partly understood, and the variability of the clinical course between siblings is unclear with some evidence for a discrepant clinical course in juvenile patients. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the phenotypic variation in MLD siblings in comparison to the variability in a larger MLD cohort and to case reports published in literature.

Results: Detailed clinical information was available from 12 sibling-pairs (3 late-infantile, 9 juvenile) and 61 single patients (29 late-infantile, 32 juvenile). Variability of age at onset was similar between the siblings and randomly chosen pairs of the remaining cohort (no statistically different Euclidean distances). However, in children with juvenile MLD both the type of first symptoms and the dynamic of the disease were less variable between siblings compared to the general cohort. In late-infantile patients, type of first symptoms and dynamic of disease were similarly homogeneous between siblings and the whole MLD cohort. Thirteen published case reports of families with affected siblings with MLD are presented with similar findings.

Conclusions: In a systematic analysis of phenotypic variation in families with MLD, siblings with the late-infantile form showed a similar variability as unrelated pairs of children with late-infantile MLD, whereas siblings with juvenile MLD showed a more homogeneous phenotype regarding type of first symptoms and disease evolution in comparison to unrelated children with juvenile MLD, but not regarding their age at onset. These results are highly relevant with respect to the evaluation of treatment effects and for counseling of families with affected siblings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-019-1113-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6560893PMC
June 2019

Assay of β-glucosidase 2 (GBA2) activity using lithocholic acid β-3-O-glucoside substrate for cultured fibroblasts and glucosylceramide for brain tissue.

Biol Chem 2019 05;400(6):745-752

Department of Medical Genetics and Applied Genomics, University of Tübingen, Calwerstr. 7, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany.

Beta (β)-glucosidase 2 (GBA2) is deficient in a form of human spastic paraplegia due to defects in GBA2 (SPG46). GBA2 was proposed as a modifier of Gaucher disease, a lysosomal storage disease resulting from deficient β-glucosidase 1; GBA1. Current GBA2 activity assays using artificial substrates incompletely model the activity encountered in vivo. We studied GBA2 activity, using lithocholic acid β-glucoside or glucosylceramide as natural β-glucosidase substrates in murine tissues or cultured patient fibroblasts with the pathologic genotypes: Gba1-/-; Gba2-/-; GBA1-/-; GBA2+/- and found expected and unexpected deviations from normal controls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/hsz-2018-0438DOI Listing
May 2019

Correction: The ARID1B spectrum in 143 patients: from nonsyndromic intellectual disability to Coffin-Siris syndrome.

Authors:
Pleuntje J van der Sluijs Sandra Jansen Samantha A Vergano Miho Adachi-Fukuda Yasemin Alanay Adila AlKindy Anwar Baban Allan Bayat Stefanie Beck-Wödl Katherine Berry Emilia K Bijlsma Levinus A Bok Alwin F J Brouwer Ineke van der Burgt Philippe M Campeau Natalie Canham Krystyna Chrzanowska Yoyo W Y Chu Brain H Y Chung Karin Dahan Marjan De Rademaeker Anne Destree Tracy Dudding-Byth Rachel Earl Nursel Elcioglu Ellen R Elias Christina Fagerberg Alice Gardham Blanca Gener Erica H Gerkes Ute Grasshoff Arie van Haeringen Karin R Heitink Johanna C Herkert Nicolette S den Hollander Denise Horn David Hunt Sarina G Kant Mitsuhiro Kato Hülya Kayserili Rogier Kersseboom Esra Kilic Malgorzata Krajewska-Walasek Kylin Lammers Lone W Laulund Damien Lederer Melissa Lees Vanesa López-González Saskia Maas Grazia M S Mancini Carlo Marcelis Francisco Martinez Isabelle Maystadt Marianne McGuire Shane McKee Sarju Mehta Kay Metcalfe Jeff Milunsky Seiji Mizuno John B Moeschler Christian Netzer Charlotte W Ockeloen Barbara Oehl-Jaschkowitz Nobuhiko Okamoto Sharon N M Olminkhof Carmen Orellana Laurent Pasquier Caroline Pottinger Vera Riehmer Stephen P Robertson Maian Roifman Caroline Rooryck Fabienne G Ropers Monica Rosello Claudia A L Ruivenkamp Mahmut S Sagiroglu Suzanne C E H Sallevelt Amparo Sanchis Calvo Pelin O Simsek-Kiper Gabriela Soares Lucia Solaeche Fatma Mujgan Sonmez Miranda Splitt Duco Steenbeek Alexander P A Stegmann Constance T R M Stumpel Saori Tanabe Eyyup Uctepe G Eda Utine Hermine E Veenstra-Knol Sunita Venkateswaran Catheline Vilain Catherine Vincent-Delorme Anneke T Vulto-van Silfhout Patricia Wheeler Golder N Wilson Louise C Wilson Bernd Wollnik Tomoki Kosho Dagmar Wieczorek Evan Eichler Rolph Pfundt Bert B A de Vries Jill Clayton-Smith Gijs W E Santen

Genet Med 2019 Sep;21(9):2160-2161

Department of Clinical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

The original version of this Article contained an error in the spelling of the author Pleuntje J. van der Sluijs, which was incorrectly given as Eline (P. J.) van der Sluijs. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0368-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6752317PMC
September 2019

Homozygous TBC1 domain-containing kinase (TBCK) mutation causes a novel lysosomal storage disease - a new type of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN15)?

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2018 12 27;6(1):145. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Neuropathology, Philipps University and University Hospital of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043, Marburg, Germany.

Homozygous mutation of TBC1 domain-containing kinase (TBCK) is the cause of a very recently defined severe childhood disorder, which is characterized by severe hypotonia, global developmental delay, intellectual disability, epilepsy, characteristic facies and premature death. The link between TBCK loss of function and symptoms in patients with TBCK deficiency disorder (TBCK-DD) remains elusive. Here we demonstrate for the first time the histopathological characteristics of TBCK deficiency consisting of 1) a widespread and massive accumulation of lipofuscin storage material in neurons of the central nervous system without notable neuronal degeneration, 2) storage deposits in few astrocytes, 3) carbohydrate-rich deposits in brain, spleen and liver and 4) vacuolated lymphocytes. Biochemical examinations ruled out more than 20 known lysosomal storage diseases. These investigations strikingly uncover TBCK-DD as a novel type of lysosomal storage disease which is characterized by different storage products rather than one specific type of accumulated material. Due to the clear predominance of intraneuronal lipofuscin storage material and the characteristic clinical presentation we propose to classify this disease as a new subtype of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN15). Our results and previous reports suggest an autophagosomal-lysosomal dysfunction caused by enhanced mTORC1-mediated autophagosome formation and reduced Rab-mediated autophagosome-lysosome fusion, thus disclosing potential novel targets for therapeutic approaches in TBCK-DD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40478-018-0646-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6307319PMC
December 2018

The ARID1B spectrum in 143 patients: from nonsyndromic intellectual disability to Coffin-Siris syndrome.

Authors:
Pleuntje J van der Sluijs Sandra Jansen Samantha A Vergano Miho Adachi-Fukuda Yasemin Alanay Adila AlKindy Anwar Baban Allan Bayat Stefanie Beck-Wödl Katherine Berry Emilia K Bijlsma Levinus A Bok Alwin F J Brouwer Ineke van der Burgt Philippe M Campeau Natalie Canham Krystyna Chrzanowska Yoyo W Y Chu Brain H Y Chung Karin Dahan Marjan De Rademaeker Anne Destree Tracy Dudding-Byth Rachel Earl Nursel Elcioglu Ellen R Elias Christina Fagerberg Alice Gardham Blanca Gener Erica H Gerkes Ute Grasshoff Arie van Haeringen Karin R Heitink Johanna C Herkert Nicolette S den Hollander Denise Horn David Hunt Sarina G Kant Mitsuhiro Kato Hülya Kayserili Rogier Kersseboom Esra Kilic Malgorzata Krajewska-Walasek Kylin Lammers Lone W Laulund Damien Lederer Melissa Lees Vanesa López-González Saskia Maas Grazia M S Mancini Carlo Marcelis Francisco Martinez Isabelle Maystadt Marianne McGuire Shane McKee Sarju Mehta Kay Metcalfe Jeff Milunsky Seiji Mizuno John B Moeschler Christian Netzer Charlotte W Ockeloen Barbara Oehl-Jaschkowitz Nobuhiko Okamoto Sharon N M Olminkhof Carmen Orellana Laurent Pasquier Caroline Pottinger Vera Riehmer Stephen P Robertson Maian Roifman Caroline Rooryck Fabienne G Ropers Monica Rosello Claudia A L Ruivenkamp Mahmut S Sagiroglu Suzanne C E H Sallevelt Amparo Sanchis Calvo Pelin O Simsek-Kiper Gabriela Soares Lucia Solaeche Fatma Mujgan Sonmez Miranda Splitt Duco Steenbeek Alexander P A Stegmann Constance T R M Stumpel Saori Tanabe Eyyup Uctepe G Eda Utine Hermine E Veenstra-Knol Sunita Venkateswaran Catheline Vilain Catherine Vincent-Delorme Anneke T Vulto-van Silfhout Patricia Wheeler Golder N Wilson Louise C Wilson Bernd Wollnik Tomoki Kosho Dagmar Wieczorek Evan Eichler Rolph Pfundt Bert B A de Vries Jill Clayton-Smith Gijs W E Santen

Genet Med 2019 06 8;21(6):1295-1307. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Pathogenic variants in ARID1B are one of the most frequent causes of intellectual disability (ID) as determined by large-scale exome sequencing studies. Most studies published thus far describe clinically diagnosed Coffin-Siris patients (ARID1B-CSS) and it is unclear whether these data are representative for patients identified through sequencing of unbiased ID cohorts (ARID1B-ID). We therefore sought to determine genotypic and phenotypic differences between ARID1B-ID and ARID1B-CSS. In parallel, we investigated the effect of different methods of phenotype reporting.

Methods: Clinicians entered clinical data in an extensive web-based survey.

Results: 79 ARID1B-CSS and 64 ARID1B-ID patients were included. CSS-associated dysmorphic features, such as thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, thick alae nasi, long and/or broad philtrum, small nails and small or absent fifth distal phalanx and hypertrichosis, were observed significantly more often (p < 0.001) in ARID1B-CSS patients. No other significant differences were identified.

Conclusion: There are only minor differences between ARID1B-ID and ARID1B-CSS patients. ARID1B-related disorders seem to consist of a spectrum, and patients should be managed similarly. We demonstrated that data collection methods without an explicit option to report the absence of a feature (such as most Human Phenotype Ontology-based methods) tended to underestimate gene-related features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0330-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6752273PMC
June 2019

De novo FBXO11 mutations are associated with intellectual disability and behavioural anomalies.

Hum Genet 2018 May 23;137(5):401-411. Epub 2018 May 23.

Institute of Human Genetics, University of Bonn, School of Medicine & University Hospital Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, 53127, Bonn, Germany.

Intellectual disability (ID) has an estimated prevalence of 1.5-2%. In most affected individuals, its genetic basis remains unclear. Whole exome sequencing (WES) studies have identified a multitude of novel causative gene defects and have shown that a large proportion of sporadic ID cases results from de novo mutations. Here, we present two unrelated individuals with similar clinical features and deleterious de novo variants in FBXO11 detected by WES. Individual 1, a 14-year-old boy, has mild ID as well as mild microcephaly, corrected cleft lip and alveolus, hyperkinetic disorder, mild brain atrophy and minor facial dysmorphism. WES detected a heterozygous de novo 1 bp insertion in the splice donor site of exon 3. Individual 2, a 3-year-old boy, showed ID and pre- and postnatal growth retardation, postnatal mild microcephaly, hyperkinetic and restless behaviour, as well as mild dysmorphism. WES detected a heterozygous de novo frameshift mutation. While ten individuals with ID and de novo variants in FBXO11 have been reported as part of larger studies, only one of the reports has some additional clinical data. Interestingly, the latter individual carries the identical mutation as our individual 2 and also displays ID, intrauterine growth retardation, microcephaly, behavioural anomalies, and dysmorphisms. Thus, we confirm deleterious de novo mutations in FBXO11 as a cause of ID and start the delineation of the associated clinical picture which may also comprise postnatal microcephaly or borderline small head size and behavioural anomalies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-018-1892-1DOI Listing
May 2018

Skewed X-inactivation in a family with DLG3-associated X-linked intellectual disability.

Am J Med Genet A 2017 Sep 4;173(9):2545-2550. Epub 2017 Aug 4.

Institut für Klinische Genetik, Medizinische Fakultät Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Mutations in DLG3 are a rare cause of non-syndromic X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) (MRX90, OMIM *300189). Only ten DLG3 mutations have been reported to date. The majority of female heterozygous mutation carriers was healthy and had random X-inactivation patterns. We report on an XLID family with a novel DLG3 mutation. The 12-year-old male index patient had moderate intellectual disability (ID) and dysmorphic features. The mutation was also present in four female relatives. A maternal aunt had moderate ID and significantly skewed X-inactivation favorably inactivating the normal DLG3 allele. The proband's healthy mother also had skewed X-inactivation but in the opposite direction (i.e., inactivation of the mutated allele). Two other female relatives had intermediate cognitive phenotypes and random X-inactivation. This family broadens the mutational and phenotypical spectrum of DLG3-associated XLID and demonstrates that heterozygous female mutation carriers can be as severely affected as males. Reports of additional families will be needed to elucidate the causes of unfavorable skewing in female XLID patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.38348DOI Listing
September 2017

Late onset Krabbe disease due to the new GALC p.Ala543Pro mutation, with intriguingly high residual GALC activity in vitro.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2017 May 6;21(3):522-529. Epub 2017 Jan 6.

Department of Neuropediatrics and Neurometabolic Laboratory, Children's Hospital of the University of Tübingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 1, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.

Background: Krabbe disease (KD) is an inherited leukodystrophy due to a defect in the GALC gene which encodes the lysosomal galactosylceramide β-galactosidase (GALC). About two thirds of patients show the early onset form of KD dominated by cerebral demyelination leading to death in early infancy. Late onset forms include a spectrum of late infantile, juvenile and adult clinical courses. The deficiency of GALC leads to a galactosylceramide lipidosis in which lysosomal storage phenomena are seen almost only at the ultrastructural level.

Results: In a 4-year-old boy, the clinical suspicion of KD was high according to neurologic and neuroimaging findings. However, laboratory results were inconclusive; white blood cell GALC activity being at 23 to 25% of the normal level, and GALC genotyping revealing the new homozygous p.Ala543Pro variant which, ex silico, was of unclear significance. Studying a skin biopsy, cultured fibroblasts showed the GALC activity at 21 to 30% of the normal level; ultrastructurally, clearly KD-specific inclusions were seen in the eccrine sweat gland cells, confirming a KD diagnosis.

Conclusion: The high clinical suspicion combined with the morphologic evidence for KD predict that the p.Ala543Pro variant is pathogenic for (late onset) KD. A hypothesis linked to the proline in the mutant GALC may explain the in vitro effect with high residual GALC activity. This patient would not have been correctly diagnosed, despite the strong clinical criteria of KD, if the electron microscopic results had not been available. The detailed knowledge of neurologic and neuroimaging signs is important in diagnostically problematic KD patients in which also an electron microscopic approach can be crucial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpn.2016.12.012DOI Listing
May 2017

FOXP2 variants in 14 individuals with developmental speech and language disorders broaden the mutational and clinical spectrum.

J Med Genet 2017 01 29;54(1):64-72. Epub 2016 Aug 29.

Institute of Human Genetics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen, Germany.

Background: Disruptions of the FOXP2 gene, encoding a forkhead transcription factor, are the first known monogenic cause of a speech and language disorder. So far, mainly chromosomal rearrangements such as translocations or larger deletions affecting FOXP2 have been reported. Intragenic deletions or convincingly pathogenic point mutations in FOXP2 have up to date only been reported in three families. We thus aimed at a further characterisation of the mutational and clinical spectrum.

Methods: Chromosomal microarray testing, trio exome sequencing, multigene panel sequencing and targeted sequencing of FOXP2 were performed in individuals with variable developmental disorders, and speech and language deficits.

Results: We identified four different truncating mutations, two novel missense mutations within the forkhead domain and an intragenic deletion in FOXP2 in 14 individuals from eight unrelated families. Mutations occurred de novo in four families and were inherited from an affected parent in the other four. All index patients presented with various manifestations of language and speech impairment. Apart from two individuals with normal onset of speech, age of first words was between 4 and 7 years. Articulation difficulties such as slurred speech, dyspraxia, stuttering and poor pronunciation were frequently noted. Motor development was normal or only mildly delayed. Mild cognitive impairment was reported for most individuals.

Conclusions: By identifying intragenic deletions or mutations in 14 individuals from eight unrelated families with variable developmental delay/cognitive impairment and speech and language deficits, we considerably broaden the mutational and clinical spectrum associated with aberrations in FOXP2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2016-104094DOI Listing
January 2017

Uniparental disomy of chromosome 16 unmasks recessive mutations of FA2H/SPG35 in 4 families.

Neurology 2016 Jul 17;87(2):186-91. Epub 2016 Jun 17.

From the Institute of Medical Genetics and Applied Genomics (A.S.S., S.B.-W., K.S., O.R., P.B.) and Department of Neurology and Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research (T.W.R., R.S., L.S.), University of Tübingen; German Center of Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) (T.W.R., R.S.), Tübingen, Germany; Imprinting and Cancer Group (D.M.), Cancer Epigenetic and Biology Program, Institut d'Investigació Biomedica de Bellvitge, Hospital Duran i Reynals, Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neuropediatrics (M.D.-N.), Tübingen University School of Medicine; CeGaT GmbH (K.H.), Tübingen, Germany; Neurometabolic Diseases Laboratory (A.S., M.R., A.P.), Institut d'Investigació Biomedica de Bellvitge IDIBELL, Hospital Duran i Reynals, Barcelona; Centre for Biomedical Research on Rare Diseases (CIBERER) (A.S., M.R., A.P.), Institute Carlos III, Madrid; Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA) (A.P.), Barcelona, Spain; and Hussman Institute for Human Genomics (S.Z., R.S.), University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, FL.

Objective: Identifying an intriguing mechanism for unmasking recessive hereditary spastic paraplegias.

Method: Herein, we describe 4 novel homozygous FA2H mutations in 4 nonconsanguineous families detected by whole-exome sequencing or a targeted gene panel analysis providing high coverage of all known hereditary spastic paraplegia genes.

Results: Segregation analysis revealed in all cases only one parent as a heterozygous mutation carrier whereas the other parent did not carry FA2H mutations. A macro deletion within FA2H, which could have caused a hemizygous genotype, was excluded by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification in all cases. Finally, a microsatellite array revealed uniparental disomy (UPD) in all 4 families leading to homozygous FA2H mutations. UPD was confirmed by microarray analyses and methylation profiling.

Conclusion: UPD has rarely been described as causative mechanism in neurodegenerative diseases. Of note, we identified this mode of inheritance in 4 families with the rare diagnosis of spastic paraplegia type 35 (SPG35). Since UPD seems to be a relevant factor in SPG35 and probably additional autosomal recessive diseases, we recommend segregation analysis especially in nonconsanguineous homozygous index cases to unravel UPD as mutational mechanism. This finding may bear major repercussion for genetic counseling, given the markedly reduced risk of recurrence for affected families.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000002843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4940069PMC
July 2016

X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, Arts syndrome, and prelingual non-syndromic deafness form a disease continuum: evidence from a family with a novel PRPS1 mutation.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2014 Feb 14;9:24. Epub 2014 Feb 14.

Department of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Hertie-Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Background: X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 5 (CMTX5), Arts syndrome, and non-syndromic sensorineural deafness (DFN2) are allelic syndromes, caused by reduced activity of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase 1 (PRS-I) due to loss-of-function mutations in PRPS1. As only few families have been described, knowledge about the relation between these syndromes, the phenotypic spectrum in patients and female carriers, and the relation to underlying PRS-I activity is limited.

Methods: We investigated a family with a novel PRPS1 mutation (c.830A > C, p.Gln277Pro) by extensive phenotyping, MRI, and genetic and enzymatic tests.

Results: The male index subject presented with an overlap of CMTX5 and Arts syndrome features, whereas his sister presented with prelingual DFN2. Both showed mild parietal and cerebellar atrophy on MRI. Enzymatically, PRS-I activity was undetectable in the index subject, reduced in his less affected sister, and normal in his unaffected mother.

Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that CMTX5, Arts syndrome and DFN2 are phenotypic clusters on an intrafamilial continuum, including overlapping phenotypes even within individuals. The respective phenotypic presentation seems to be determined by the exact PRPS1 mutation and the residual enzyme activity, the latter being largely influenced by the degree of skewed X-inactivation. Finally, our findings show that brain atrophy might be more common in PRPS1-disorders than previously thought.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-1172-9-24DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3931488PMC
February 2014

Niemann-pick disease type C: new aspects in a long published family - partial manifestations in heterozygotes.

JIMD Rep 2014 3;12:25-9. Epub 2013 Jul 3.

Neurometabolic Laboratory, Klinik für Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, University of Tübingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 1, D-72076, Tübingen, Germany,

Decades ago, a family with three children with a neurovisceral lysosomal storage disease was described. The patient siblings died at ages 7, 9, and 11 years, respectively, and according to the current concept had the late-infantile neurologic form of Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC) disease, given by the present molecular study that there were severe NPC1 gene variants: Blood samples preserved since that time from one patient sibling and his presently 55-year-old essentially healthy sister have now been studied, revealing the variants p.I1061T and p.G1162V in the NPC1 gene, the first long known, the second newly found but predicted to be pathogenic and similar to the known G1162A. Now, with the molecular diagnosis, that initial description warrants new interest for the following reasons. The mentioned sister carries only the I1061T variant. She had storage macrophages ("Niemann-Pick cells") in her bone marrow, but also displayed distinct splenomegaly with indurated consistency of the organ, proven in childhood and confirmed several times up to age 13, but disappeared at age 55 years. She shares the I1061T variant with her still healthy mother, and the bone marrow finding with both parents, her father having died at 66 years from a carcinoma. The present study is one of the first describing hematological and relevant clinical symptomatology, even in heterozygotes, of molecularly diagnosed human NPC. Feline NPC is known to model such a situation. For human diagnostic and clinical NPC management, the possibility of "heterozygous disease" should be kept in mind.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/8904_2013_240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3897806PMC
January 2014

Niemann-Pick type C is frequent in adult ataxia with cognitive decline and vertical gaze palsy.

Neurology 2013 Mar 20;80(12):1169-70. Epub 2013 Feb 20.

Department of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Hertie-Institute for Clinical Brain Research, Tübingen, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0b013e31828869f9DOI Listing
March 2013

Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy with photosensitivity in a female with Velocardiofacial syndrome (del(22)(q11.2))--causal relationship or coincidence?

Seizure 2009 Nov 19;18(9):660-3. Epub 2009 Aug 19.

Swiss Epilepsy Center Zurich, Bleulerstrasse 60, CH-8008 Zürich, Switzerland.

We report on an adolescent female with Velocardiofacial syndrome (del(22)(q11.2)) and an epilepsy phenotype resembling juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Clinically, the patient has characteristic signs of both disorders. JME has been linked to several chromosomes, but has not been related to 22q11.2 and is rarely observed in other genetic syndromes. We discuss possible explanations for a relationship between the chromosomal aberration and epilepsy as well as the importance of precise delineation of both epilepsy phenotypes and genetic defects in chromosomal disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2009.07.008DOI Listing
November 2009