Publications by authors named "Stefan D Jevtic"

2 Publications

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Case report and literature review of Huntington disease with intermediate CAG expansion.

BMJ Neurol Open 2020 9;2(1):e000027. Epub 2020 Feb 9.

Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Huntington disease (HD) is a genetically inherited neurodegenerative disorder that classically involves a trinucleotide CAG repeat expansion on chromosome 4, with 36 repeats or greater being disease identifying. It generally presents between the age of 30 and 40 years old and is characterised by severe caudate/striatum degeneration with huntingtin protein aggregation. We present here the case of a patient in her early 80s who presented with 5-year history of worsening chorea and family history of HD but an intermediate length CAG expansion.

Methods: Genetic testing of CAG repeats on chromosome 4. Postmortem brain tissue was obtained and stained using immunohistochemistry for amyloid-beta, tau and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Sections from the caudate/putamen were also analysed by p62 immunofluorescence. All sections were reviewed by trained neuropathologists.

Results: On genetic testing the patient was found to have a 28 CAG repeat on the longest expansion. Microscopic analysis revealed significant neuronal atrophy in the caudate and putamen with gliosis. Immunofluorescent staining demonstrated minimal intranuclear p62 inclusions suggesting little huntingtin aggregation present. Furthermore, there was significant amyloid-beta pathology (Thal-IV stage) and tau involvement in the medial temporal lobe (Braak stage II).

Conclusion: This case provides clinical and pathological evidence to support an emerging clinical entity involving HD presentation in late age with an intermediate CAG repeat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjno-2019-000027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7871728PMC
February 2020

Platelet-activating immune complexes identified in critically ill COVID-19 patients suspected of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 Feb 27. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Medicine, Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Background: Thrombocytopenia and thrombosis are prominent in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), particularly among critically ill patients; however, the mechanism is unclear. Such critically ill COVID-19 patients may be suspected of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), given similar clinical features.

Objectives: We investigated the presence of platelet-activating anti-platelet-factor 4 (PF4)/heparin antibodies in critically ill COVID-19 patients suspected of HIT.

Patients/methods: We tested 10 critically ill COVID-19 patients suspected of HIT for anti-PF4/heparin antibodies and functional platelet activation in the serotonin release assay (SRA). Anti-human CD32 antibody (IV.3) was added to the SRA to confirm FcγRIIA involvement. Additionally, SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were measured using an in-house ELISA. Finally, von Willebrand factor (VWF) antigen and activity were measured along with A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease with ThromboSpondin-13 Domain (ADAMTS13) activity and the presence of anti-ADAMTS13 antibodies.

Results: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia was excluded in all samples based on anti-PF4/heparin antibody and SRA results. Notably, six COVID-19 patients demonstrated platelet activation by the SRA that was inhibited by FcγRIIA receptor blockade, confirming an immune complex (IC)-mediated reaction. Platelet activation was independent of heparin but inhibited by both therapeutic and high dose heparin. All six samples were positive for antibodies targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) or the spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. These samples also featured significantly increased VWF antigen and activity, which was not statistically different from the four COVID-19 samples without platelet activation. ADAMTS13 activity was not severely reduced, and ADAMTS13 inhibitors were not present, thus ruling out a primary thrombotic microangiopathy.

Conclusions: Our study identifies platelet-activating ICs as a novel mechanism that contributes to critically ill COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15283DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8014456PMC
February 2021