Publications by authors named "Stefan Ehrlich"

193 Publications

Taming the chaos?! Using eXplainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) to tackle the complexity in mental health research.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, TU Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307, Dresden, Germany.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00787-021-01836-0DOI Listing
July 2021

The costs of over-control in anorexia nervosa: evidence from fMRI and ecological momentary assessment.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 05 21;11(1):304. Epub 2021 May 21.

Division of Psychological and Social Medicine and Developmental Neuroscience, Translational Developmental Neuroscience Section, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

A growing body of evidence suggests that a high level of self-control may, despite its positive effects, influence cognitive processing in an unfavorable manner. However, the affective costs of self-control have only rarely been investigated. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder that is often characterized by excessive self-control. Here, we used fMRI to explore whether over-control in AN may have negative affective consequences. 36 predominantly adolescent female AN patients and 36 age-matched healthy controls (HC) viewed negative and neutral pictures during two separate fMRI sessions before and after 10 min of rest. We tested whether abnormally elevated neural activity during the initial presentation in a brain region broadly implicated in top-down control, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), could predict subsequent activation in limbic areas relevant to bottom-up affective processing. Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), we also tested for associations between the aforementioned neuroimaging markers and negative affective states in the two weeks following the experiment. fMRI data revealed that higher initial activation of the dlPFC in AN predicted increased amygdala reactivity during the second fMRI session, which in turn was related to increased self-reported tension during two weeks following the scan. These data suggest that over-control in AN patients may come at a cost including negative affective states on a short (minutes) as well as a longer time scale (days). This mechanism may significantly contribute to the persistence of AN.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01405-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8138008PMC
May 2021

Altered White Matter Connectivity in Young Acutely Underweight Patients With Anorexia Nervosa.

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Psychological and Social Medicine and Developmental Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany; Eating Disorder Treatment and Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany. Electronic address:

Objective: Reductions of gray matter volume and cortical thickness in anorexia nervosa (AN) are well documented. However, findings regarding the integrity of white matter (WM) as studied via diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) are remarkably heterogeneous, and WM connectivity has been examined only in small samples using a limited number of regions of interest. The present study investigated whole-brain WM connectivity for the first time in a large sample of acutely underweight patients with AN.

Method: DWI data from predominantly adolescent patients with acute AN (n = 96, mean age = 16.3 years) and age-matched healthy control participants (n = 96, mean age = 17.2 years) were analyzed. WM connectivity networks were generated from fiber-tractography-derived streamlines connecting 233 cortical/subcortical regions. To identify group differences, network-based statistic was used while taking head motion, WM, and ventricular volume into account.

Results: Patients with AN were characterized by 6 WM subnetworks with abnormal architecture, as indicated by increased fractional anisotropy located primarily in parietal-occipital regions and accompanied by reduced radial diffusivity. Group differences based on number of streamlines reached only nominal significance.

Conclusion: Our study reveals pronounced alterations in the WM connectome in young patients with AN. In contrast to known reductions in gray matter in the acutely underweight state of AN, this pattern does not necessarily indicate a deterioration of the WM network. Future studies using advanced MRI sequences will have to clarify interrelations with axonal packing or myelination, and whether the changes should be considered a consequence of undernutrition or a vulnerability for developing or maintaining AN.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2021.04.019DOI Listing
May 2021

Verbal learning impairment in adolescents with methamphetamine use disorder: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Psychiatry 2021 03 25;21(1):166. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

TU Dresden, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Dresden, Germany.

Background: Methamphetamine (MA) use has been shown to be associated with deficits in impulsivity, verbal learning, and working memory. Additionally, methamphetamine use disorder (MUD) is related to various brain changes, especially in adolescent users who might be more vulnerable to detrimental effects on brain development. However, little is known about the relationship between adolescent MA use and cognitive impairment. This cross-sectional study aims to explore how the presence of a MUD in adolescents is related to impairments of verbal memory, inhibition, and alertness.

Methods: N = 18 psychiatric outpatients with MUD were matched in terms of depressivity, age, and gender to n = 18 adolescents with other substance use disorders (SUDs), as well as n = 18 controls without SUDs. We compared these three groups on the Verbal Learning and Memory Task (VLMT), and the alertness and go/noGo subtests of the Test of Attentional Performance (TAP). Additionally, Spearman's rank order correlation coefficients were calculated to investigate whether cognitive functioning was directly associated with frequency of past year MA use.

Results: The three groups differed significantly in their verbal learning performance (H (2) = 11.7, p = .003, η = .19), but not in short-term memory, inhibition, cued recall, or alertness. Post hoc tests revealed significant differences in verbal learning between the MA using group and the control group without a SUD (U = 56.5, p = .001, η = .31). Frequency of past year MA use correlated negatively with short-term memory (ρ = -.25, p < .01) and verbal learning (ρ = -.41, p < .01). No other cognitive variables correlated significantly with MA use frequency. Significant p-values were considered significant after Bonferroni correction.

Conclusions: Adolescent MUD outpatients with regular MA use show specific impairment in verbal learning performance, but not in other basal cognitive functions when compared to adolescents without a MUD. Verbal learning and short-term memory performance is negatively associated with the frequency of MA use. Future research should apply longitudinal designs to investigate long-term effects of methamphetamine and reversibility of these effects on cognitive functioning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03169-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993453PMC
March 2021

1q21.1 distal copy number variants are associated with cerebral and cognitive alterations in humans.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 03 22;11(1):182. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Low-frequency 1q21.1 distal deletion and duplication copy number variant (CNV) carriers are predisposed to multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia, autism and intellectual disability. Human carriers display a high prevalence of micro- and macrocephaly in deletion and duplication carriers, respectively. The underlying brain structural diversity remains largely unknown. We systematically called CNVs in 38 cohorts from the large-scale ENIGMA-CNV collaboration and the UK Biobank and identified 28 1q21.1 distal deletion and 22 duplication carriers and 37,088 non-carriers (48% male) derived from 15 distinct magnetic resonance imaging scanner sites. With standardized methods, we compared subcortical and cortical brain measures (all) and cognitive performance (UK Biobank only) between carrier groups also testing for mediation of brain structure on cognition. We identified positive dosage effects of copy number on intracranial volume (ICV) and total cortical surface area, with the largest effects in frontal and cingulate cortices, and negative dosage effects on caudate and hippocampal volumes. The carriers displayed distinct cognitive deficit profiles in cognitive tasks from the UK Biobank with intermediate decreases in duplication carriers and somewhat larger in deletion carriers-the latter potentially mediated by ICV or cortical surface area. These results shed light on pathobiological mechanisms of neurodevelopmental disorders, by demonstrating gene dose effect on specific brain structures and effect on cognitive function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01213-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7985307PMC
March 2021

Adverse Effects of Refeeding on the Plasma Lipidome in Young Individuals With Anorexia Nervosa?

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Division of Psychological and Social Medicine and Developmental Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany; Eating Disorder Treatment and Research Center, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany. Electronic address:

Objective: Refeeding is the cornerstone of anorexia nervosa (AN) treatment, but little is known regarding the optimal pace and dietary composition or possible adverse effects of current clinical practices. Plasma lipids may be a moderating factor underlying unfavorable refeeding effects in AN, such as an abnormal central body fat distribution. The objective of this study was to analyze the plasma lipidome in the acutely underweight state of AN before and after refeeding.

Method: Using high-throughput quantitative mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomics, we measured 13 lipid classes and 204 lipid species or subspecies in the plasma of young female patients with acute AN, before (n = 39) and after (n = 23) short-term weight restoration during an intensive inpatient refeeding program (median body mass index [BMI] increase = 26.4%), in comparison to those in healthy control participants (n = 37).

Results: Before inpatient treatment, patients with AN exhibited increased concentrations of cholesterol and several other lipid classes. After refeeding, multiple lipid classes including cholesterol and ceramides, as well as certain ceramide species previously associated with obesity or overfeeding, showed increased concentrations, and a pattern of shorter and more saturated triacylgycerides emerged. A machine learning model trained to predict BMI based on the lipidomic profiles revealed a sizable overprediction in patients with AN after weight restoration.

Conclusion: The results point toward a profound lipid dysregulation with similarities to obesity and other features of the metabolic syndrome after short-term weight restoration. Thus, this study provides evidence for possible short-term adverse effects of current refeeding practices on the metabolic state and should inspire more research on nutritional interventions in AN.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2021.02.014DOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of copy number variations on brain structure and risk for psychiatric illness: Large-scale studies from the ENIGMA working groups on CNVs.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Feb 21. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Center for Neuroimaging, Genetics and Genomics, School of Psychology, NUI Galway, Galway, Ireland.

The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis copy number variant (ENIGMA-CNV) and 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Working Groups (22q-ENIGMA WGs) were created to gain insight into the involvement of genetic factors in human brain development and related cognitive, psychiatric and behavioral manifestations. To that end, the ENIGMA-CNV WG has collated CNV and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from ~49,000 individuals across 38 global research sites, yielding one of the largest studies to date on the effects of CNVs on brain structures in the general population. The 22q-ENIGMA WG includes 12 international research centers that assessed over 533 individuals with a confirmed 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, 40 with 22q11.2 duplications, and 333 typically developing controls, creating the largest-ever 22q11.2 CNV neuroimaging data set. In this review, we outline the ENIGMA infrastructure and procedures for multi-site analysis of CNVs and MRI data. So far, ENIGMA has identified effects of the 22q11.2, 16p11.2 distal, 15q11.2, and 1q21.1 distal CNVs on subcortical and cortical brain structures. Each CNV is associated with differences in cognitive, neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric traits, with characteristic patterns of brain structural abnormalities. Evidence of gene-dosage effects on distinct brain regions also emerged, providing further insight into genotype-phenotype relationships. Taken together, these results offer a more comprehensive picture of molecular mechanisms involved in typical and atypical brain development. This "genotype-first" approach also contributes to our understanding of the etiopathogenesis of brain disorders. Finally, we outline future directions to better understand effects of CNVs on brain structure and behavior.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25354DOI Listing
February 2021

Cortical thickness across the lifespan: Data from 17,075 healthy individuals aged 3-90 years.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Feb 17. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Laboratory of Psychiatric Neuroimaging, Departamento e Instituto de Psiquiatria, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Delineating the association of age and cortical thickness in healthy individuals is critical given the association of cortical thickness with cognition and behavior. Previous research has shown that robust estimates of the association between age and brain morphometry require large-scale studies. In response, we used cross-sectional data from 17,075 individuals aged 3-90 years from the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium to infer age-related changes in cortical thickness. We used fractional polynomial (FP) regression to quantify the association between age and cortical thickness, and we computed normalized growth centiles using the parametric Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Interindividual variability was estimated using meta-analysis and one-way analysis of variance. For most regions, their highest cortical thickness value was observed in childhood. Age and cortical thickness showed a negative association; the slope was steeper up to the third decade of life and more gradual thereafter; notable exceptions to this general pattern were entorhinal, temporopolar, and anterior cingulate cortices. Interindividual variability was largest in temporal and frontal regions across the lifespan. Age and its FP combinations explained up to 59% variance in cortical thickness. These results may form the basis of further investigation on normative deviation in cortical thickness and its significance for behavioral and cognitive outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25364DOI Listing
February 2021

Is Serum BDNF Altered in Acute, Short- and Long-Term Recovered Restrictive Type Anorexia Nervosa?

Nutrients 2021 Jan 29;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Division of Psychological and Social Medicine and Developmental Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany.

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin involved in the regulation of food intake and body weight, has been implicated in the development and maintenance of Anorexia nervosa (AN). The majority of previous studies reported lower BDNF levels in acutely underweight AN patients (acAN) and increasing levels after weight rehabilitation. Here, we investigated serum BDNF concentrations in the largest known AN sample to date, both before and after weight restoration therapy. Serum BDNF was measured in 259 female volunteers: 77 in-patient acAN participants of the restrictive type (47 reassessed after short-term weight rehabilitation), 62 individuals long-term recovered from AN, and 120 healthy controls. We validated our findings in a post-hoc mega-analysis in which we reanalyzed combined data from the current sample and those from our previous study on BDNF in AN (combined sample: 389 participants). All analyses carefully accounted for known determinants of BDNF (age, sex, storage time of blood samples). We further assessed relationships with relevant clinical variables (body-mass-index, physical activity, symptoms). Contrary to our hypotheses, we found zero significant differences in either cross-sectional or longitudinal comparisons and no significant relationships with clinical variables. Together, our study suggests that BDNF may not be a reliable state- or trait-marker in AN after all.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13020432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910942PMC
January 2021

Subcortical volumes across the lifespan: Data from 18,605 healthy individuals aged 3-90 years.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Feb 11. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Psychology, Center for Brain Science, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Age has a major effect on brain volume. However, the normative studies available are constrained by small sample sizes, restricted age coverage and significant methodological variability. These limitations introduce inconsistencies and may obscure or distort the lifespan trajectories of brain morphometry. In response, we capitalized on the resources of the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium to examine age-related trajectories inferred from cross-sectional measures of the ventricles, the basal ganglia (caudate, putamen, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens), the thalamus, hippocampus and amygdala using magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from 18,605 individuals aged 3-90 years. All subcortical structure volumes were at their maximum value early in life. The volume of the basal ganglia showed a monotonic negative association with age thereafter; there was no significant association between age and the volumes of the thalamus, amygdala and the hippocampus (with some degree of decline in thalamus) until the sixth decade of life after which they also showed a steep negative association with age. The lateral ventricles showed continuous enlargement throughout the lifespan. Age was positively associated with inter-individual variability in the hippocampus and amygdala and the lateral ventricles. These results were robust to potential confounders and could be used to examine the functional significance of deviations from typical age-related morphometric patterns.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25320DOI Listing
February 2021

Differential longitudinal changes of neuronal and glial damage markers in anorexia nervosa after partial weight restoration.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 02 9;11(1):86. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Division of Psychological and Social Medicine and Developmental Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Atrophic brain changes in acute anorexia nervosa (AN) are often visible to the naked eye on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scans, but it remains unclear what is driving these effects. In neurological diseases, neurofilament light (NF-L) and tau protein have been linked to axonal damage. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) has been associated with astroglial injury. In an attempt to shed new light on factors potentially underlying past findings of structural brain alterations in AN, the current study investigated serum NF-L, tau protein, and GFAP levels longitudinally in AN patients undergoing weight restoration. Blood samples were obtained from 54 acutely underweight, predominantly adolescent female AN patients and 54 age-matched healthy control participants. AN patients were studied in the severely underweight state and again after short-term partial weight restoration. Group comparisons revealed higher levels of NF-L, tau protein, and GFAP in acutely underweight patients with AN compared to healthy control participants. Longitudinally, a decrease in NF-L and GFAP but not in tau protein levels was observed in AN patients upon short-term partial weight restoration. These results may be indicative of ongoing neuronal and astroglial injury during the underweight phase of AN. Normalization of NF-L and GFAP but not tau protein levels may indicate an only partial restoration of neuronal and astroglial integrity upon weight gain after initial AN-associated cell damage processes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01209-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870648PMC
February 2021

The association between body mass index and brain morphology in children: a population-based study.

Brain Struct Funct 2021 Apr 23;226(3):787-800. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychology, Erasmus Medical Center-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Brain morphology is altered in both anorexia nervosa and obesity. However, it is yet unclear if the relationship between Body Mass Index-Standard Deviation Score (BMI-SDS) and brain morphology exists across the BMI-SDS spectrum, or is present only in the extremes. The study involved 3160 9-to-11 year-old children (50.3% female) who participate in Generation R, a population-based study. Structural MRI scans were obtained from all children and FreeSurfer was used to quantify both global and surface-based measures of gyrification and cortical thickness. Body length and weight were measured to calculate BMI. Dutch growth curves were used to calculate BMI-SDS. BMI-SDS was analyzed continuously and in two categories (median split). The relationship between BMI-SDS (range - 3.82 to 3.31) and gyrification showed an inverted-U shape curve in children with both lower and higher BMI-SDS values having lower gyrification in widespread areas of the brain. BMI-SDS had a positive linear association with cortical thickness in multiple brain regions. This study provides evidence for an association between BMI-SDS and brain morphology in a large sample of children from the general population and suggests that a normal BMI during childhood is important for brain development. Future studies could determine whether lifestyle modifications optimize BMI-SDS result in return to more typical patterns of brain morphology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-020-02209-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7981300PMC
April 2021

Hair endocannabinoid concentrations in individuals with acute and weight-recovered anorexia nervosa.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2021 Apr 11;107:110243. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Division of Psychological and Social Medicine and Developmental Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany; Eating Disorder Treatment and Research Center, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: The endocannabinoid system has been suggested to modulate energy metabolism and stress response and could be an important factor in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa (AN). In the context of AN, excessive physical activity may influence endocannabinoid concentrations. The objective of this study was to investigate hair endocannabinoid concentrations at different stages of the disorder. Measurement in hair allows for a cumulative assessment of endocannabinoid concentrations independent of circadian rhythms.

Methods: In a combined cross-sectional and longitudinal design, we measured hair concentrations of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol and the endocannabinoid-related compounds palmitoylethanolamide, oleoylethanolamide, and stearoylethanolamide in female underweight patients with acute AN (n = 67, reassessment of n = 47 after short-term weight restoration with a body mass index increase of at least 14%), individuals long-term recovered from AN (n = 27), and healthy control participants (n = 84).

Results: Hair concentrations of anandamide and all endocannabinoid-related compounds were elevated in acute AN and decreased over the course of short-term weight restoration. Anandamide concentrations remained elevated in long-term recovered AN patients. In long-term recovered patients, physical activity correlated positively with the concentrations of all endocannabinoid-related compounds.

Conclusion: The current study provides evidence for a significant alteration of the endocannabinoid system in acute AN, which may partly persist into long-term recovery. The endocannabinoid system may be a possible target for pharmaceutical interventions in AN, which should be explored in further preclinical and subsequently clinical randomized controlled trials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2021.110243DOI Listing
April 2021

Editorial: Refeeding in Anorexia Nervosa: Quo Vadis?

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 05 21;60(5):566-567. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Division of Psychological and Social Medicine and Developmental Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; Eating Disorder Treatment and Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.

Refeeding is the cornerstone of treatment in anorexia nervosa (AN), a life-threatening eating disorder characterized by severe undernutrition. During refeeding, patients typically gain a large proportion of their body weight within a couple of weeks or months. The aims of this drastic nutritional intervention are mainly somatic stability and the improvement of the mental state of the patient, as a prerequisite for psychotherapy. There has been a recent trend away from the conventional low-calorie "start low, go slow" refeeding approach to higher calorie refeeding with a more rapid weight gain, shorter hospitalization time, and consequently, psychosocial and economic benefits. In favor of higher calorie refeeding, the rate of initial weight gain has been shown to predict weight recovery. Furthermore, recent neuroimaging studies suggest that the widespread reductions of gray matter volume and cortical thickness in acutely underweight AN patients abate rapidly after refeeding. Although the first studies provided evidence for the relative safety of higher calorie refeeding, particularly in the refeeding syndrome, a rare but possibly fatal complication, little is known about less acute side effects. However, relative to its significant clinical importance, the topic is understudied, and guidelines vary considerably across different countries. The clinical review at the focus of this editorial seeks to advance the medical literature by juxtaposing the details of refeeding protocols of 3 well-known specialized eating disorder centers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2020.12.016DOI Listing
May 2021

Neuroengineering challenges of fusing robotics and neuroscience.

Sci Robot 2020 12;5(49)

Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Center for Neuroengineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

Advances in neuroscience are inspiring developments in robotics and vice versa.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scirobotics.abd1911DOI Listing
December 2020

Evaluation of spontaneous regional brain activity in weight-recovered anorexia nervosa.

Transl Psychiatry 2020 11 11;10(1):395. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Faculty of Medicine, Division of Psychological and Social Medicine, and Developmental Neuroscience, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Whereas research using structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) reports sizable grey matter reductions in patients suffering from acute anorexia nervosa (AN) to be largely reversible already after short-term weight gain, many task-based and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) studies suggest persistent brain alterations even after long-term weight rehabilitation. First investigations into spontaneous regional brain activity using voxel-wise resting-state measures found widespread abnormalities in acute AN, but no studies have compared intrinsic brain activity properties in weight-recovered individuals with a history of AN (recAN) with healthy controls (HCs). SMRI and RSFC data were analysed from a sample of 130 female volunteers: 65 recAN and 65 pairwise age-matched HC. Cortical grey matter thickness was assessed using FreeSurfer software. Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFFs), mean-square successive difference (MSSD), regional homogeneity (ReHo), voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VHMC), and degree centrality (DC) were calculated. SMRI and RSFC data were analysed from a sample of 130 female volunteers: 65 recAN and 65 pairwise age-matched HCs. Cortical grey matter thickness was assessed using FreeSurfer software. Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF), mean-square successive difference (MSSD), regional homogeneity (ReHo), voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VHMC), and degree centrality (DC) were calculated. Abnormal regional homogeneity found in acute AN seems to normalize in recAN, supporting assumptions of a state rather than a trait marker. Aberrant fALFF values in the cerebellum and the infertior temporal gyrus could possibly hint towards trait factors or a scar (the latter, e.g., from prolonged periods of undernutrition), warranting further longitudinal research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-01081-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7658198PMC
November 2020

Hippocampal volume, function, and related molecular activity in anorexia nervosa: A scoping review.

Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol 2020 Dec 25;13(12):1367-1387. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Psychological Medicine, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience ,UK.

Introduction: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious and persistent eating disorder, characterized by severe dietary restriction and weight loss, with a third of patients developing a  severe-enduring form. The factors contributing to this progression are poorly understood, although there is evidence for impairments in neural structures such as the hippocampus, an area particularly affected by malnutrition and chronic stress.

Areas Covered: This study aimed to map the evidence for alterations in hippocampal volume, function, and related molecular activity in anorexia nervosa. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were searched for studies related to hippocampal function and integrity using a range of methodologies, such as neuropsychological paradigms, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, and analysis of blood components.

Expert Opinion: Thirty-nine studies were included in this review. The majority were neuroimaging studies, which found hippocampus-specific volumetric and functional impairments. Neuropsychological studies showed evidence for a specific memory and learning impairments. There was some evidence for molecular abnormalities (e.g. cortisol), although these were few studies. Taken together, our review suggests that the hippocampus might be a particular region of interest when considering neurobiological approaches to understanding AN. These findings warrant further investigation and may lead to novel treatment approaches.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17512433.2020.1850256DOI Listing
December 2020

DNA methylation of ghrelin and leptin receptors in underweight and recovered patients with anorexia nervosa.

J Psychiatr Res 2020 12 28;131:271-278. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Division of Psychological and Social Medicine and Developmental Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany. Electronic address:

Epigenetic mechanisms, which modulate gene expression, are becoming increasingly important in the research on anorexia nervosa (AN). Patients with AN have difficulties with the perception of hunger even though hormones like high ghrelin and low leptin signal the need for energy intake. Given the prominent role of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a) and the leptin receptor (LEPR) in appetite regulation, a dysregulation of the receptors' expression levels, possibly resulting from altered DNA promoter methylation, may contribute to the pathophysiology of AN. Such alterations could be secondary effects of undernutrition (state markers) or biological processes that may play an antecedent, possibly causal, role in the pathophysiology (trait markers). Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine DNA promoter methylation of the GHS-R1a and LEPR gene promoter regions and investigate whether methylation levels are associated with AN symptoms. We studied medication-free underweight patients with acute AN as well as weight-recovered patients and normal-weight, healthy female control subjects. While DNA methylation of the LEPR gene was similar across groups, GHS-R1a promoter methylation was increased in underweight AN compared to healthy controls - a finding which can be interpreted within the framework of the "ghrelin-resistance" hypothesis in AN. The results of the current study suggest for the first time a potential epigenetic mechanism underlying altered GHS-R1a sensitivity or altered ghrelin signaling in acutely underweight AN. If a ghrelin-centered model of AN can be verified, a next step could be the search for a dietary or psychopharmacological modulation at the ghrelin receptor, potentially via epigenetic mechanisms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2020.08.026DOI Listing
December 2020

Study protocol of comprehensive risk evaluation for anorexia nervosa in twins (CREAT): a study of discordant monozygotic twins with anorexia nervosa.

BMC Psychiatry 2020 10 14;20(1):507. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutetet, Nobels väg 12A, 17165, Stockholm, Solna, Sweden.

Background: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe disorder, for which genetic evidence suggests psychiatric as well as metabolic origins. AN has high somatic and psychiatric comorbidities, broad impact on quality of life, and elevated mortality. Risk factor studies of AN have focused on differences between acutely ill and recovered individuals. Such comparisons often yield ambiguous conclusions, as alterations could reflect different effects depending on the comparison. Whereas differences found in acutely ill patients could reflect state effects that are due to acute starvation or acute disease-specific factors, they could also reflect underlying traits. Observations in recovered individuals could reflect either an underlying trait or a "scar" due to lasting effects of sustained undernutrition and illness. The co-twin control design (i.e., monozygotic [MZ] twins who are discordant for AN and MZ concordant control twin pairs) affords at least partial disambiguation of these effects.

Methods: Comprehensive Risk Evaluation for Anorexia nervosa in Twins (CREAT) will be the largest and most comprehensive investigation of twins who are discordant for AN to date. CREAT utilizes a co-twin control design that includes endocrinological, neurocognitive, neuroimaging, genomic, and multi-omic approaches coupled with an experimental component that explores the impact of an overnight fast on most measured parameters.

Discussion: The multimodal longitudinal twin assessment of the CREAT study will help to disambiguate state, trait, and "scar" effects, and thereby enable a deeper understanding of the contribution of genetics, epigenetics, cognitive functions, brain structure and function, metabolism, endocrinology, microbiology, and immunology to the etiology and maintenance of AN.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02903-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7557028PMC
October 2020

Greater male than female variability in regional brain structure across the lifespan.

Hum Brain Mapp 2020 Oct 12. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

FIDMAG Germanes Hospitalàries Research Foundation, Barcelona, Spain.

For many traits, males show greater variability than females, with possible implications for understanding sex differences in health and disease. Here, the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Consortium presents the largest-ever mega-analysis of sex differences in variability of brain structure, based on international data spanning nine decades of life. Subcortical volumes, cortical surface area and cortical thickness were assessed in MRI data of 16,683 healthy individuals 1-90 years old (47% females). We observed significant patterns of greater male than female between-subject variance for all subcortical volumetric measures, all cortical surface area measures, and 60% of cortical thickness measures. This pattern was stable across the lifespan for 50% of the subcortical structures, 70% of the regional area measures, and nearly all regions for thickness. Our findings that these sex differences are present in childhood implicate early life genetic or gene-environment interaction mechanisms. The findings highlight the importance of individual differences within the sexes, that may underpin sex-specific vulnerability to disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25204DOI Listing
October 2020

What happened to the concept of adolescence crisis?

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2020 12;29(12):1617-1619

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Carl Gustav CarusTU Dresden, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307, Dresden, Germany.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00787-020-01660-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7641928PMC
December 2020

Virtual Histology of Cortical Thickness and Shared Neurobiology in 6 Psychiatric Disorders.

JAMA Psychiatry 2021 Jan;78(1):47-63

Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, School of Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, the Netherlands.

Importance: Large-scale neuroimaging studies have revealed group differences in cortical thickness across many psychiatric disorders. The underlying neurobiology behind these differences is not well understood.

Objective: To determine neurobiologic correlates of group differences in cortical thickness between cases and controls in 6 disorders: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Profiles of group differences in cortical thickness between cases and controls were generated using T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Similarity between interregional profiles of cell-specific gene expression and those in the group differences in cortical thickness were investigated in each disorder. Next, principal component analysis was used to reveal a shared profile of group difference in thickness across the disorders. Analysis for gene coexpression, clustering, and enrichment for genes associated with these disorders were conducted. Data analysis was conducted between June and December 2019. The analysis included 145 cohorts across 6 psychiatric disorders drawn from the ENIGMA consortium. The numbers of cases and controls in each of the 6 disorders were as follows: ADHD: 1814 and 1602; ASD: 1748 and 1770; BD: 1547 and 3405; MDD: 2658 and 3572; OCD: 2266 and 2007; and schizophrenia: 2688 and 3244.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Interregional profiles of group difference in cortical thickness between cases and controls.

Results: A total of 12 721 cases and 15 600 controls, ranging from ages 2 to 89 years, were included in this study. Interregional profiles of group differences in cortical thickness for each of the 6 psychiatric disorders were associated with profiles of gene expression specific to pyramidal (CA1) cells, astrocytes (except for BD), and microglia (except for OCD); collectively, gene-expression profiles of the 3 cell types explain between 25% and 54% of variance in interregional profiles of group differences in cortical thickness. Principal component analysis revealed a shared profile of difference in cortical thickness across the 6 disorders (48% variance explained); interregional profile of this principal component 1 was associated with that of the pyramidal-cell gene expression (explaining 56% of interregional variation). Coexpression analyses of these genes revealed 2 clusters: (1) a prenatal cluster enriched with genes involved in neurodevelopmental (axon guidance) processes and (2) a postnatal cluster enriched with genes involved in synaptic activity and plasticity-related processes. These clusters were enriched with genes associated with all 6 psychiatric disorders.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this study, shared neurobiologic processes were associated with differences in cortical thickness across multiple psychiatric disorders. These processes implicate a common role of prenatal development and postnatal functioning of the cerebral cortex in these disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.2694DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7450410PMC
January 2021

Age dependency of body mass index distribution in childhood and adolescent inpatients with anorexia nervosa with a focus on DSM-5 and ICD-11 weight criteria and severity specifiers.

Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 Jul 14;30(7):1081-1094. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, University Hospital Essen (AöR), University of Duisburg-Essen, Wickenburgstrasse 21, 45147, Essen, Germany.

Both DSM-5 and ICD-11 have provided weight cut-offs and severity specifiers for the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (AN) in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. The aims of the current study focusing on inpatients aged < 19 years were to assess (1) the relationship between age and body mass index (BMI; kg/m), BMI-centiles, BMI-standard deviation scores (BMI-SDS) and body height-SDS at referral, (2) the percentages of patients fulfilling the DSM-5 and ICD-11 weight criteria and severity categories for AN, and (3) the validity of the AN severity specifiers via analysis of both weight related data at discharge and inpatient treatment duration. The German Registry for Anorexia Nervosa encompassed complete data sets for 469 female patients (mean age = 15.2 years; range 8.9-18.9 years) with a diagnosis of AN (n = 404) or atypical AN (n = 65), who were ascertained at 16 German child and adolescent psychiatric hospitals. BMI at referral increased up to age 15 to subsequently plateau. Approximately one tenth of all patients with AN had a BMI above the fifth centile. The ICD-11 specifier based on a BMI-centile of 0.3 for childhood and adolescent AN entailed two equally sized groups of patients. Discharge data revealed limited validity of the specifiers. Height-SDS was not correlated with age thus stunting had no impact on our data. We corroborate the evidence to use the tenth instead of the fifth BMI-centile as the weight criterion in children and adolescents. Weight criteria should not entail major diagnostic shifts during the transition from adolescence to adulthood. The severity specifiers based on BMI or BMI-centiles do not seem to have substantial clinical validity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00787-020-01595-4DOI Listing
July 2021

Correction to: Test-retest reliability of the computer-assisted DIA-X-5 interview for mental disorders.

BMC Psychiatry 2020 Jul 9;20(1):364. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Institute of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02762-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7346456PMC
July 2020

Subcortical Brain Volume, Regional Cortical Thickness, and Cortical Surface Area Across Disorders: Findings From the ENIGMA ADHD, ASD, and OCD Working Groups.

Am J Psychiatry 2020 09 16;177(9):834-843. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

The full list of authors in the ENIGMA working groups, author affiliations, author disclosures, and acknowledgments are provided in online supplements.

Objective: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are common neurodevelopmental disorders that frequently co-occur. The authors sought to directly compare these disorders using structural brain imaging data from ENIGMA consortium data.

Methods: Structural T-weighted whole-brain MRI data from healthy control subjects (N=5,827) and from patients with ADHD (N=2,271), ASD (N=1,777), and OCD (N=2,323) from 151 cohorts worldwide were analyzed using standardized processing protocols. The authors examined subcortical volume, cortical thickness, and cortical surface area differences within a mega-analytical framework, pooling measures extracted from each cohort. Analyses were performed separately for children, adolescents, and adults, using linear mixed-effects models adjusting for age, sex, and site (and intracranial volume for subcortical and surface area measures).

Results: No shared differences were found among all three disorders, and shared differences between any two disorders did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Children with ADHD compared with those with OCD had smaller hippocampal volumes, possibly influenced by IQ. Children and adolescents with ADHD also had smaller intracranial volume than control subjects and those with OCD or ASD. Adults with ASD showed thicker frontal cortices compared with adult control subjects and other clinical groups. No OCD-specific differences were observed across different age groups and surface area differences among all disorders in childhood and adulthood.

Conclusions: The study findings suggest robust but subtle differences across different age groups among ADHD, ASD, and OCD. ADHD-specific intracranial volume and hippocampal differences in children and adolescents, and ASD-specific cortical thickness differences in the frontal cortex in adults, support previous work emphasizing structural brain differences in these disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.19030331DOI Listing
September 2020

Test-retest reliability of the computer-assisted DIA-X-5 interview for mental disorders.

BMC Psychiatry 2020 06 5;20(1):280. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Institute of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Background: There is a need of comprehensive standardized diagnostic assessment tools of psychopathology that match recent changes in diagnostic classification systems, such as the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Therefore, the computer-assisted DIA-X-5 was developed and its test-retest reliability was explored. The DIA-X-5 is based on the DIA-X/M-CIDI (Diagnostisches Expertensystem für psychische Störungen/Munich-Composite International Diagnostic Interview) which referred to the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).

Methods: A convenience sample (N = 60, age: 15-67) was interviewed twice with the computer-assisted DIA-X-5 interview, on average nine days apart, by trained and blinded interviewers. The DIA-X-5 is a standardized instrument for research purposes covering symptoms, syndromes and diagnoses from eleven classes of mental disorders according to the DSM-5 with matching F codes of the 10th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10).

Results: Kappa values ranged from 0.90 for post-traumatic stress disorder to 0.30 for social anxiety disorder. For age of onset and age of recency, test-retest reliability as measured by intra-class correlation was satisfying with values above 0.90 for most disorders.

Conclusions: Test-retest reliability of the DIA-X-5 syndromes and diagnoses were comparable to those of previous DSM-IV/DIA-X diagnoses for most disorders. Due to low case numbers for some diagnoses, further research in larger samples is required.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02653-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275419PMC
June 2020

Increased power by harmonizing structural MRI site differences with the ComBat batch adjustment method in ENIGMA.

Neuroimage 2020 09 26;218:116956. Epub 2020 May 26.

CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain; FIDMAG Germanes Hospitalàries Research Foundation, Barcelona, Spain.

A common limitation of neuroimaging studies is their small sample sizes. To overcome this hurdle, the Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium combines neuroimaging data from many institutions worldwide. However, this introduces heterogeneity due to different scanning devices and sequences. ENIGMA projects commonly address this heterogeneity with random-effects meta-analysis or mixed-effects mega-analysis. Here we tested whether the batch adjustment method, ComBat, can further reduce site-related heterogeneity and thus increase statistical power. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses, mixed-effects mega-analyses and ComBat mega-analyses to compare cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volumes between 2897 individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and 3141 healthy controls from 33 sites. Specifically, we compared the imaging data between individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls, covarying for age and sex. The use of ComBat substantially increased the statistical significance of the findings as compared to random-effects meta-analyses. The findings were more similar when comparing ComBat with mixed-effects mega-analysis, although ComBat still slightly increased the statistical significance. ComBat also showed increased statistical power when we repeated the analyses with fewer sites. Results were nearly identical when we applied the ComBat harmonization separately for cortical thickness, cortical surface area and subcortical volumes. Therefore, we recommend applying the ComBat function to attenuate potential effects of site in ENIGMA projects and other multi-site structural imaging work. We provide easy-to-use functions in R that work even if imaging data are partially missing in some brain regions, and they can be trained with one data set and then applied to another (a requirement for some analyses such as machine learning).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.116956DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7524039PMC
September 2020

Consortium neuroscience of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder: The ENIGMA adventure.

Hum Brain Mapp 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Division of Psychological & Social Medicine and Developmental Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, Technischen Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Neuroimaging has been extensively used to study brain structure and function in individuals with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) over the past decades. Two of the main shortcomings of the neuroimaging literature of these disorders are the small sample sizes employed and the heterogeneity of methods used. In 2013 and 2014, the ENIGMA-ADHD and ENIGMA-ASD working groups were respectively, founded with a common goal to address these limitations. Here, we provide a narrative review of the thus far completed and still ongoing projects of these working groups. Due to an implicitly hierarchical psychiatric diagnostic classification system, the fields of ADHD and ASD have developed largely in isolation, despite the considerable overlap in the occurrence of the disorders. The collaboration between the ENIGMA-ADHD and -ASD working groups seeks to bring the neuroimaging efforts of the two disorders closer together. The outcomes of case-control studies of subcortical and cortical structures showed that subcortical volumes are similarly affected in ASD and ADHD, albeit with small effect sizes. Cortical analyses identified unique differences in each disorder, but also considerable overlap between the two, specifically in cortical thickness. Ongoing work is examining alternative research questions, such as brain laterality, prediction of case-control status, and anatomical heterogeneity. In brief, great strides have been made toward fulfilling the aims of the ENIGMA collaborations, while new ideas and follow-up analyses continue that include more imaging modalities (diffusion MRI and resting-state functional MRI), collaborations with other large databases, and samples with dual diagnoses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25029DOI Listing
May 2020

Automatic and Controlled Processing: Implications for Eating Behavior.

Nutrients 2020 Apr 15;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Division of Psychological and Social Medicine and Developmental Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Dresden, Germany.

It is a widely held view that humans have control over their food choices and consumption. However, research also suggests that eating behavior is often triggered by contextual cues and guided by automaticities and habits. Interestingly, the dichotomy between automatic and controlled processing has recently been challenged, suggesting that they may be intertwined. In a large female sample ( = 567), we investigated the hypothesis that task-based and self-reported measures of automatic and controlled processing would interact and impact self-reported eating behavior. Results analyzed via structural equation modeling suggest that automatic, but not controlled processing, during a modified flanker task, including a context-specific proportion congruent (CSPC) manipulation, was inversely associated with self-reported self-control. The influence of self-control on unhealthy eating behavior (i.e., uncontrolled and emotional eating, heightened consumption of fat and sugar) was only indirect via habitual behavior, which itself had a strong direct impact. Unhealthy eating was further associated with real-life outcomes (e.g., body mass index (BMI)). Our findings suggest that eating behavior may indeed be guided primarily by automaticities and habits, whereas self-control might facilitate this association. Having self-control over eating might therefore be most effective by avoiding contextual cues eliciting undesired automatic behavior and establishing habits that serve long-term goals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12041097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7230536PMC
April 2020

Strengthened Default Mode Network Activation During Delay Discounting in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa After Partial Weight Restoration: A Longitudinal fMRI Study.

J Clin Med 2020 Mar 25;9(4). Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Division of Psychological and Social Medicine and Developmental Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, Dresden University of Technology, 01069 Dresden, Germany.

The capacity of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) to resist food-based rewards is often assumed to reflect excessive self-control. Previous cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies utilizing the delay discounting (DD) paradigm, an index of impulsivity and self-control, suggested altered neural efficiency of decision-making in acutely underweight patients (acAN) and a relative normalization in long-term, weight-recovered individuals with a history of AN (recAN). The current longitudinal study tested for changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation during DD associated with intensive weight restoration treatment. A predominately adolescent cohort of 22 female acAN patients (mean age-15.5 years) performed an established DD paradigm during fMRI at the beginning of hospitalization and again after partial weight restoration (≥12% body mass index (BMI) increase). Analyses investigated longitudinal changes in both reward valuation and executive decision-making processes. Additional exploratory analyses included comparisons with data acquired in aged-matched healthy controls (HC) as well as probes of functional connectivity between empirically identified nodes of the "task-positive" frontoparietal control network (FPN) and "task-negative" default-mode network (DMN). While treatment was not associated with changes in behavioral DD parameters or activation, specific to reward processing, deactivation of the DMN during decision-making was significantly less pronounced following partial weight restoration. Strengthened DMN activation during DD might reflect a relative relaxation of cognitive overcontrol or improved self-referential, decision-making. Together, our findings present further evidence that aberrant decision-making in AN might be remediable by treatment and, therefore, might constitute an acute effect rather than a core trait variable of the disorder.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9040900DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7230250PMC
March 2020