Publications by authors named "Stefania Salardi"

9 Publications

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Acquired Complement Regulatory Gene Mutations and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant-Related Thrombotic Microangiopathy.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2017 Sep 15;23(9):1580-1582. Epub 2017 May 15.

Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milano, Italy.

Hematopoietic stem cell transplant-related thrombotic microangiopathy (HSCT-TMA) is a severe complication whose pathophysiology is unknown. We describe 6 patients in which the disease was associated with complement regulatory gene abnormalities received from their respective donors. It is suggested that mutated and transplanted monocyte-derived cells are responsible for production of abnormal proteins, complement dysregulation, and, ultimately, for the disease. This observation might have important drawbacks as far as HSCT-TMA pathophysiology and treatment are concerned.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.05.013DOI Listing
September 2017

Early Volume Expansion and Outcomes of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome.

Pediatrics 2016 Jan 7;137(1). Epub 2015 Dec 7.

Unit of Microbiology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy;

Background: Hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC-HUS) is a severe acute illness without specific treatment except supportive care; fluid management is concentrated on preventing fluid overload for patients, who are often oligoanuric. Hemoconcentration at onset is associated with more severe disease, but the benefits of volume expansion after hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) onset have not been explored.

Methods: All the children with STEC-HUS referred to our center between 2012 and 2014 received intravenous infusion targeted at inducing an early volume expansion (+10% of working weight) to restore circulating volume and reduce ischemic or hypoxic tissue damage. The short- and long-term outcomes of these patients were compared with those of 38 historical patients referred to our center during the years immediately before, when fluid intake was routinely restricted.

Results: Patients undergoing fluid infusion soon after diagnosis showed a mean increase in body weight of 12.5% (vs 0%), had significantly better short-term outcomes with a lower rate of central nervous system involvement (7.9% vs 23.7%, P = .06), had less need for renal replacement therapy (26.3% vs 57.9%, P = .01) or intensive care support (2.0 vs. 8.5 days, P = .02), and needed fewer days of hospitalization (9.0 vs 12.0 days, P = .03). Long-term outcomes were also significantly better in terms of renal and extrarenal sequelae (13.2% vs 39.5%, P = .01).

Conclusions: Patients with STEC-HUS had great benefit from early volume expansion. It is speculated that early and generous fluid infusions can reduce thrombus formation and ischemic organ damage, thus having positive effects on both short- and long-term disease outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2015-2153DOI Listing
January 2016

Epidemiology of haemolytic uremic syndrome in children. Data from the North Italian HUS network.

Eur J Pediatr 2016 Apr 24;175(4):465-73. Epub 2015 Oct 24.

Center for Prevention, Control and Management of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milano, Italy.

Unlabelled: Despite the severity of HUS and the fact that it represents a leading cause of acute kidney injury in children, the general epidemiology of HUS is all but well documented. The present study provides updated, population-based, purely epidemiological information on HUS in childhood from a large and densely populated area of northern Italy (9.6 million inhabitants, 1.6 million children). We systematically reviewed the files concerning patients with STEC-HUS and atypical HUS (aHUS) over a 10-year observation period (January 2003-December 2012). We included all incident cases with a documented first episode of HUS before the age of 18 years. We identified 101 cases of HUS during the 10 years. The overall mean annual incidence was 6.3 cases/million children aged <18 years (range 1.9-11.9), and 15.7/million of age-related population (MARP) among subjects aged <5 years; aHUS accounted for 11.9 % of the cases (mean incidence 0.75/MARP). The overall case fatality rate was 4.0 % (3.4 % STEC-HUS, 8.3 % aHUS).

Conclusion: Given the public health impact of HUS, this study provides recent, population-based epidemiological data useful for healthcare planning and particularly for estimating the financial burden that healthcare providers might have to face in treating HUS, whose incidence rate seems to increase in Northern Italy.

What Is Known: • HUS is a rare disease, but it represents the leading cause of acute kidney injury in children worldwide. • STEC-HUS (also called typical, D + HUS) is more common compared to atypical HUS, but recent, population-based epidemiological data (incidence) are scanty. What is New: • Comprehensive, population-based epidemiological data concerning both typical and atypical HUS based on a long observational period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-015-2642-1DOI Listing
April 2016

Discontinuation of eculizumab treatment in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome: an update.

Am J Kidney Dis 2015 Jul;66(1):172-3

Center for HUS Control, Prevention and Management, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2015.04.010DOI Listing
July 2015

Hemoconcentration: a major risk factor for neurological involvement in hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Pediatr Nephrol 2015 Feb 23;30(2):345-52. Epub 2014 Aug 23.

Center for HUS Control, Prevention and Management, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Via Commenda 9, 20122, Milan, Italy,

Background: Shigatoxin-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (STEC-HUS) is a common thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) in which central nervous system (CNS) involvement is responsible for the majority of deaths and for severe long-term sequelae. We have analyzed the role of hemoconcentration in disease severity.

Methods: This was a retrospective review of the records and laboratory data at presentation of all patients with STEC-HUS cases (n = 61) over a 10-year period. The patients were grouped into three severity classes: group A, comprising patients who did not require dialysis; group B, patients who were dialyzed without CNS involvement; group C, patients with CNS involvement.

Results: Patients with CNS involvement (group C) had a higher mean hemoglobin level (11.2 ± 2.3 g/dL) than those of group A or B ( 9.4 ± 2.1 and 7.5 ± 1.9 g/dL, respectively; p < 0.0001). We also observed that the higher the initial hemoglobin level, the more severe the long-term renal damage (p < 0.007).

Conclusions: In patients with STEC-HUS, hemoconcentration and hypovolemia may be responsible for more severe ischemic organ damage (both short and long term) at disease onset, and these signs should be regarded as risk factors for CNS damage and for more severe TMA. Therefore, we recommend that hydration status should be actively monitored in HUS patients and that dehydration, when diagnosed, should be promptly corrected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-014-2918-0DOI Listing
February 2015

Cryptic activity of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and eculizumab treatment.

Pediatrics 2014 Jun 19;133(6):e1769-71. Epub 2014 May 19.

Center for Hemolitic Uremic Syndrome Control, Prevention and Management, and

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare, life-threatening disease often related to uncontrolled complement activation. The use of eculizumab has changed the management and the outcome of aHUS, becoming the frontline treatment of the acute disease and for the prevention of relapses. We report the case of a male patient with aHUS due to complement factor H gene mutation who was shifted from plasmatherapy to eculizumab for preventing disease relapses. The shift to eculizumab was associated with a significant decrease in proteinuria, revealing disease activity otherwise unsuspected, being the classic criteria of disease activity (platelet, haptoglobin, LDH, schistocytes), all in the normal range.The condition of proteinuria as the only sign of thrombotic microangiopathy activity is here designated as "cryptic activity of aHUS."
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-2921DOI Listing
June 2014

Co-infection in children with bloody diarrhea caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: data of the North Italian HUS Network.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2014 Aug;59(2):218-20

*Center for HUS Prevention, Control and Management †Unit of Microbiology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is an important cause of acute kidney injury in children often caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) enterocolitis. In a screening program for STEC infection in children with bloody diarrhea in northern Italy for early diagnosis of HUS, co-infection with Salmonella or Campylobacter was documented in as many as 35.6% of Shiga toxin-positive patients. It is speculated that infection by Salmonella or Campylobacter may increase the risk of STEC enterocolitis and therefore of HUS. The isolation of microorganisms (other then STEC) in HUS should not be necessarily regarded as the etiological agent for the thrombotic microangiopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0000000000000420DOI Listing
August 2014

Discontinuation of eculizumab maintenance treatment for atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome: a report of 10 cases.

Am J Kidney Dis 2014 Oct 19;64(4):633-7. Epub 2014 Mar 19.

Center for HUS Prevention, Control and Management, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a life-threatening thrombotic microangiopathy, and as many as 70% of patients with aHUS have mutations in the genes encoding complement regulatory proteins. Eculizumab, a humanized recombinant monoclonal antibody targeting C5, has been used successfully in patients with aHUS since 2009. The standard maintenance treatment requires life-long eculizumab therapy, but the possibility of discontinuation has not yet been tested systematically. We report the safety of discontinuing eculizumab treatment in 10 patients who stopped treatment with the aim of minimizing the risk of adverse reactions, reducing the risk of meningitis, and improving quality of life while also reducing the considerable treatment costs. Disease activity was monitored closely at home by means of urine dipstick testing for hemoglobin. During the cumulative observation period of 95 months, 3 of the 10 patients experienced relapse within 6 weeks of discontinuation, but then immediately resumed treatment and completely recovered. Our experience supports the possibility of discontinuing eculizumab therapy with strict home monitoring for early signs of relapse in patients with aHUS who achieve stable remission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.01.434DOI Listing
October 2014

Skin involvement in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Am J Kidney Dis 2014 Apr 27;63(4):652-5. Epub 2013 Nov 27.

Center for HUS Prevention, Control and Management, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Skin involvement in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is very uncommon and therefore often unrecognized as a specific symptom of aHUS. We describe 3 cases of patients with aHUS who developed skin lesions that completely recovered when disease-specific treatment was established. These cases suggest that in individuals with aHUS, when skin lesions of unknown origin occur, the possibility that they are due to thrombotic microangiopathy should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2013.09.020DOI Listing
April 2014