Publications by authors named "Stefania Squizzato"

27 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Using a hybrid approach to apportion potential source locations contributing to excess cancer risk of PM-bound PAHs during heating and non-heating periods in a megacity in the Middle East.

Environ Res 2021 Jul 3;201:111617. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali Informatica e Statistica, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia, Venezia, Italy.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent one of the major toxic pollutants associated with PM with significant human health and climate effects. Because of local and long-range transport of atmospheric PAHs to receptor sites, higher global attentions have been focused to improve PAHs pollution emission management. In this study, PM samples were collected at three urban sites located in the capital of Iran, Tehran, during the heating and non-heating periods (H-period and NH-period). The US EPA 16 priority PAHs were analyzed and the data were processed to the following detailed aims: (i) investigate the H-period and NH-period variations of PM and PM-bound PAHs concentrations; (ii) identify the PAHs sources and the source locations during the two periods; (iii) carry out a source-specific excess cancer risk (ECR) assessment highlighting the potential source locations contributing to the ECR using a hybrid approach. Total PAHs (TPAHs) showed significantly higher concentrations (1.56-1.89 times) during the H-period. Among the identified PAHs compounds, statistically significant periodical differences (p-value < 0.05) were observed only between eight PAHs species (Nap, BaA, Chr, BbF, BkF, BaP, IcdP, and DahA) at all three sampling sites which can be due to the significant differences of PAHs emission sources during H and NH-periods. High molecular weight (HMW) PAHs accounted for 52.7% and 46.8% on average of TPAHs during the H-period and NH-period, respectively. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) led to identifying four main PAHs sources including industrial emissions, petrogenic emissions, biomass burning and natural gas emissions, and vehicle exhaust emissions. Industrial and petrogenic emissions exhibited the highest contribution (19.8%, 27.2%, respectively) during the NH-period, while vehicle exhaust and biomass burning-natural gas emissions showed the largest contribution (40.7%, 29.6%, respectively) during the H-period. Concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) on factor contributions was used for tracking the potential locations of the identified sources. In addition to local sources, long-range transport contributed to a significant fraction of TPHAs in Tehran both during the H- and NH-periods. Source-specific carcinogenic risks assessment apportioned vehicle exhaust (44.2%, 2.52 × 10) and biomass burning-natural gas emissions (33.9%, 8.31 × 10) as the main cancer risk contributors during the H-period and NH-period, respectively. CWT maps pointed out the different distribution patterns associated with the cancer risk from the identified sources. This will allow better risk management through the identification of priority PAHs sources.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111617DOI Listing
July 2021

Rapid dark aging of biomass burning as an overlooked source of oxidized organic aerosol.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 12 14;117(52):33028-33033. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences, Foundation for Research & Technology-Hellas, Patras 26504, Greece;

Oxidized organic aerosol (OOA) is a major component of ambient particulate matter, substantially impacting climate, human health, and ecosystems. OOA is readily produced in the presence of sunlight, and requires days of photooxidation to reach the levels observed in the atmosphere. High concentrations of OOA are thus expected in the summer; however, our current mechanistic understanding fails to explain elevated OOA during wintertime periods of low photochemical activity that coincide with periods of intense biomass burning. As a result, atmospheric models underpredict OOA concentrations by a factor of 3 to 5. Here we show that fresh emissions from biomass burning exposed to NO and O (precursors to the NO radical) rapidly form OOA in the laboratory over a few hours and without any sunlight. The extent of oxidation is sensitive to relative humidity. The resulting OOA chemical composition is consistent with the observed OOA in field studies in major urban areas. Additionally, this dark chemical processing leads to significant enhancements in secondary nitrate aerosol, of which 50 to 60% is estimated to be organic. Simulations that include this understanding of dark chemical processing show that over 70% of organic aerosol from biomass burning is substantially influenced by dark oxidation. This rapid and extensive dark oxidation elevates the importance of nocturnal chemistry and biomass burning as a global source of OOA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2010365117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7776776PMC
December 2020

A one-year monitoring of spatiotemporal variations of PM-bound PAHs in Tehran, Iran: Source apportionment, local and regional sources origins and source-specific cancer risk assessment.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 6;274:115883. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Geophysics, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124, Thessaloniki, Greece.

PM-bound PAHs were analyzed in a total of 135 daily samples collected during four seasons from 2018 to 2019, at three urban sites in Tehran, Iran. This study aims to investigate spatio-temporal variations, source apportionment, potential local and regional sources contributions and lung cancer risks associated with the 16 US EPA priority PAHs. PM concentrations ranged from 43.8 to 80.3 μg m with the highest concentrations observed in summer. Total PAHs (TPAHs) concentrations ranged between 24.6 and 38.9 ng m. Autumn period exhibited the highest average concentration (48.3 ng m) followed by winter (29.5 ng m), spring (25.9 ng m) and summer (16.1 ng m). Five PAHs sources were identified by positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis: diesel exhaust, unburned petroleum-petrogenic, industrial, gasoline exhaust and coal/biomass combustion-natural gas emissions, accounting for 22.3%, 15.6%, 7.5%, 30.9%, and 23.6% of TPAHs, respectively. Site-specific bivariate polar (BP) and conditional bivariate probability function (CBPF) plots were computed to assess PM and TPAHs local source locations. CBPF pointed out that TPHAs sources are likely of local origin, showing the highest probability close to the sampling sites associated with low wind speed (<5 m s). The potential source contribution function (PSCF) and the concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) models were applied to investigate the long-range transport of PM and TPAHs. In addition to local sources contributions, Eastern areas were highly related to long-distance transport of PM and the Western areas showed the highest contribution of the total, medium molecular weight (MMW) (4 rings) and high molecular weight (HMW) (5-6 rings) PAHs. The upper bound of incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) via inhalation exposure to PM-bound PAHs was at a moderate risk level (3.14 × 10 to 6.17 × 10).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115883DOI Listing
April 2021

Neurodegenerative hospital admissions and long-term exposure to ambient fine particle air pollution.

Ann Epidemiol 2021 02 30;54:79-86.e4. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY; Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY.

Purpose: Long-term exposure to ambient fine particle (PM) concentrations has been associated with an increased rate or risk of neurodegenerative conditions, but individual PM sources have not been previously examined in relation to neurodegenerative diseases.

Methods: Using the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System database, we studied 63,287 hospital admissions with a primary diagnosis of either Alzheimer's disease, dementia, or Parkinson's disease for New York State residents living within 15 miles from six PM monitoring sites. In addition to PM concentrations, we studied seven specific PM sources: secondary sulfate, secondary nitrate, biomass burning, diesel, spark-ignition emissions, pyrolyzed organic rich, and road dust. We estimated the rate of neurodegenerative hospital admissions associated with increased concentration of PM and individual PM sources average concentrations in the previous 0-29, 0-179, and 0-364 days.

Results: Increases in ambient PM concentrations were not consistently associated with increased hospital admissions rates. Increased source-specific PM2.5 concentrations were associated with both increased (e.g., secondary sulfates and diesel emissions) and decreased rates (e.g., secondary nitrate and spark-ignition vehicular emissions) of neurodegenerative admissions.

Conclusions: We did not observe clear associations between overall ambient PM concentrations or source-apportioned ambient PM contributions and rates of neurologic disease hospitalizations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annepidem.2020.09.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7796937PMC
February 2021

Insights into the anthropogenic load and occupational health risk of heavy metals in floor dust of selected workplaces in an industrial city of Iran.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Nov 12;744:140762. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.

The levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn were determined in floor dusts from mechanical (MRWs) and battery repairing workshops (BRWs) in Yazd, Iran. The study aimed to evaluate the anthropogenic contribution to the presence of heavy metals (HMs), the possible sources and the related risks that could arise from occupational exposure in the studied workplace microenvironments. Among the analyzed heavy metals, Cu, Pb and Zn exhibited enhanced concentrations in the floor dusts. The EF calculations showed an extremely severe enrichment of HMs, especially for Cd, Cu and Pb, while floor dusts were characterized as "extremely polluted" with regards to those metals. In any case, both EF and I values were significantly higher in the BRWs. These results were also supported by NIPI and PLI values, while contour maps of PLI values in both MRWs and BRWs outlined workshops in N-NE part of Yazd as more impacted compared to other spatial locations. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Pearson's correlation outscored workshops activities as the principal sources of heavy metals. The health risk assessment suggested considerable non-carcinogenic risks regarding Pb in the BRWs which exhibited HQ (mean 2.91) and HI (mean 3.03) values higher than safe level. Regarding carcinogenic risks, CR values for both Cd and Cr were below the safe level (1.0 × 10). The occupational exposure to Pb was evaluated through the predicted BLL values, where with averages of 3.33 μg/dl and 21.4 μg/dl for MRWs and BRWs workers, respectively, indicated a severe Pb exposure for BRWs workers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140762DOI Listing
November 2020

Hybrid multiple-site mass closure and source apportionment of PM and aerosol acidity at major cities in the Po Valley.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Feb 24;704:135287. Epub 2019 Nov 24.

Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Informatica e Statistica, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia, IT-30170 Mestre-Venezia, Italy.

This study investigates the major chemical components, particle-bound water content, acidity (pH), and major potential sources of PM in major cities (Belluno, Conegliano, Vicenza, Mestre, Padua, and Rovigo) in the eastern end of the Po Valley. The measured PM mass was reconstructed using a multiple-site hybrid chemical mass closure approach that also accounts for aerosol inorganic water content (AWC) estimated by the ISORROPIA-II model. Annually, organic matter accounted for 31-45% of the PM at all sites, followed by nitrate (10-19%), crustal material (10-14%), sulfate (8-10%), ammonium (5-9%), elemental carbon (4-7%), other inorganic ions (3-4%), and trace elements (0.2-0.3%). Water represented 7-10% of measured PM. The ambient aerosol pH varied from 1.5 to 4.5 with lower values in summer (average in all sites 2.2 ± 0.3) and higher in winter (3.9 ± 0.3). Six major PM sources were quantitatively identified with multiple-site positive matrix factorization: secondary sulfate (34% of PM), secondary nitrate (30%), biomass burning (17%), traffic (11%), re-suspended dust (5%), and fossil fuel combustion (3%). Biomass burning accounted for ~90% of total PAHs. Inorganic aerosol acidity was driven primarily by secondary sulfate, fossil fuel combustion (decreasing pH), secondary nitrate, and biomass burning (increasing pH). Secondary nitrate was the primary driver of the inorganic AWC variability. A concentration-weighted trajectory (multiple-site) analysis was used to identify potential source areas for the various factors and modeled aerosol acidity. Eastern and Central Europe were the main source areas of secondary species. Less acidic aerosol was associated with air masses originating from Northern Europe owing to the elevated presence of the nitrate factor. More acidic particles were observed for air masses traversing the Po Valley and the Mediterranean, possibly due to the higher contributions of fossil fuel combustion factor and the loss of nitric acid due to its interaction with coarse sea-salt particles.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135287DOI Listing
February 2020

Associations between Source-Specific Particulate Matter and Respiratory Infections in New York State Adults.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 01 18;54(2):975-984. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science , Clarkson University , Potsdam , New York 13699 , United States.

The response of respiratory infections to source-specific particulate matter (PM) is an area of active research. Using source-specific PM concentrations at six urban sites in New York State, a case-crossover design, and conditional logistic regression, we examined the association between source-specific PM and the rate of hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits for influenza or culture-negative pneumonia from 2005 to 2016. There were at most = 14 764 influenza hospitalizations, = 57 522 influenza ED visits, = 274 226 culture-negative pneumonia hospitalizations, and = 113 997 culture-negative pneumonia ED visits included in our analyses. We separately estimated the rate of respiratory infection associated with increased concentrations of source-specific PM, including secondary sulfate (SS), secondary nitrate (SN), biomass burning (BB), pyrolyzed organic carbon (OP), road dust (RD), residual oil (RO), diesel (DIE), and spark ignition vehicle emissions (GAS). Increased rates of ED visits for influenza were associated with interquartile range increases in concentrations of GAS (excess rate [ER] = 9.2%; 95% CI: 4.3%, 14.3%) and DIE (ER = 3.9%; 95% CI: 1.1%, 6.8%) for lag days 0-3. There were similar associations between BB, SS, OP, and RO, and ED visits or hospitalizations for influenza, but not culture-negative pneumonia hospitalizations or ED visits. Short-term increases in PM from traffic and other combustion sources appear to be a potential risk factor for increased rates of influenza hospitalizations and ED visits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b04295DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6978840PMC
January 2020

Changes in the hospitalization and ED visit rates for respiratory diseases associated with source-specific PM in New York State from 2005 to 2016.

Environ Res 2020 02 11;181:108912. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA; Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA; Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA.

Prior work found increased rates for emergency department (ED) visits for asthma and hospitalizations for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease per unit mass of PM across New York State (NYS) during 2014-2016 after significant reductions in ambient PM concentrations had occurred following implementation of various policy actions and major economic disruptions. The associations of source-specific PM concentrations with these respiratory diseases were assessed with a time-stratified case-cossover design and logistic regression models to identify the changes in the PM that have led to the apparently increased toxicity per unit mass. The rates of ED visits and hospitalizations for asthma and COPD associated with increases in source-specific PM concentrations in the prior 1, 4, and 7 days were estimated for 6 urban sites in New York State. Overall, there were similar numbers of significantly increased (n = 9) and decreased rates (n = 8) of respiratory events (asthma and COPD hospitalizations and ED visits) associated with increased source-specific PM concentrations in the previous 1, 4, and 7 days. Associations of source-specific PM concentrations with excess rates of hospitalizations for COPD for spark- and compression ignition vehicles increased in the 2014-2016 period, but the values were not statistically significant. Other source types showed inconsistent patterns of excess rates. For asthma ED visits, only biomass burning and road dust showed consistent positive associations with road dust having significant values for most lag times. Secondary nitrate also showed significant positive associations with asthma ED visits in the AFTER period compared to no associations in the prior periods. These results suggest that the relationships of asthma and COPD exacerbation with source-specific PM are not well defined and further work will be needed to determine the causes of the apparent increases in the per unit mass toxicity of PM in New York State in the 2014-16 period.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.108912DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6982568PMC
February 2020

Correction to: Term birth weight and ambient air pollutant concentrations during pregnancy, among women living in Monroe County, New York.

J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2020 Sep;30(5):899

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41370-019-0169-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8095271PMC
September 2020

Changes in triggering of ST-elevation myocardial infarction by particulate air pollution in Monroe County, New York over time: a case-crossover study.

Environ Health 2019 09 6;18(1):82. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA.

Background: Previous studies have reported that fine particle (PM) concentrations triggered ST elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI). In Rochester, NY, multiple air quality policies and economic changes/influences from 2008 to 2013 led to decreased concentrations of PM and its major constituents (SO, NO, elemental and primary organic carbon). This study examined whether the rate of STEMI associated with increased ambient gaseous and PM component concentrations was different AFTER these air quality policies and economic changes (2014-2016), compared to DURING (2008-2013) and BEFORE these polices and changes (2005-2007).

Methods: Using 921 STEMIs treated at the University of Rochester Medical Center (2005-2016) and a case-crossover design, we examined whether the rate of STEMI associated with increased PM, ultrafine particles (UFP, < 100 nm), accumulation mode particles (AMP, 100-500 nm), black carbon, SO, CO, and O concentrations in the previous 1-72 h was modified by the time period related to these pollutant source changes (BEFORE, DURING, AFTER).

Results: Each interquartile range (3702 particles/cm) increase in UFP concentration in the previous 1 h was associated with a 12% (95% CI = 3%, 22%) increase in the rate of STEMI. The effect size was larger in the AFTER period (26%) than the DURING (5%) or BEFORE periods (9%). There were similar patterns for black carbon and SO.

Conclusions: An increased rate of STEMI associated with UFP and other pollutant concentrations was higher in the AFTER period compared to the BEFORE and DURING periods. This may be due to changes in PM composition (e.g. higher secondary organic carbon and particle bound reactive oxygen species) following these air quality policies and economic changes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12940-019-0521-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6728968PMC
September 2019

Changes in the acute response of respiratory diseases to PM in New York State from 2005 to 2016.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Aug 26;677:328-339. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States of America; Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States of America; Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States of America.

Prior studies reported that exposure to increased concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM) were associated with increased rates of hospitalization and emergency department (ED) visits for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study, rates were examined from 2005 to 2016 using a case-crossover design to ascertain if there have been changes in the rates per unit mass exposure given substantial reductions in PM concentration and changes in its composition. PM concentrations were reduced through a combination of policies designed to improve air quality and economic drivers, including the 2008 economic recession and shifts in the relative costs of coal and natural gas. The study period was split into three periods reflecting that much of the emissions changes occurred between 2008 and 2013. Thus, the three periods were defined as: BEFORE (2005 to 2007), DURING (2008-2013), and AFTER (2014-2016). In general, the number of hospitalizations and ED visits declined with the decreased concentration of PM. However, the rate of COPD hospitalizations and asthma ED visits associated with each interquartile range increase in ambient PM concentration was larger in the AFTER period than the DURING and BEFORE periods. For example, each 6.8 μg/m increase in PM on the same day was associated with 0.4% (0.0%, 0.8%), 0.3% (-0.2%, 0.7%), and 2.7% (1.9%, 3.5) increases in the rate of asthma emergency department visits in the BEFORE, DURING, and AFTER periods, respectively, suggesting the same mass concentration of PM was more toxic in the AFTER period.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.357DOI Listing
August 2019

Term birth weight and ambient air pollutant concentrations during pregnancy, among women living in Monroe County, New York.

J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2019 06 2;29(4):500-509. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA.

Increased ambient air pollutant concentrations during pregnancy have been associated with reduced birth weight, but the etiologically relevant pregnancy time window(s) is/are unclear. In 76,500 singleton births in Monroe County, NY (2005-2016), who were 37-42 gestational weeks at delivery, we used generalized linear models to regress term birth weight against mean gestational month pollutant concentrations, adjusting for mean temperature, and maternal, infant, and medical service use characteristics. Overall, there were no clear patterns of term birth weight change associated with increased concentrations of any pollutant across gestational months. However, among Hispanic women only, increases in all pollutants, except O, in multiple gestational months, were associated with decreased term birth weight. Each 3.25 µg/m increase in PM concentration in the 6 gestational month was associated with a -20.4 g (95% CI = -34.0, -6.8) reduction in term birth weight among Hispanic women, but a 4.1 g (95% CI = -2.5, 10.8) increase among non-Hispanic mothers (p for interaction < 0.001). Although ambient air pollutant concentrations during pregnancy were not associated with reduced term birth weight among women of all ethnicities living in Monroe County, this observed association in Hispanic mothers may be a result of less exposure misclassification and bias (due to closer residential proximity to the monitoring site).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41370-019-0131-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6592743PMC
June 2019

Spatial-temporal variations of summertime ozone concentrations across a metropolitan area using a network of low-cost monitors to develop 24 hourly land-use regression models.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Mar 10;654:1167-1178. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, United States; Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699, United States. Electronic address:

Ten relatively-low-cost ozone monitors (Aeroqual Series 500 with OZL ozone sensor) were deployed to assess the spatial and temporal variability of ambient ozone concentrations across residential areas in the Monroe County, New York from June to October 2017. The monitors were calibrated in the laboratory and then deployed to a local air quality monitoring site where they were compared to the federal equivalent method values. These correlations were used to correct the measured ozone concentrations. The values were also used to develop hourly land use regression models (LUR) based on the deletion/substitution/addition (D/S/A) algorithm that can be used to predict the spatial and temporal concentrations of ozone at any hour of a summertime day and given location in Monroe County. Adjusted R values were high (average 0.83) with the highest adjusted R for the model between 8 and 9 AM (i.e. 1-2 h after the peak of primary emissions during the morning rush hours). Spatial predictors with the highest positive effects on ozone estimates were high intensity developed areas, low and medium intensity developed areas, forests + shrubs, average elevation, Interstate + highways, and the annual average vehicular daily traffic counts. These predictors are associated with potential emissions of anthropogenic and biogenic precursors. Maps developed from the models exhibited reasonable spatial and temporal patterns, with low ozone concentrations overnight and the highest concentrations between 11 AM and 5 PM. The adjusted R between the model predictions and the measured values varied between 0.79 and 0.87 (mean = 0.83). The combined use of the network of low-cost monitors and LUR modeling provide useful estimates of intraurban ozone variability and exposure estimates that will be used in future epidemiological studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.11.111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6407642PMC
March 2019

Triggering of cardiovascular hospital admissions by source specific fine particle concentrations in urban centers of New York State.

Environ Int 2019 05 28;126:387-394. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, 265 Crittenden Boulevard, Rochester, NY 14642, USA; Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Clarkson University, Box 5708, Potsdam, NY 13699, USA.

Background: Previous work reported increased rates of acute cardiovascular hospitalizations associated with increased PM concentrations in the previous few days across urban centers in New York State from 2005 to 2016. These relative rates were higher after air quality policies and economic changes resulted in decreased PM concentrations and changes in PM composition (e.g. increased secondary organic carbon), compared to before and during these changes. Changes in PM composition and sources may explain this difference.

Objectives: To estimate the rate of acute cardiovascular hospitalizations associated with increases in source specific PM concentrations.

Methods: Using source apportioned PM concentrations at the same NYS urban sites, a time-stratified case-crossover design, and conditional logistic regression models adjusting for ambient temperature and relative humidity, we estimated the rate of these acute cardiovascular hospitalizations associated with increases in mean source specific PM concentrations in the previous 1, 4, and 7 days.

Results: Interquartile range (IQR) increases in spark-ignition emissions (GAS) concentrations were associated with increased excess rates of cardiac arrhythmia hospitalizations (2.3%; 95% CI = 0.4%, 4.2%; IQR = 2.56 μg/m) and ischemic stroke hospitalizations (3.7%; 95% CI = 1.1%, 6.4%; 2. 73 μg/m) over the next day. IQR increases in diesel (DIE) concentrations were associated with increased rates of congestive heart failure hospitalizations (0.7%; 95% CI = 0.2% 1.3%; 0.51 μg/m) and ischemic heart disease hospitalizations (0.8%; 95% CI = 0.3%, 1.3%; 0.60 μg/m) over the next day, as hypothesized. However, secondary sulfate PM (SS) was not. Increased acute cardiovascular hospitalization rates were also associated with IQR increases in concentrations of road dust (RD), residual oil (RO), and secondary nitrate (SN) over the previous 1, 4, and 7 days, but not other sources.

Conclusions: These findings suggest a role of several sources of PM in New York State (i.e. traffic emissions, non-traffic emissions such as brake and tire wear, residual oil, and nitrate that may also reflect traffic emissions) in the triggering of acute cardiovascular events.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.02.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441620PMC
May 2019

The Association between Respiratory Infection and Air Pollution in the Setting of Air Quality Policy and Economic Change.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2019 03;16(3):321-330

1 Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine.

Rationale: Fine particulate matter air pollution of 2.5 μm or less in diameter (PM) has been associated with an increased risk of respiratory disease, but assessments of specific respiratory infections in adults are lacking.

Objectives: To estimate the rate of respiratory infection healthcare encounters in adults associated with acute increases in PM concentrations.

Methods: Using case-crossover methods, we studied 498,118 adult New York State residents with a primary diagnosis of influenza, bacterial pneumonia, or culture-negative pneumonia upon hospitalization or emergency department (ED) visit (2005-2016). We estimated the relative rate of healthcare encounters associated with increases in PM in the previous 1-7 days and explored differences before (2005-2007), during (2008-2013), and after (2014-2016) implementation of air quality policies and economic changes.

Results: Interquartile range increases in PM over the previous 7 days were associated with increased excess rates (ERs) of culture-negative pneumonia hospitalizations (2.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-3.2%) and ED visits (2.5%; 95% CI, 1.4-3.6%), and increased ERs of influenza ED visits (3.9%; 95% CI, 2.1-5.6%). Bacterial pneumonia hospitalizations, but not ED visits, were associated with increases in PM and, though imprecise, were of a similar magnitude to culture-negative pneumonia (Lag Day 6 ER, 2.3%; 95% CI, 0.3-4.3). Increased relative rates of influenza ED visits and culture-negative pneumonia hospitalizations were generally larger in the "after" period (P < 0.025 for both outcomes), compared with the "during" period, despite reductions in overall PM concentrations.

Conclusions: Increased rates of culture-negative pneumonia and influenza were associated with increased PM concentrations during the previous week, which persisted despite reductions in PM from air quality policies and economic changes. Though unexplained, this temporal variation may reflect altered toxicity of different PM mixtures or increased pathogen virulence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.201810-691OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6394122PMC
March 2019

Triggering of cardiovascular hospital admissions by fine particle concentrations in New York state: Before, during, and after implementation of multiple environmental policies and a recession.

Environ Pollut 2018 Nov 11;242(Pt B):1404-1416. Epub 2018 Aug 11.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA; Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA; Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Previous studies reported triggering of acute cardiovascular events by short-term increasedPM concentrations. From 2007 to 2013, national and New York state air quality policies and economic influences resulted in reduced concentrations of PM and other pollutants across the state. We estimated the rate of cardiovascular hospital admissions associated with increased PM concentrations in the previous 1-7 days, and evaluated whether they differed before (2005-2007), during (2008-2013), and after these concentration changes (2014-2016).

Methods: Using the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) database, we retained all hospital admissions with a primary diagnosis of nine cardiovascular disease (CVD) subtypes, for residents living within 15 miles of PM monitoring sites in Buffalo, Rochester, Albany, Queens, Bronx, and Manhattan from 2005 to 2016 (N = 1,922,918). We used a case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression to estimate the admission rate for total CVD, and nine specific subtypes, associated with increased PM concentrations.

Results: Interquartile range (IQR) increases in PM on the same and previous 6 days were associated with 0.6%-1.2% increases in CVD admission rate (2005-2016). There were similar patterns for cardiac arrhythmia, ischemic stroke, congestive heart failure, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and myocardial infarction (MI). Ambient PM concentrations and annual total CVD admission rates decreased across the period. However, the excess rate of IHD admissions associated with each IQR increase in PM in previous 2 days was larger in the after period (2.8%; 95%CI = 1.5%-4.0%) than in the during (0.6%; 95%CI = 0.0%-1.2%) or before periods (0.8%; 95%CI = 0.2%-1.3%), with similar patterns for total CVD and MI, but not other subtypes.

Conclusions: While pollutant concentrations and CVD admission rates decreased after emission changes, the same PM mass was associated with a higher rate of ischemic heart disease events. Future work should confirm these findings in another population, and investigate whether specific PM components and/or sources trigger IHD events.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.08.030DOI Listing
November 2018

Evaluation and Field Calibration of a Low-Cost Ozone Monitor at a Regulatory Urban Monitoring Station.

Aerosol Air Qual Res 2018 Aug 27;18(8):2029-2037. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642.

The performance of a low cost ozone monitor (Aeroqual Series 500 portable gas monitors using a metal oxide sensor for ozone; model OZL) was assessed under field conditions. Ten ozone monitors were calibrated under clean-air laboratory conditions and controlled ozone concentrations of 5 to 100 ppb. Good linearity and response were obtained relative to a research-grade ozone monitor. One monitor was co-located at a regulatory air quality monitoring station that uses a U.S. federal equivalent method (FEM) ozone analyzer. Raw data from the Aeroqual monitor collected over 4 months (June-October) at a 10-minute time-resolution, showed good agreement (r=0.83) with the FEM values but with an overestimation of ~12%. Data were averaged to different time resolutions; 1 h time averaged concentrations showed the best fit with the FEM results (r=0.87). Data analyses suggested the potential of interferences due to temperature, relative humidity, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds. Correction models using temperature, humidity, and nitrogen dioxide (NO) were tested to relate the monitor concentrations to the FEM values. Temperature and humidity were two readily available variables. The model (#3) that added NO did not provide a substantial improvement in the fit. Thus, the models with only temperature and humidity can be easily developed by any user. The best model explained 91% of the variance and showed statistically significant improvement of the goodness of fits as well as decreased influence of the interfering variables on the diurnal and weekly patterns. The correction models were also able to lower the effect of seasonal temperature changes, allowing the use of the monitors over long-term sampling campaigns. Thus, the Aeroqual ozone monitor can return "FEM-like" concentrations after appropriate corrections. Data provided by a network of monitors could provide intra-urban spatial variations in ozone concentrations and provide more accurate human exposure assessments by reducing exposure misclassification.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2018.02.0056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7518407PMC
August 2018

Long-term trends in submicron particle concentrations in a metropolitan area of the northeastern United States.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Aug 21;633:59-70. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, United States; Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699, United States. Electronic address:

Significant changes in emission sources have occurred in the northeastern United States over the past decade, due in part to the implementation of emissions standards, the introduction and addition of abatement technologies for road transport, changes in fuel sulfur content for road and non-road transport, as well as economic impacts of a major recession and differential fuel prices. These changes in emission scenarios likely affected the concentrations of airborne submicron particles. This study investigated the characteristics of 11-500nm particle number concentrations and their size spectra in Rochester, NY during the past 15years (2002 to 2016). The modal structure, diurnal, weekly and monthly patterns of particle number concentrations are analyzed. Long-term trends are quantified using seasonal-trend decomposition procedures based on "Loess", Mann-Kendall regression with Theil-Sen slope and piecewise regression. Particle concentrations underwent significant (p<0.05) downward trends. An annual decrease of -323particles/cm/y (-4.6%/y) was estimated for the total particle number concentration using Theil-Sen analysis. The trends were driven mainly by the decrease in particles in the 11-50nm range (-181particles/cm/y; -4.7%/y). Slope changes were investigated annually and seasonally. Piecewise regression found different slopes for different portions of the overall period with the strongest declines between 2005 and 2011/2013, followed by small upward trends between 2013 and 2016 for most size bins, possibly representing increased vehicular traffic after the recovery from the 2008 recession.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.03.151DOI Listing
August 2018

A procedure to evaluate the factors determining the elemental composition of PM. Case study: the Veneto region (northeastern Italy).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Feb 24;25(4):3823-3839. Epub 2017 Nov 24.

Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali Informatica e Statistica, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia Campus Scientifico, Via Torino 155, 30172, Mestre, VE, Italy.

The Po Valley is one of the most important hot spots in Europe for air pollution. Morphological features and anthropogenic pressures lead to frequent breaching of air quality standards and to high-pollution episodes in an ~46 × 10-km-wide alluvial lowland. Therefore, it is increasingly important to study the air quality in a wide geographical scale to better implement possible and successful mitigation measures. The Veneto region lies in the eastern part of the Po Valley and the elemental composition of PM has been mainly studied in the Venice area, whereas scarce data are available for the remaining territory of the region. In this study, the elemental composition of PM was investigated over 1 year (2012-2013) at six major cities of the Veneto region. Samples were analyzed for 16 elements (Ca, Al, Fe, S, K, Mg, Ti, Mn, Zn, Ba, As, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, and Cu), and results were processed to investigate spatial and seasonal variations, the influence of meteorological factors, and the most probable sources by using a procedure based on (i) elemental ratios (Cu/Sb, Cu/Zn, Cu/Pb, Mn/V, V/Ni, and Zn/Pb), (ii) cluster analysis on wind data, and (iii) conditional probability function (CPF). The percentage of elements in PM ranged between 11 and 20%, and Ca and S were the most abundant elements in the region. Typical seasonal variations and similar trends were exhibited by each element, especially in the lowland. Some elements such as Zn, K, Mn, Pb, and Sb were found at high concentrations during the cold period. However, no similar dispersion processes were observed throughout the region, and their concentrations were mostly depending on individual local sources. In the alpine and foothill parts of the region, lower concentrations were recorded with respect to the Po Valley cities, which resulted enriched of most of the elements considered in this study. The cluster analysis on wind data and the CPF of the ratio-related sources demonstrated that a widespread pollution condition exists in the region, apart from the coastal area. However, specific directions (e.g., a link with high-traffic roads, industrial areas, and airports) resulted the most probable explanation for each ratio-related source. In addition, the Veneto region hosts one of the most important Mediterranean ports for the cruise sector (Venice harbor), and its impact was previously demonstrated in the historical city center. In this study, the impact of Venice shipping emissions was estimated to be 3.5% of PM in some particular days.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0759-7DOI Listing
February 2018

Influence of seasonality, air mass origin and particulate matter chemical composition on airborne bacterial community structure in the Po Valley, Italy.

Sci Total Environ 2017 Sep 28;593-594:677-687. Epub 2017 Mar 28.

Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences (DISAT), University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano, Italy.

The integration of chemical and biological data in aerosol studies represents a new challenge in atmospheric science. In this perspective it will be possible to gain a clearer and deeper comprehension of biogeochemical cycles in the atmosphere. In this view, this study aimed to investigate the relationships occurring between bacterial populations and PM chemical composition in one of the most polluted and urbanized areas in Europe: the Po Valley (Italy). Moreover, seasonality, long- and short-range transports were also evaluated to investigate the influence on airborne bacterial communities. PM samples were collected in two cities of the Po Valley (Milan and Venice) characterized by different meteorological conditions and atmospheric pollutant sources. Samples were analysed for water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) and bacterial community structure. Chemical and biological data were jointly processed by using redundancy discriminate analysis (RDA), while the influence of atmospheric circulation was evaluated by using wind ground data and back-trajectories analysis. Results showed strong seasonal shifts of bacterial community structure in both cities, while a different behaviour was observed for air mass circulation at Milan ad Venice sites: long-range transport significantly affected bacterial populations in Milan whereas local ground wind had more influence in the Venice area. Moreover, difference in taxonomic composition can be mostly addressed to the characteristics of sampling sites. This evidence could suggest that, while PM composition is influenced by long-range transport, bacterial populations are affected, besides transport, by other factors (i.e., season and sampling site location). This perspective allow to better understand and explain airborne bacterial community behaviour.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.03.199DOI Listing
September 2017

Estimation of local and external contributions of biomass burning to PM in an industrial zone included in a large urban settlement.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Jan 3;24(2):2100-2115. Epub 2016 Nov 3.

Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Informatica e Statistica, Università Ca' Foscari, Via Torino 155, 30172, Venezia Mestre, Italy.

A total of 85 PM samples were collected at a site located in a large industrial zone (Porto Marghera, Venice, Italy) during a 1-year-long sampling campaign. Samples were analyzed to determine water-soluble inorganic ions, elemental and organic carbon, and levoglucosan, and results were processed to investigate the seasonal patterns, the relationship between the analyzed species, and the most probable sources by using a set of tools, including (i) conditional probability function (CPF), (ii) conditional bivariate probability function (CBPF), (iii) concentration weighted trajectory (CWT), and (iv) potential source contribution function (PSCF) analyses. Furthermore, the importance of biomass combustions to PM was also estimated. Average PM concentrations ranged between 54 and 16 μg m in the cold and warm period, respectively. The mean value of total ions was 11 μg m (range 1-46 μg m): The most abundant ion was nitrate with a share of 44 % followed by sulfate (29 %), ammonium (14 %), potassium (4 %), and chloride (4 %). Levoglucosan accounted for 1.2 % of the PM mass, and its concentration ranged from few ng m in warm periods to 2.66 μg m during winter. Average concentrations of levoglucosan during the cold period were higher than those found in other European urban sites. This result may indicate a great influence of biomass combustions on particulate matter pollution. Elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC) showed similar behavior, with the highest contributions during cold periods and lower during summer. The ratios between biomass burning indicators (K, Cl, NO, SO, levoglucosan, EC, and OC) were used as proxy for the biomass burning estimation, and the contribution to the OC and PM was also calculated by using the levoglucosan (LG)/OC and LG/PM ratios and was estimated to be 29 and 18 %, respectively.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-7987-0DOI Listing
January 2017

Air quality across a European hotspot: Spatial gradients, seasonality, diurnal cycles and trends in the Veneto region, NE Italy.

Sci Total Environ 2017 Jan 24;576:210-224. Epub 2016 Oct 24.

Dipartimento di Matematica, Università degli Studi di Trento, via Sommarive 14, Povo, Trento, Italy.

The Veneto region (NE Italy) lies in the eastern part of the Po Valley, a European hotspot for air pollution. Data for key air pollutants (CO, NO, NO, O, SO, PM and PM) measured over 7years (2008/2014) across 43 sites in Veneto were processed to characterise their spatial and temporal patterns and assess the air quality. Nitrogen oxides, PM and ozone are critical pollutants frequently breaching the EC limit and target values. Intersite analysis demonstrates a widespread pollution across the region and shows that primary pollutants (nitrogen oxides, CO, PM) are significantly higher in cities and over the flat lands due to higher anthropogenic pressures. The spatial variation of air pollutants at rural sites was then mapped to depict the gradient of background pollution: nitrogen oxides are higher in the plain area due to the presence of strong diffuse anthropogenic sources, while ozone increases toward the mountains probably due to the higher levels of biogenic ozone-precursors and low NO emissions which are not sufficient to titrate out the photochemical O. Data-depth classification analysis revealed a poor categorization among urban, traffic and industrial sites: weather and urban planning factors may cause a general homogeneity of air pollution within cities driving this poor classification. Seasonal and diurnal cycles were investigated: the effect of primary sources in populated areas is evident throughout the region and drives similar patterns for most pollutants: road traffic appears the predominant potential source shaping the daily cycles. Trend analysis of experimental data reveals a general decrease of air pollution across the region, which agrees well with changes assessed by emission inventories. This study provides key information on air quality across NE Italy and highlights future research needs and possible developments of the regional monitoring network.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.10.042DOI Listing
January 2017

The size distribution of chemical elements of atmospheric aerosol at a semi-rural coastal site in Venice (Italy). The role of atmospheric circulation.

Chemosphere 2015 Jan 24;119:400-406. Epub 2014 Jul 24.

Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Informatica e Statistica, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice, Italy.

The concentrations of selected elemental tracers were determined in the aerosol of a semi-rural coastal site near Venice (Italy). Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected using an 8-stage cascade impactor set at 15m above ground, during the cold season (late autumn and winter), when high levels of many pollutants are known to cause risks for human health. From the experimental data, information was extracted on potential pollutant sources by investigating the relationships between elements in the different size fractions. Moreover, an approach to highlight the importance of local atmospheric circulation and air mass origin in influencing the PM composition and fractional distribution is proposed. Anthropogenic elements are strongly inter-correlated in the submicrometric (<1 μm) (S, K, Mn, Cu, Fe and Zn) and intermediate mode (1-4 μm) (Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni) and their relationships highlight the presence of several sources (combustions, secondary aerosol, road traffic). In the intermediate mode, associations having geochemical significance exist between marine (Na, Cl and Mg) and crustal (Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Ti and K) elements. In the coarse mode (>4 μm) Fe and Zn are well correlated and are probably linked to tire and brake wear emissions. Regarding atmospheric circulation, results show increasing levels of elements related to pollution sources (S, K, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn) when air masses come from Central and Eastern Europe direction and on the ground wind blows from NWN-N-NE (from mainland Venice). Low wind speed and high percentage of wind calm hours favor element accumulation in the submicrometric and intermediate modes. Furthermore, strong winds favor the formation of sea-spray and the increase of Si in the coarse mode due to the resuspension of sand fine particles.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.06.086DOI Listing
January 2015

The PM2.5 chemical composition in an industrial zone included in a large urban settlement: main sources and local background.

Environ Sci Process Impacts 2014 Aug;16(8):1913-22

Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Informatica e Statistica, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venice, Italy.

Chemical analyses, receptor modeling and meteorological data were combined to determine the composition and sources of PM2.5 sampled daily in a large area in Italy characterized by a high number of heterogeneous industrial emissions and contiguous to a major urban center. The PM2.5 local background in the area, i.e. the common basic composition and concentrations of PM2.5, was determined. Factor analysis-multiple linear regression analysis (FA-MLRA) was used to identify and quantify the main PM sources. Groups of samples with similar source contributions were then sorted using cluster analysis. The potential source location and the influence of long range transport were investigated by using the conditional probability function (CPF) and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) respectively. On an annual basis, five sources of PM were found relevant. Industrial emissions accounted for 3% of PM mass, whereas the main contribution to PM was related to a combination of ammonium nitrate, combustion (54%) and road traffic (36%), mainly related to urban emissions. The PM2.5 background was estimated to account for 20 μg m(-3). It comprises contributions of 55% ammonium nitrate and combustion, 46% road traffic, 6% fossil fuel combustion and 3% industrial emissions. Source contributions are influenced by both local atmospheric circulation and regional transport.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4em00111gDOI Listing
August 2014

Using a photochemical model to assess the horizontal, vertical and time distribution of PM(2.5) in a complex area: relationships between the regional and local sources and the meteorological conditions.

Sci Total Environ 2013 Jan 7;443:681-91. Epub 2012 Dec 7.

Department of Environmental Science, Informatics and Statistics, University Cá Foscari Venice, Calle Larga Santa Marta 2137, Dorsoduro 30123 Venezia, Italy.

A photochemical transport model has been implemented to assess the PM(2.5) spatial and temporal distribution in Venice-Mestre. This is a large city of the eastern Po Valley, which is recognized having among the highest levels of many air pollutants in Europe. This study is a first attempt to evaluate PM(2.5) distribution in such a complex ecosystem strongly affected by several different environments (the adjacent Alps, the lagoon and the sea) that create a spatial discontinuity of climate. Model performance was tested with experimental results. Samples have been collected in three sites representative of different emission characteristics. A second simulation was performed with clean boundary conditions to check the influence of the background concentrations on the study domain. Local and regional contributions were found to be strongly dependent on seasonal conditions and on local meteorology. A further analysis was conducted to predict the PM(2.5) distribution with respect to air mass movements. The non-homogeneity of surfaces affects the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) behavior. This consequently influences the vertical distribution of PM(2.5) especially during cold seasons and on occasion of particular meteorological events.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.11.047DOI Listing
January 2013

GC-MS analyses and chemometric processing to discriminate the local and long-distance sources of PAHs associated to atmospheric PM2.5.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2012 Sep 8;19(8):3142-51. Epub 2012 Aug 8.

Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Informatica e Statistica, Università Ca' Foscari, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venezia, Italy.

Purpose: This study presents a procedure to differentiate the local and remote sources of particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

Methods: Data were collected during an extended PM(2.5) sampling campaign (2009-2010) carried out for 1 year in Venice-Mestre, Italy, at three stations with different emissive scenarios: urban, industrial, and semirural background. Diagnostic ratios and factor analysis were initially applied to point out the most probable sources. In a second step, the areal distribution of the identified sources was studied by applying the discriminant analysis on factor scores. Third, samples collected in days with similar atmospheric circulation patterns were grouped using a cluster analysis on wind data. Local contributions to PM(2.5) and PAHs were then assessed by interpreting cluster results with chemical data.

Results: Results evidenced that significantly lower levels of PM(2.5) and PAHs were found when faster winds changed air masses, whereas in presence of scarce ventilation, locally emitted pollutants were trapped and concentrations increased. This way, an estimation of pollutant loads due to local sources can be derived from data collected in days with similar wind patterns. Long-range contributions were detected by a cluster analysis on the air mass back-trajectories. Results revealed that PM(2.5) concentrations were relatively high when air masses had passed over the Po Valley. However, external sources do not significantly contribute to the PAHs load.

Conclusions: The proposed procedure can be applied to other environments with minor modifications, and the obtained information can be useful to design local and national air pollution control strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-012-0858-4DOI Listing
September 2012

Characterization of PM10 sources in a coastal area near Venice (Italy): an application of factor-cluster analysis.

Chemosphere 2010 Aug 9;80(7):771-8. Epub 2010 Jun 9.

Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venezia, Italy.

In this study a factor-cluster analysis (FCA) applied to chemical composition of atmospheric particulate matter was carried out. Relating specific wind data and back-trajectories to the daily samples grouped using FCA can be useful in atmospheric pollution studies to identify polluting sources and better interpret source apportionment results. The elemental composition and water soluble inorganic ions content of PM(10) were determined in a coastal site near Venice during the sea/land breeze season. From the factor analysis four sources were identified: mineral dust, road traffic, fossil fuels and marine aerosol. From a hierarchical cluster analysis, applied on the factor scores, samples with a similar source profile were grouped. Five clusters were identified: four with samples highly characterized by one identified source, one interpreted as general background pollution. Finally, by interpreting cluster results with wind direction data and back-trajectory analysis further detailed information was obtained on potential source locations and possible links between meteorological conditions and PM(10) chemical composition variations were detected. The proposed approach can be useful for air quality assessment studies and PM(10) reduction strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.05.008DOI Listing
August 2010
-->