Publications by authors named "Stefania Paduano"

11 Publications

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virucidal efficacy of a dry steam disinfection system against Human Coronavirus, Human Influenza Virus, and Echovirus.

J Occup Environ Hyg 2021 Oct 20:1-6. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Surgery Medicine Dentistry and Morphological Sciences with an Interest in Transplant Oncology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

This study was aimed to assess the efficacy of dry steam in inactivating Human Coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) as surrogate of SARS-CoV-2, Human Influenza Virus A/H1N1/WSN/33 and Echovirus 7 on stainless steel, polypropylene, and cotton. The virus models were chosen on the basis of their transmission route and environmental resistance. Tests were carried out under a laminar flow cabinet, where two panels of each material were contaminated with a viral suspension. The inocula were left to dry and then the virus on untreated panel (control) was collected by swabbing in order to determine the initial titer. The other panel was treated using a professional vacuum cleaner equipped with a dry steam generator. Dry steam is generated in a boiler where tap water is heated up to 155 °C at 5.5 bar pressure and then during the passage along the flexible hose the temperature decreases to a value between 100 °C and 110 °C at the output. The dry steam was applied for four sec with a window wiper on metal and plastic panels or a brush covered by a microfiber cap on cotton, simulating the steam application during routine cleaning. After the treatment, infectious virus possibly remained on the surface was collected following the same swabbing procedure applied for controls. HCoV-OC43 and Echovirus 7 were titrated by end-point method on HCT-8 line cells and Vero cells, respectively, while Human Influenza Virus was quantified by plaque reduction assay on MDCK cells. Dry steam resulted effective against the three viruses on all tested materials, achieving a mean Log reduction factor ≥4 in viral titer of treated samples compared with controls according to UNI EN 14476:2019. Thus, dry steam may be proposed as an ease to use, effective, fast, and nontoxic alternative to chemicals for surface disinfection without damaging materials. Therefore, this device could be employed not only in healthcare facilities but also in occupational, domestic, and community settings, with advantages for environment and human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2021.1989442DOI Listing
October 2021

Seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the Northern Italy population before the COVID-19 second wave.

Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy (Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences).

Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic is due to SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus infections. It swept across the world in the spring of 2020, and so far it has caused a huge number of hospitalizations and deaths. In the present study, the authors investigated serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody prevalence in the period of June 1-September 25, 2020, in 7561 subjects in Modena, Northern Italy.

Material And Methods: The study population included 5454 workers referred to testing by their companies, and 2107 residents in the Modena area who accessed testing through self-referral.

Results: The authors found the overall seroprevalence to be 4.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.2-5.2%), which was higher in women (5.4%, 95% CI: 4.5-6.2%) than in men (4.3%, 95% CI: 3.7-4.9%), and in the oldest age groups (7.3%, 95% CI: 5.2-9.3% for persons aged 60-69 years, and 11.8%, 95% CI: 8.6-15.1%, for persons aged ≥70 years). Among the occupational categories, the highest seroprevalence was found in healthcare workers (8.8%, 95% CI: 7.0-10.5%), dealers and vehicle repairers (5.2%, 95% CI: 2.9-7.6%), and workers in the sports sector (4.0%, 95% CI: 1.8-6.1%), while there was little or no such evidence for those employed in sectors such as transport and storage, accommodation and restaurant services, and the school system.

Conclusions: These results have allowed, for the first time, to assess population seroprevalence in this area of Italy severely hit by the epidemic, while at the same time identifying the subgroups at a higher risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13075/ijomeh.1896.01826DOI Listing
August 2021

Frequency of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in Various Occupational Sectors in an Industrialized Area of Northern Italy from May to October 2020.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 07 27;18(15). Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 41125 Modena, Italy.

The results of a voluntary screening campaign for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 serum antibodies are presented, performed on workers in the highly industrialized province of Modena in northern Italy in the period 18 May-5 October 2020. The employment activities of the subjects that tested positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and/or IgG antibodies were determined and classified using the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC). The distribution across different sectors was compared to the proportion of workers employed in the same sectors in the province of Modena as a whole. Workers with anti-SARS-CoV-2 serum antibodies were mainly employed in manufacturing (60%), trade (12%), transportation (9%), scientific and technical activities (5%), and arts, entertainment and recreation activities (4.5%). Within the manufacturing sector, a cluster of workers with positive serological tests was observed in the meat processing sector, confirming recent data showing a possible increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in these workers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8345498PMC
July 2021

Global Trends and Correlates of COVID-19 Vaccination Hesitancy: Findings from the iCARE Study.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Jun 17;9(6). Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Montreal Behavioural Medicine Centre, Research Centre, Centre Intégré Universitaire de Santé et de Services Sociaux du Nord de l'Ile de Montréal (CIUSSS-NIM), Montréal, QC H4J 1C5, Canada.

The success of large-scale COVID-19 vaccination campaigns is contingent upon people being willing to receive the vaccine. Our study explored COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and its correlates in eight different countries around the globe. We analyzed convenience sample data collected between March 2020 and January 2021 as part of the iCARE cross-sectional study. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted to explore the correlates of vaccine hesitancy. We included 32,028 participants from eight countries, and observed that 27% of the participants exhibited vaccine hesitancy, with increases over time. France reported the highest level of hesitancy (47.3%) and Brazil reported the lowest (9.6%). Women, younger individuals (≤29 years), people living in rural areas, and those with a lower perceived income were more likely to be hesitant. People who previously received an influenza vaccine were 70% less likely to report COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. We observed that people reporting greater COVID-19 health concerns were less likely to be hesitant, whereas people with higher personal financial concerns were more likely to be hesitant. Our findings indicate that there is substantial vaccine hesitancy in several countries, with cross-national differences in the magnitude and direction of the trend. Vaccination communication initiatives should target hesitant individuals (women, younger adults, people with lower incomes and those living in rural areas), and should highlight the immediate health, social and economic benefits of vaccination across these settings. Country-level analyses are warranted to understand the complex psychological, socio-environmental, and cultural factors associated with vaccine hesitancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8235754PMC
June 2021

Neutralizing Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Titer and Reported Adverse Effects, in a Sample of Italian Nursing Home Personnel after Two Doses of the BNT162b2 Vaccine Administered Four Weeks Apart.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Jun 15;9(6). Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena & Reggio Emilia, 41125 Modena, Italy.

Background: The immunization of healthcare workers (HCWs) plays a recognized key role in prevention in the COVID-19 pandemic: in Italy, the vaccination campaign began at the end of December 2020. A better knowledge of the on-field immune response in HCWs, of adverse effects and of the main factors involved is fundamental.

Methods: We performed a study on workers at a nursing home in Northern Italy, vaccinated in January-February 2021 with two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine four weeks apart, instead of the three weeks provided for in the original manufacturer protocol. One month after the second dose, the serological titer of IgG-neutralizing anti-RBD antibodies of the subunit S1 of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 was determined. The socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects and adverse effects of vaccination were collected by questionnaire.

Results: In all of the workers, high antibody titer, ranging between 20 and 760 times the minimum protective level were observed. Titers were significantly higher in subjects with a previous COVID-19 diagnosis. Adverse effects after the vaccine were more frequent after the second dose, but no severe adverse effects were observed.

Conclusions: The two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine, even if administered four weeks apart, induced high titers of anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing IgG in all the operators included in the study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060652DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8232293PMC
June 2021

Physical and Sedentary Activities and Childhood Overweight/Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Study among First-Year Children of Primary Schools in Modena, Italy.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 20;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, Section of Public Health, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 41125 Modena, Italy.

Children obesity is a serious public health issue. This study aimed to investigate physical/sedentary activities of first-year primary schools children in Modena, and their association with overweight/obesity and dietary habits of children and family characteristics to identify the risk factors for unhealthy lifestyles. Child physical/sedentary activities were gathered through an anonymous questionnaire administered to parents, as well as family characteristics and weight/height of child and parents. Logistic regression models, eventually adjusted for parents' sociodemographic characteristics, were used to analyze data. Questionnaires were delivered by 660 families (74.2%), of which 72 without anthropometric data were excluded. Three out of four children spent in physical activities less than 7 h/week, while 63.9% dedicated to sedentary activities two or more hours/day. From multivariate analysis, the habit significantly affecting children's overweight/obesity was spending time on tablets/Personal Computers/mobile phones/videogames. Higher parental education level resulted in a protective factor for implementing unhealthy lifestyles in terms of time dedicated to physical/sedentary activities. Our results suggest the need of interventions to increase time for physical activity and to promote a responsible use of digital media involving the entire families to reach all parents regardless of their education and nationality with a possible relapse on other family members.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8003752PMC
March 2021

Behavior of and in Water from Filter Jugs.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 9;17(21). Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Environment and Health, Italian National Institute of Health, 00161 Rome, Italy.

Careless use conditions of filter jugs were applied to simulate and evaluate the behavior of two ubiquitous aquatic bacterial species, and . According to a reference protocol, nine different jugs of popular brands sold in the Italian market were used for the test. Separately, a suspension of the two bacteria was spiked in water used for filling the jugs. The concentration of the test organisms and total aerobic microbial count (TAMC) was measured daily in the filtered water along a period corresponding to the cartridge lifetime. Results showed a different trend of bacterial behavior. was detectable exclusively on the first day after jug filling, while confirmed its persistence over time in all the jugs and its ability to potentially colonize surfaces and cartridges. The TAMC was detected at a concentration range from 10 to 10 CFU/100 mL in all the tests, high values that were not far from those raised in bottled flat natural mineral water weeks after bottling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7664847PMC
November 2020

Safety and Effectiveness of Monochloramine Treatment for Disinfecting Hospital Water Networks.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 08 22;17(17). Epub 2020 Aug 22.

Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, Section of Public Health, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41125 Modena, Italy.

The formation of potentially carcinogenic N-nitrosamines, associated with monochloramine, requires further research due to the growing interest in using this biocide for the secondary disinfection of water in public and private buildings. The aim of our study was to evaluate the possible formation of N-nitrosamines and other toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) in hospital hot water networks treated with monochloramine. The effectiveness of this biocide in controlling spp. contamination was also verified. For this purpose, four different monochloramine-treated networks, in terms of the duration of treatment and method of biocide injection, were investigated. Untreated hot water, municipal cold water and, limited to N-nitrosamines analysis, hot water treated with chlorine dioxide were analyzed for comparison. spp. contamination was successfully controlled without any formation of N-nitrosamines. No nitrification or formation of the regulated DBPs, such as chlorites and trihalomethanes, occurred in monochloramine-treated water networks. However, a stable formulation of hypochlorite, its frequent replacement with a fresh product, and the routine monitoring of free ammonia are recommended to ensure a proper disinfection. Our study confirms that monochloramine may be proposed as an effective and safe strategy for the continuous disinfection of building plumbing systems, preventing vulnerable individuals from being exposed to legionellae and dangerous DBPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7503937PMC
August 2020

Characterisation of Microbial Community Associated with Different Disinfection Treatments in Hospital hot Water Networks.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 03 24;17(6). Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, Section of Public Health, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 41125 Modena, Italy.

Many disinfection treatments can be adopted for controlling opportunistic pathogens in hospital water networks in order to reduce infection risk for immunocompromised patients. Each method has limits and strengths and it could determine modifications on bacterial community. The aim of our investigation was to study under real-life conditions the microbial community associated with different chemical (monochloramine, hydrogen peroxide, chlorine dioxide) and non-chemical (hyperthermia) treatments, continuously applied since many years in four hot water networks of the same hospital. Municipal cold water, untreated secondary, and treated hot water were analysed for microbiome characterization by 16S amplicon sequencing. Cold waters had a common microbial profile at genera level. The hot water bacterial profiles differed according to treatment. Our results confirm the effectiveness of disinfection strategies in our hospital for controlling potential pathogens such as , as the investigated genera containing opportunistic pathogens were absent or had relative abundances ≤1%, except for non-tuberculous mycobacteria, , and . Monitoring the microbial complexity of healthcare water networks through 16S amplicon sequencing is an innovative and effective approach useful for Public Health purpose in order to verify possible modifications of microbiota associated with disinfection treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17062158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7143765PMC
March 2020

The relevance of molecular genotyping to allocate cases in a suspected outbreak of Legionella pneumonia in patients with prolonged immunosuppressive therapy.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Feb 7;91:174-176. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, Section of Public Health, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

Three cases of pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1) in immunosuppressed patients with repeated hospitalization were suspected as a healthcare-associated cluster. The environmental investigation did not reveal the presence of legionellae in the hospital patient rooms. Water samples collected from the homes of two patients were also negative for Legionella spp. In the absence of environmental strains potentially involved in the infections, we proceeded to genotype environmental Lp1 strains isolated in the hospital during routine water sampling during the decade 2009-2019 and recovered after long-term storage at -20°C. These 'historical' strains exhibited a high grade of similarity and stability over time, regardless of the disinfection systems. The different molecular profiles shown among the clinical and environmental strains excluded a nosocomial outbreak. The study suggests that the application of molecular typing may be a useful tool to discriminate hospital vs community-acquired cases, mostly for severely immunosuppressed patients in whom the symptomatology could be insidious and the incubation period could be prolonged. Moreover, the genotyping allowed us to exclude any link between the cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2019.11.002DOI Listing
February 2020

Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity in Children Attending the First Year of Primary Schools in Modena, Italy.

J Community Health 2020 04;45(2):301-309

Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, Section of Public Health, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

Over the last four decades, childhood overweight/obesity has dramatically increased, becoming a significant public health concern. The main aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence of overweight/obesity among first-year primary schools children in Modena and to identify the associated risk factors. Data were collected on the socio-demographic characteristics of family and weight, height, dietary habits and sedentary behaviours of the children, and on the parents' perception of their child's weight status, through an anonymous questionnaire administered to parents. The questionnaires were delivered by 660 out of 890 (74.2%) families, and after excluding those without anthropometric data, 588 children were included in the study. The prevalence of overweight/obesity among the children was 25.2%, significantly lower in children born to parents with a high education, and higher among children born to foreign parents and overweight/obese mothers. The multivariable analysis showed that the children most likely to become overweight/obese were those who skipped breakfast (OR 2.3, 95%CI 1.3-4.2) and/or mid-morning snacks (OR 3.2, 95%CI 1.5-6.5). Breakfast consumption was positively associated with higher parental education levels, whereas skipping mid-morning snacks is more frequent among children born to foreign parents and overweight/obese mothers. Moreover, 84.7% of the parents of overweight/obese children underestimated their child's weight status. One in four 6-7 year-old children is already overweight or obese. Childhood overweight/obesity is significantly associated with unhealthy lifestyles and family lifestyle. It is therefore essential to implement public health intervention programs aimed at both parents and children, in order to promote healthy lifestyles in early childhood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10900-019-00741-7DOI Listing
April 2020
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