Publications by authors named "Stefan Blankenberg"

567 Publications

Impact of left ventricular outflow tract calcification in patients undergoing transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

EuroIntervention 2021 Oct 19. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Cardiology, University Heart and Vascular Center Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) calcification is known to be associated with adverse outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in patients receiving first-generation transcatheter heart valves (THV).

Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of LVOT calcification as well as its impact on outcomes in a contemporary TAVI patient cohort.

Methods: This retrospective single-centre analysis includes 1,207 patients who underwent transfemoral TAVI between 2012 and 2018 and in whom adequate contrast-enhanced MSCT imaging for quantification of LVOT calcification was available.

Results: Significant LVOT calcification, defined as >10 mm3, was present in 37.4% (n=451) of the patient cohort. After applying propensity score matching there was no difference between patients without (w/o; n=358) and with (w; n=358) significant LVOT calcification with respect to baseline clinical characteristics. At 30 days, the composite of all-cause mortality and non-disabling/disabling stroke occurred more often in patients w LVOT calcification compared to those w/o (4.6 vs 10.1%, p=0.008). Moreover, the composite VARC-3 endpoint of device success at 30 days was in favour of patients w/o LVOT calcification (82.2% vs 73.4%, p=0.007). According to Kaplan-Meier analysis, all-cause mortality one year after TAVI was higher in patients w vs w/o LVOT calcification (12.9 vs 21.4 %, p=0.004).

Conclusions: In patients undergoing TAVI, the presence of significant LVOT calcification is common and associated with worse short-term clinical and functional outcomes as well as higher one-year mortality rates compared to patients w/o LVOT calcification.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-21-00464DOI Listing
October 2021

Cardiac SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with pro-inflammatory transcriptomic alterations within the heart.

Cardiovasc Res 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Cardiology, University Heart and Vascular Centre Hamburg, Germany.

Aims: Cardiac involvement in COVID-19 is associated with adverse outcome. However, it is unclear whether cell specific consequences are associated with cardiac SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, we investigated heart tissue utilizing in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and RNA-sequencing in consecutive autopsy cases to quantify virus load and characterize cardiac involvement in COVID-19.

Methods And Results: In this study, 95 SARS-CoV-2-positive autopsy cases were included. A relevant SARS-CoV-2 virus load in the cardiac tissue was detected in 41/95 deceased (43%). MACE-RNA-sequencing was performed to identify molecular pathomechanisms caused by the infection of the heart. A signature matrix was generated based on the single-cell dataset "Heart Cell Atlas" and used for digital cytometry on the MACE-RNA-sequencing data. Thus, immune cell fractions were estimated and revealed no difference in immune cell numbers in cases with and without cardiac infection. This result was confirmed by quantitative immunohistological diagnosis.MACE-RNA-sequencing revealed 19 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with a q-value <0.05 (e.g. up: IFI44L, IFT3, TRIM25; down: NPPB, MB, MYPN). The upregulated DEGs were linked to interferon pathways and originate predominantly from endothelial cells. In contrast, the downregulated DEGs originate predominately from cardiomyocytes. Immunofluorescent staining showed viral protein in cells positive for the endothelial marker ICAM1 but rarely in cardiomyocytes. The GO term analysis revealed that downregulated GO terms were linked to cardiomyocyte structure, whereas upregulated GO terms were linked to anti-virus immune response.

Conclusion: This study reveals, that cardiac infection induced transcriptomic alterations mainly linked to immune response and destruction of cardiomyocytes. While endothelial cells are primarily targeted by the virus, we suggest cardiomyocyte-destruction by paracrine effects. Increased pro-inflammatory gene expression was detected in SARS-CoV-2-infected cardiac tissue but no increased SARS-CoV-2 associated immune cell infiltration was observed.

Translational Perspective: Cardiac injury can be documented in COVID-19, regardless the direct cardiac virus infection and is known to be associated with outcome. However, the direct virus infection of the myocardium leads to transcriptomic alterations and might therefore additionally contribute to pathophysiological processes in COVID-19. Therefore, consequences of cardiac virus infection need to be investigated in future studies, since they might also contribute to long-term effects in case of survival.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvab322DOI Listing
October 2021

Impact of Center Volume on Outcomes in Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Cardiogenic Shock: A CULPRIT-SHOCK Substudy.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Oct 8;10(20):e021150. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Cardiology University Heart and Vascular Centre Hamburg Hamburg Germany.

Background Little is known about the impact of center volume on outcomes in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between center volume, treatment strategies, and subsequent outcome in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock. Methods and Results In this subanalysis of the randomized CULPRIT-SHOCK (Culprit Lesion Only PCI Versus Multivessel PCI in Cardiogenic Shock) trial, study sites were categorized based on the annual volume of acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock into low-/intermediate-/high-volume centers (<50; 50-100; and >100 cases/y). Subjects from the study/compulsory registry with available volume data were included. Baseline/procedural characteristics, overall treatment, and 1-year all-cause mortality were compared across categories. n=1032 patients were included in this study (537 treated at low-volume, 240 at intermediate-volume, and 255 at high-volume centers). Baseline risk profile of patients across the volume categories was similar, although high-volume centers included a larger number of older patients. Low-/intermediate-volume centers had more resuscitated patients (57.5%/58.8% versus 42.2%; <0.01), and more patients on mechanical ventilation in comparison to high-volume centers. There were no differences in reperfusion success despite considerable differences in adjunctive pharmacological/device therapies. There was no difference in 1-year all-cause mortality across volume categories (51.1% versus 56.5% versus 54.4%; =0.34). Conclusions In this study of patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock, considerable differences in adjunctive medical and mechanical support therapies were observed. However, we could not detect an impact of center volume on reperfusion success or mortality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.021150DOI Listing
October 2021

Association of iron deficiency with incident cardiovascular diseases and mortality in the general population.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Oct 5. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Department of Cardiology, University Heart and Vascular Center Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Aims: Although absolute (AID) and functional iron deficiency (FID) are known risk factors for patients with cardiovascular (CV) disease, their relevance for the general population is unknown. The aim was to assess the association between AID/FID with incident CV disease and mortality in the general population.

Methods And Results: In 12 164 individuals from three European population-based cohorts, AID was defined as ferritin < 100 μg/L or as ferritin < 30 μg/L (severe AID), and FID was defined as ferritin < 100 μg/L or ferritin 100-299 μg/L and transferrin saturation < 20%. The association between iron deficiency and incident coronary heart disease (CHD), CV mortality, and all-cause mortality was evaluated by Cox regression models. Population attributable fraction (PAF) was estimated. Median age was 59 (45-68) years; 45.2% were male. AID, severe AID, and FID were prevalent in 60.0%, 16.4%, and 64.3% of individuals. AID was associated with CHD [hazard ratio (HR) 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.39, P = 0.01], but not with mortality. Severe AID was associated with all-cause mortality (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.12-1.46, P < 0.01), but not with CV mortality/CHD. FID was associated with CHD (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.07-1.43, P < 0.01), CV mortality (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.03-1.54, P = 0.03), and all-cause mortality (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.24, P = 0.03). Overall, 5.4% of all deaths, 11.7% of all CV deaths, and 10.7% of CHD were attributable to FID.

Conclusions: In the general population, FID was highly prevalent, was associated with incident CHD, CV death, and all-cause death, and had the highest PAF for these events, whereas AID was only associated with CHD and severe AID only with all-cause mortality. This indicates that FID is a relevant risk factor for CV diseases in the general population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13589DOI Listing
October 2021

Diabetes status-related differences in risk factors and mediators of heart failure in the general population: results from the MORGAM/BiomarCaRE consortium.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2021 Sep 28;20(1):195. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Division of Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Kiinanmyllynkatu 2, 20521, Turku, Finland.

Background: The risk of heart failure among diabetic individuals is high, even under tight glycemic control. The correlates and mediators of heart failure risk in individuals with diabetes need more elucidation in large population-based cohorts with long follow-up times and a wide panel of biologically relevant biomarkers.

Methods: In a population-based sample of 3834 diabetic and 90,177 non-diabetic individuals, proportional hazards models and mediation analysis were used to assess the relation of conventional heart failure risk factors and biomarkers with incident heart failure.

Results: Over a median follow-up of 13.8 years, a total of 652 (17.0%) and 5524 (6.1%) cases of incident heart failure were observed in participants with and without diabetes, respectively. 51.4% were women and the mean age at baseline was 48.7 (standard deviation [SD] 12.5) years. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for heart failure among diabetic individuals was 2.70 (95% confidence interval, 2.49-2.93) compared to non-diabetic participants. In the multivariable-adjusted Cox models, conventional cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as smoking (diabetes: HR 2.07 [1.59-2.69]; non-diabetes: HR 1.85 [1.68-2.02]), BMI (diabetes: HR 1.30 [1.18-1.42]; non-diabetes: HR 1.40 [1.35-1.47]), baseline myocardial infarction (diabetes: HR 2.06 [1.55-2.75]; non-diabetes: HR 2.86 [2.50-3.28]), and baseline atrial fibrillation (diabetes: HR 1.51 [0.82-2.80]; non-diabetes: HR 2.97 [2.21-4.00]) had the strongest associations with incident heart failure. In addition, biomarkers for cardiac strain (represented by nT-proBNP, diabetes: HR 1.26 [1.19-1.34]; non-diabetes: HR 1.43 [1.39-1.47]), myocardial injury (hs-TnI, diabetes: HR 1.10 [1.04-1.16]; non-diabetes: HR 1.13 [1.10-1.16]), and inflammation (hs-CRP, diabetes: HR 1.13 [1.03-1.24]; non-diabetes: HR 1.29 [1.25-1.34]) were also associated with incident heart failure. In general, all these associations were equally strong in non-diabetic and diabetic individuals. However, the strongest mediators of heart failure in diabetes were the direct effect of diabetes status itself (relative effect share 43.1% [33.9-52.3] and indirect effects (effect share 56.9% [47.7-66.1]) mediated by obesity (BMI, 13.2% [10.3-16.2]), cardiac strain/volume overload (nT-proBNP, 8.4% [-0.7-17.4]), and hyperglycemia (glucose, 12.0% [4.2-19.9]).

Conclusions: The findings suggest that the main mediators of heart failure in diabetes are obesity, hyperglycemia, and cardiac strain/volume overload. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors are strongly related to incident heart failure, but these associations are not stronger in diabetic than in non-diabetic individuals. Active measurement of relevant biomarkers could potentially be used to improve prevention and prediction of heart failure in high-risk diabetic patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12933-021-01378-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8479921PMC
September 2021

Natriuretic Peptides and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Results From the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe (BiomarCaRE) Consortium.

Diabetes Care 2021 Nov 14;44(11):2527-2535. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany.

Objective: Natriuretic peptide (NP) concentrations are increased in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) but are associated with a lower diabetes risk. We investigated associations of N-terminal pro-B-type NP (NT-proBNP) and midregional proatrial NP (MR-proANP) with incident type 2 diabetes stratified by the presence of CVD.

Research Design And Methods: Based on the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe (BiomarCaRE) Consortium, we included 45,477 participants with NT-proBNP measurements (1,707 developed type 2 diabetes over 6.5 years of median follow-up; among these, 209 had CVD at baseline) and 11,537 participants with MR-proANP measurements (857 developed type 2 diabetes over 13.8 years of median follow-up; among these, 106 had CVD at baseline). The associations were estimated using multivariable Cox regression models.

Results: Both NPs were inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes (hazard ratios [95% CI] per 1-SD increase of log NP: 0.84 [0.79; 0.89] for NT-proBNP and 0.77 [0.71; 0.83] for MR-proANP). The inverse association between NT-proBNP and type 2 diabetes was significant in individuals without CVD but not in individuals with CVD (0.81 [0.76; 0.86] vs. 1.04 [0.90; 1.19]; multiplicative interaction = 0.001). There was no significant difference in the association of MR-proANP with type 2 diabetes between individuals without and with CVD (0.75 [0.69; 0.82] vs. 0.81 [0.66; 0.99]; multiplicative interaction = 0.236).

Conclusions: NT-proBNP and MR-proANP are inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes. However, the inverse association of NT-proBNP seems to be modified by the presence of CVD. Further investigations are warranted to confirm our findings and to investigate the underlying mechanisms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc21-0811DOI Listing
November 2021

Treatment-Relevant Findings in Transesophageal Echocardiography After Stroke: A Prospective Multicenter Cohort Study.

Stroke 2021 Sep 9:STROKEAHA121034868. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie, Kopf- und Neurozentrum, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany (G.T., M.U., M.J., J.S., E.B., B.C., C.G.).

Background And Purpose: Cardiac ultrasound to identify sources of cardioembolism is part of the diagnostic workup of acute ischemic stroke. Recommendations on whether transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) should be performed in addition to transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) are controversial. We aimed to determine the incremental diagnostic yield of TEE in addition to TTE in patients with acute ischemic stroke with undetermined cause.

Methods: In a prospective, observational, pragmatic multicenter cohort study, patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack with undetermined cause before cardiac ultrasound were studied by TTE and TEE. The primary outcome was the rate of treatment-relevant findings in TTE and TEE as defined by a panel of experts based on current evidence. Further outcomes included the rate of changes in the assessment of stroke cause after TEE.

Results: Between July 1, 2017, and June 30, 2019, we enrolled 494 patients, of whom 492 (99.6%) received TTE and 454 (91.9%) received TEE. Mean age was 64.7 years, and 204 (41.3%) were women. TEE showed a higher rate of treatment-relevant findings than TTE (86 [18.9%] versus 64 [14.1%], <0.001). TEE in addition to TTE resulted in 29 (6.4%) additional patients with treatment-relevant findings. Among 191 patients ≤60 years additional treatment-relevant findings by TEE were observed in 27 (14.1%) patients. Classification of stroke cause changed after TEE in 52 of 453 patients (11.5%), resulting in a significant difference in the distribution of stroke cause before and after TEE (<0.001).

Conclusions: In patients with undetermined cause of stroke, TEE yielded a higher number of treatment-relevant findings than TTE. TEE appears especially useful in younger patients with stroke, with treatment-relevant findings in one out of seven patients ≤60 years.

Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03411642.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.121.034868DOI Listing
September 2021

Gender differences in characteristics and outcomes in heart failure patients referred for end-stage treatment.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Cardiology, University Heart & Vascular Centre Hamburg, Martinistrasse 52, Hamburg, 20246, Germany.

Aims: Despite signals from clinical trials and mechanistic studies implying different resilience to heart failure (HF) depending on gender, the impact of gender on presentation and outcomes in patients with HF remains unclear. This study assessed the impact of gender on clinical presentation and outcomes in patients with HF referred to a specialised tertiary HF service.

Methods And Results: Consecutive patients with HF referred to a specialised tertiary HF service offering advanced therapy options including left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) and heart transplantation were prospectively enrolled from August 2015 until March 2018. We assessed clinical characteristics at baseline and performed survival analyses and age-adjusted Cox regression analyses in men vs. women for all-cause death and a combined disease-related endpoint comprising death, heart transplantation, and LVAD implantation. Analyses were performed for the overall study population and for patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Of 356 patients included, 283 (79.5%) were male. The median age was 58 years (interquartile range 50-67). Two hundred and fifty-one (74.5%) patients had HFrEF. HF aetiology, ejection fraction, functional status measures, and most of the cardiac and non-cardiac comorbidities did not differ between men and women. In a median follow-up of 3.2 years, 50 patients died (45 men, 5 women), 15 patients underwent LVAD implantation, and 8 patients heart transplantation. While all-cause death was not significantly different between both genders in the overall population [16.9 vs. 6.0%, P = 0.065, hazard ratio (HR) 2.29 (95% confidence interval 0.91-5.78), P = 0.078], in the HFrEF subgroup, a significant difference between men and women was observed [20.7% vs. 3.9%, P = 0.017, HR 3.67 (95% confidence interval 1.13-11.91), P = 0.031]. The combined endpoint was more often reached in men than in women in both the overall population [21.6% vs. 9.0%, P = 0.053, HR 2.51 (1.08-5.82), P = 0.032] and the HFrEF subgroup [27.1% vs. 7.7%, P = 0.015, HR 3.58 (1.29-9.94), P = 0.014].

Conclusions: Patients referred to a specialised tertiary HF service showed a similar clinical profile without relevant gender differences. In the mid-term follow-up, more male than female patients died or underwent heart transplantation and LVAD implantation. These findings call for independent validation and for further research into gender-specific drivers of HF progression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13567DOI Listing
September 2021

Associations of High-Sensitivity Troponin and Natriuretic Peptide Levels With Outcomes After Intensive Blood Pressure Lowering: Findings From the SPRINT Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas.

Importance: Elevated high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hscTnT) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) levels are associated with risk of heart failure (HF) and mortality among individuals in the general population. However, it is unknown if this risk is modifiable.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that elevated hscTnT and NTproBNP levels would identify individuals with the greatest risk for mortality and HF and the largest benefit associated with intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) lowering.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This is a nonprespecified post hoc analysis of the multicenter, prospective, randomized clinical Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), conducted from October 20, 2010, to August 20, 2015. A total of 9361 patients without diabetes with increased risk for cardiovascular disease were randomized to receive intensive vs standard SBP lowering. Statistical analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis from September 30, 2019, to July 29, 2021.

Interventions: Participants were randomized to undergo intensive (<120 mm Hg) or standard (<140 mm Hg) SBP lowering. High-sensitivity cardiac troponin T and NTproBNP levels were measured from stored specimens collected at enrollment, with elevated levels defined as 14 ng/L or more for hscTnT (to convert to micrograms per liter, multiply by 0.001) and 125 pg/mL or more for NTproBNP (to convert to nanograms per liter, multiply by 1.0).

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome of this ancillary study was HF and mortality.

Results: Of the 9361 participants enrolled in SPRINT, 8828 (5578 men [63.2%]; mean [SD] age, 68.0 [9.5] years) had measured hscTnT levels and 8836 (5585 men [63.2%]; mean [SD] age, 68.0 [9.5] years) had measured NTproBNP levels; 2262 of 8828 patients (25.6%) had elevated hscTnT levels, 3371 of 8836 patients (38.2%) had elevated NTproBNP, and 1411 of 8828 patients (16.0%) had both levels elevated. Randomization to the intensive SBP group led to a 4.9% (95% CI, 1.7%-7.5%) absolute risk reduction (ARR) over 4 years in death and HF (421 events) for those with elevated hscTnT and a 1.7% (95% CI, 0.7%-2.5%) ARR for those without elevated levels. Similarly, for those with elevated NTproBNP, the ARR for death and HF over 4 years was 4.6% (95% CI, 2.3%-6.5%) vs 1.8% (95% CI, 0.9%-2.5%) in those without elevated levels. For those with elevated levels of both biomarkers, the ARR for death and HF over 4 years was 7.8% (95% CI, 3.3%-11.3%) vs 1.7% (95% CI, 0.8%-2.3%) in those with neither biomarker elevated. No significant treatment group by biomarker category interactions were detected.

Conclusions And Relevance: Intensive SBP control led to large absolute differences in death and HF among patients with abnormal hscTnT and NTproBNP levels. These findings demonstrate that risk associated with elevation of these biomarkers is modifiable with intensive BP control. A prospective, randomized clinical trial is needed to evaluate whether these biomarkers may help guide selection of patients for intensive SBP lowering.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01206062.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2021.3187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8411355PMC
September 2021

Target Populations and Treatment Cost for Bempedoic Acid and PCSK9 Inhibitors: A Simulation Study in a Contemporary CAD Cohort.

Clin Ther 2021 Aug 24. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

University Heart and Vascular Center Hamburg, Department of Cardiology, Hamburg, Germany; German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK e.V.), partner site, Hamburg/Kiel/Lübeck, Germany. Electronic address:

Purpose: The lowered LDL-C treatment goal of the 2019 European Society of Cardiology dyslipidemia guidelines results in a significant increase in the projected need for cost-intensive proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors. Addition of bempedoic acid (BA) to established oral lipid-lowering medication (LLM) has the potential to enable affordable LDL-C goal attainment, particularly in patients with statin intolerance (SI). The goal of this study was to quantify the target populations for BA and PCSK9 inhibitors as well as the related treatment costs to achieve the LDL-C goal of <55 mg/dL and a ≥50% reduction assuming the addition of BA to LLM.

Methods: This study included 1922 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) from the contemporary observational cohort study INTERCATH. A Monte Carlo simulation incorporating an algorithm adding sequentially a statin, ezetimibe, optionally BA, and a PCSK9 inhibitor was applied to achieve the LDL-C treatment goal, with consideration of both partial and total SI. Two scenarios were simulated for both a moderate (2% full and 10% partial) and a high (12% full) rate of SI: (1) without BA; and (2) with BA.

Findings: Patients' mean age was 69.3 years, and the median baseline LDL-C level was 86.0 mg/dL. The need for a PCSK9 inhibitor would be 41.4% for a moderate rate of SI and 46.1% for a high rate of SI. Addition of BA would: (1) reduce the need for a PCSK9 inhibitor to 25.3% and 29.4%, thus lowering the annual overall treatment cost incurred through PCSK9 inhibitor ± BA per 1 million patients with CAD by 13.3% and 10.5%; (2) lower the cost per prevented event in the entire cohort (-5.0% and -6.3%), although at the price of fewer prevented events (-8.7% and -4.5%); and (3) reduce the cost per prevented event (-6.8% for both rates of SI) while preventing more events (7.6% and 6.9%) in the subpopulation of patients with full SI.

Implications: Use of BA is projected to reduce the need for PCSK9 inhibitors as well as the treatment cost for add-on LLM. The subpopulation of patients with full SI might profit particularly.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2021.07.019DOI Listing
August 2021

Applying the ESC 2016, H FPEF, and HFA-PEFF diagnostic algorithms for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction to the general population.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Oct 29;8(5):3603-3612. Epub 2021 Aug 29.

Department of Cardiology, University Heart and Vascular Center Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Aims: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is common in patients presenting with dyspnoea. Recently, clinical tools were developed to facilitate the diagnosis of HFpEF. Here, we apply the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2016 heart failure guidelines and the H FPEF and HFA-PEFF scores to a middle-aged sample of the general population and compared the different groups with each other.

Methods And Results: This study included the first 10 000 participants of the population-based Hamburg City Health Study. A total of 5613 subjects, aged 62 ± 8.7 years (51.1% women), qualified for the analysis. Unexplained dyspnoea was present in 407 (7.3%) subjects. In those, the estimated prevalence of HFpEF was 20.4% (ESC 2016), 12.3% (H FPEF), and 7.6% (HFA-PEFF). The majority of subjects was classified as HFpEF not excludable according to the HFA-PEFF (57.7%) and H FPEF (59.2%) scores. For all algorithms, subjects diagnosed with HFpEF showed elevated age and body mass index as well as a higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation, diabetes, and arterial hypertension compared with those without HFpEF or HFpEF not excludable. The distribution of those co-morbidities and risk factors varied between the differently diagnosed HFpEF groups with the highest burden in the HFpEF group defined by the H FPEF score. The overlap of subjects diagnosed with HFpEF according to the different algorithms was very limited.

Conclusions: Unexplained dyspnoea is common in the middle-aged general population. The ESC 2016 algorithm and the H FPEF and HFA-PEFF scores detect different, discordant subpopulations of probands with breathlessness. Further classification of the HFpEF syndrome is desirable.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8497222PMC
October 2021

Circulating Cellular Communication Network Factor 1 Protein as a Sensitive Liquid Biopsy Marker for Early Detection of Breast Cancer.

Clin Chem 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Tumor Biology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Despite recent progress in liquid biopsy technologies, early blood-based detection of breast cancer is still a challenge.

Methods: We analyzed secretion of the protein cellular communication network factor 1 (CCN1, formerly cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61) in breast cancer cell lines by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Soluble CCN1 in the plasma (2.5 µL) of 544 patients with breast cancer and 427 healthy controls was analyzed by ELISA. The breast cancer samples were acquired at the time of primary diagnosis prior to neoadjuvant therapy or surgery. A classifier was established on a training cohort of patients with breast cancer and age-adapted healthy controls and further validated on an independent cohort comprising breast cancer patients and healthy controls. Samples from patients with benign breast diseases were investigated as additional controls. Samples from patients with acute heart diseases (n = 127) were investigated as noncancer controls. The diagnostic accuracy was determined by receiver operating characteristic using the parameters area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity.

Results: CCN1 was frequently secreted by breast cancer cell lines into the extracellular space. Subsequent analysis of clinical blood samples from patients with breast cancer and age-adjusted healthy controls revealed an overall specificity of 99.0% and sensitivity of 80.0% for cancer detection. Remarkably, 81.5% of small T1 cancers were already CCN1-positive, while CCN1 concentrations in patients with benign breast lesions were below the threshold for breast cancer detection.

Conclusions: Circulating CCN1 is a potentially novel blood biomarker for the detection of breast cancer at the earliest invasive stage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/clinchem/hvab153DOI Listing
August 2021

A Biomarker Model to Distinguish Types of Myocardial Infarction and Injury.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Aug;78(8):781-790

Department of Cardiology, University Heart & Vascular Center, Hamburg, Germany; German Center for Cardiovascular Research, Partner Site Hamburg/Kiel/Lübeck, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Discrimination among patients with type 1 myocardial infarction (T1MI), type 2 myocardial infarction (T2MI), and myocardial injury is difficult.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the discriminative value of a 29-biomarker panel in an emergency department setting.

Methods: Patients presenting with suspected myocardial infarction (MI) were recruited. The final diagnosis in all patients was adjudicated on the basis of the fourth universal definition of MI. A panel of 29 biomarkers was measured, and multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations of these biomarkers with the diagnosis of MI or myocardial injury. Biomarkers were chosen using backward selection. The model was internally validated using bootstrapping.

Results: Overall, 748 patients were recruited (median age 64 years), of whom 138 had MI (107 T1MI and 31 T2MI) and 221 had myocardial injury. In the multivariable model, 4 biomarkers (apolipoprotein A-II, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, copeptin, and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I) remained significant discriminators between T1MI and T2MI. Internal validation of the model showed an area under the curve of 0.82. For discrimination between MI and myocardial injury, 6 biomarkers (adiponectin, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, pulmonary and activation-regulated chemokine, transthyretin, copeptin, and high-sensitivity troponin I) were selected. Internal validation showed an area under the curve of 0.84.

Conclusions: Among 29 biomarkers, 7 were identified to be the most relevant discriminators between subtypes of MI or myocardial injury. Regression models based on these biomarkers allowed good discrimination. (Biomarkers in Acute Cardiac Care [BACC]; NCT02355457).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.06.027DOI Listing
August 2021

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients with a small aortic annulus: performance of supra-, intra- and infra-annular transcatheter heart valves.

Clin Res Cardiol 2021 Aug 13. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Cardiology, University Heart and Vascular Center Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: A small aortic annulus is associated with increased risk of prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Whether specific transcatheter heart valve (THV) designs yield superior hemodynamic performance in these small anatomies remains unclear.

Methods: Data from 8411 consecutive patients treated with TAVI from May 2012 to April 2019 at four German centers were retrospectively evaluated. A small aortic annulus was defined as multidetector computed tomography-derived annulus area < 400 mm. TAVI was performed with a balloon-expanding intra-annular (Sapien-3, n = 288), self-expanding intra-annular (Portico, n = 110), self-expanding supra-annular (Evolut, n = 179 and Acurate-Neo, n = 428) and mechanically expanding infra-annular (Lotus, n = 64) THV according to local practice. PPM was defined as indexed effective orifice area ≤ 0.85cm/m.

Results: A small annulus was found in 1069 (12.7%) patients. PPM was detected in 38.3% overall with a higher prevalence after implantation of a balloon-expanding intra-annular or mechanically expanding infra-annular THV compared to self-expanding intra- and supra-annular THV. Multivariable analysis linked self-expanding THV (Evolut: Odds ratio [OR] 0.341, Acurate-Neo: OR 0.436, Portico: OR 0.291), postdilatation (OR 0.648) and age (OR 0.968) to lower rates of PPM, while aortic valve calcification was associated with an increased risk (OR 1.001). Paravalvular regurgitation > mild was more frequent after TAVI with self-expanding THV (p = 0.04).

Conclusion: In this large contemporary multicenter patient population, a substantial number of patients with a small aortic anatomy were left with PPM after TAVI. Self-expanding supra- and intra-annular THV demonstrated superior hemodynamics in these patients at risk, however at the cost of higher rates of residual paravalvular regurgitation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00392-021-01918-8DOI Listing
August 2021

Refined atrial fibrillation screening and cost-effectiveness in the German population.

Heart 2021 Aug 10. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

University of Sydney, Charles Perkins Centre, Heart Research Institute, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Objective: Little is known on optimal screening population for detecting new atrial fibrillation (AF) in the community. We describe characteristics and estimate cost-effectiveness for a single timepoint electrocardiographic screening.

Methods: We performed a 12-lead ECG in the German population-based Gutenberg Health Study between 2007 and 2012 (n=15 010), mean age 55±11 years, 51% men and collected more than 120 clinical and biomarker variables, including N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP), risk factors, disease symptoms and echocardiographic variables.

Results: Of 15 010 individuals, 466 (3.1%) had AF. New AF was found in 32 individuals, 0.2% of the total sample, 0.5% of individuals aged 65-74 years and predominantly men (86%). The classical risk factor burden was high in individuals with new AF. The median estimated stroke risk was 2.2%/year, while risk of developing heart failure was 21% over 10 years. In the 65-74 year age group, the cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained resulting from a single timepoint screening was €30 361. In simulations, the costs were highly sensitive to AF detection rates, proportion of treatment and type of oral anticoagulant. Prescreening by Nt-proBNP measurements was not cost-effective in the current setting.

Conclusions: In our middle-aged population cohort, we identified 0.2% new AF by single timepoint screening. There was a significant estimated risk of stroke and heart failure in these individuals. Cost-effectiveness for screening may be reached in individuals aged 65 years and older. The simple age cut-off is not improved by using Nt-proBNP as a biomarker to guide a screening programme.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2020-318882DOI Listing
August 2021

The association of anaemia and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin and its effect on diagnosing myocardial infarction.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Cardiology, University Heart & Vascular Center Hamburg, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

Aims: Anaemia is common in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). We investigated the association of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) and haemoglobin (Hb) and the influence of anaemia on the performance of diagnostic protocols for suspected MI.

Methods And Results: Patients with suspected MI were consecutively enrolled at a tertiary centre. Final diagnoses were independently adjudicated by two cardiologists. Performance measures of hs-cTn-based algorithms were compared for anaemic and non-anaemic patients (Hb <12 g/dL in women and <13 g/dL in men). The influence of anaemia on survival (median follow-up 1.7 years) was investigated using multivariable cox-regression analysis and the association of Hb and hs-cTn by multivariable linear regression analysis. Overall, 2223 patients were included, of whom 415 (18.7%) had anaemia. In anaemic patients, the incidence of MI was similar; however, chronic myocardial injury was significantly more prevalent (20.1% vs. 48.2%). The negative predictive value to rule-out MI was similar for both algorithms and all assays in patients with anaemia, although the positive predictive value to rule-in MI was partly reduced for the 0/3-h algorithm. Fewer anaemic patients were triaged after 1 h. Anaemia was an independent predictor of death. Adjusted for patient characteristics, Hb was significantly associated with hs-cTn. By providing a point-based tool, the Hb-associated hs-cTn concentration and thus chronic myocardial injury may be predicted.

Conclusion : Anaemia partly affects the rule-in, but not the rule-out of MI in hs-cTn-based diagnostic protocols. Hs-cTn concentrations and thus chronic myocardial injury may be predicted by clinical variables and Hb.

Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02355457 and NCT03227159).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjacc/zuab066DOI Listing
August 2021

Age-specific atrial fibrillation incidence, attributable risk factors and risk of stroke and mortality: results from the MORGAM Consortium.

Open Heart 2021 07;8(2)

Department of Cardiology, University Heart and Vascular Center Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: The main aim was to examine age-specific risk factor associations with incident atrial fibrillation (AF) and their attributable fraction in a large European cohort. Additionally, we aimed to examine risk of stroke and mortality in relation to new-onset AF across age.

Methods: We used individual-level data (n=66 951, 49.1% men, age range 40-98 years at baseline) from five European cohorts of the MOnica Risk, Genetics, Archiving and Monograph Consortium. The participants were followed for incident AF for up to 10 years and the association with modifiable risk factors from the baseline examinations (body mass index (BMI), hypertension, diabetes, daily smoking, alcohol consumption and history of stroke and myocardial infarction (MI)) was examined. Additionally, the participants were followed up for incident stroke and all-cause mortality after new-onset AF.

Results: AF incidence increased from 0.9 per 1000 person-years at baseline age 40-49 years, to 17.7 at baseline age ≥70 years. Multivariable-adjusted Cox models showed that higher BMI, hypertension, high alcohol consumption and a history of stroke or MI were associated with increased risk of AF across age groups (p<0.05). Between 30% and 40% of the AF risk could be attributed to BMI, hypertension and a history of stroke or MI. New-onset AF was associated with a twofold increase in risk of stroke and death at ages≥70 years (p≤0.001).

Conclusion: In this large European cohort aged 40 years and above, risk of AF was largely attributed to BMI, high alcohol consumption and a history MI or stroke from middle age. Thus, preventive measures for AF should target risk factors such as obesity and hypertension from early age and continue throughout life.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/openhrt-2021-001624DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8330568PMC
July 2021

Heyde syndrome: prevalence and outcomes in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

Clin Res Cardiol 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Cardiology, University Heart and Vascular Center Hamburg, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (UKE), Martinistrasse 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Heyde syndrome (HS) is known as the association of severe aortic stenosis (AS) and recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) from angiodysplasia. Data on the prevalence of HS and results after TAVI remain scarce.

Methods: 2548 consecutive patients who underwent TAVI for the treatment of AS from 2008 to 2017 were evaluated for a history of GIB and the presence of HS. The diagnosis of HS was defined as a clinical triad of severe AS, a history of recurrent GIB, and an endoscopic diagnosis of angiodysplasia. These patients (Heyde) were followed to investigate clinical outcomes, bleeding complications and the recurrence of GIB and were compared to patients with GIB unrelated to HS (Non-Heyde).

Results: A history of GIB prior to TAVI was detected in 190 patients (7.5%). Among them, 47 patients were diagnosed with HS (1.8%). Heyde patients required blood transfusions more frequently compared to Non-Heyde patients during index hospitalization (50.0% vs. 31.9%, p = 0.03). Recurrent GIB was detected in 39.8% of Heyde compared to 21.2% of Non-Heyde patients one year after TAVI (p = 0.03). In patients diagnosed with HS and recurrent GIB after TAVI, the rate of residual ≥ mild paravalvular leakage (PVL) was higher compared to those without recurrent bleeding (73.3% vs. 38.1%, p = 0.05).

Conclusion: A relevant number of patients undergoing TAVI were diagnosed with HS. Recurrent GIB was detected in a significant number of Heyde patients during follow-up. A possible association with residual PVL requires further investigation to improve treatment options and outcomes in patients with HS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00392-021-01905-zDOI Listing
July 2021

CMR-Based Risk Stratification of Sudden Cardiac Death and Use of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator in Non-Ischemic Cardiomyopathy.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 1;22(13). Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Clinic for Cardiology, University Heart and Vascular Center Hamburg Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

Non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) is one of the most important entities for arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Previous studies suggest a lower benefit of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy in patients with NICM as compared to ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). Nevertheless, current guidelines do not differentiate between the two subgroups in recommending ICD implantation. Hence, risk stratification is required to determine the subgroup of patients with NICM who will likely benefit from ICD therapy. Various predictors have been proposed, among others genetic mutations, left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left-ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDD), and T-wave alternans (TWA). In addition to these parameters, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) has the potential to further improve risk stratification. CMR allows the comprehensive analysis of cardiac function and myocardial tissue composition. A range of CMR parameters have been associated with SCD. Applicable examples include late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), T1 relaxation times, and myocardial strain. This review evaluates the epidemiological aspects of SCD in NICM, the role of CMR for risk stratification, and resulting indications for ICD implantation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22137115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8268120PMC
July 2021

Diastolic dysfunction in individuals with and without heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

Clin Res Cardiol 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Cardiology, University Heart and Vascular Center Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Aim: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (DD), a common finding in the general population, is considered to be associated with heart failure with preserved ejection faction (HFpEF). Here we evaluate the prevalence and correlates of DD in subjects with and without HFpEF in a middle-aged sample of the general population.

Methods And Results: From the first 10,000 participants of the population-based Hamburg City Health Study (HCHS), 5913 subjects (mean age 64.4 ± 8.3 years, 51.3% females), qualified for the current analysis. Diastolic dysfunction (DD) was identified in 753 (12.7%) participants. Of those, 11.2% showed DD without HFpEF (ALVDD) while 1.3% suffered from DD with HFpEF (DDwHFpEF). In multivariable regression analysis adjusted for major cardiovascular risk factors, ALVDD was associated with arterial hypertension (OR 2.0, p < 0.001) and HbA1c (OR 1.2, p = 0.007). Associations of both ALVDD and DDwHFpEF were: age (OR 1.7, p < 0.001; OR 2.7, p < 0.001), BMI (OR 1.2, p < 0.001; OR 1.6, p = 0.001), and left ventricular mass index (LVMI). In contrast, female sex (OR 2.5, p = 0.006), atrial fibrillation (OR 2.6, p = 0.024), CAD (OR 7.2, p < 0.001) COPD (OR 3.9, p < 0.001), and QRS duration (OR 1.4, p = 0.005) were strongly associated with DDwHFpEF but not with ALVDD.

Conclusion: The prevalence of DD in a sample from the first 10,000 participants of the population-based HCHS was 12.7% of whom 1.3% suffered from HFpEF. DD with and without HFpEF showed significant associations with different major cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities warranting further research for their possible role in the formation of both ALVDD and DDwHFpEF.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00392-021-01907-xDOI Listing
July 2021

Diagnostic Validation of a High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin I Assay.

Clin Chem 2021 Sep;67(9):1230-1239

Department of Cardiology, University Heart and Vascular Center Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: Emergency departments worldwide are increasingly adopting rapid diagnosis of patients with suspected myocardial infarction (MI) based on high-sensitivity troponin. We set out to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assay in a prospective study.

Methods: In a cohort study including 1800 patients presenting with suspected acute MI, we developed and temporally validated a 0/1 h diagnostic algorithm using the Siemens Atellica IM hs-cTnI assay. The algorithm was established in the first 928 patients and validated in the following 872 patients.

Results: The derived algorithm consisted of a baseline rule-out of non-ST-segment elevation MI using a cutoff <3 ng/L in patients with symptom onset ≥3 h or an admission troponin I level <6 ng/L with a Δ change of <3 ng/L from 0 h to 1 h. For rule-in, an admission troponin I level ≥120 ng/L or an increase within the first hour ≥12 ng/L was required. Application of the algorithm to the validation cohort showed a negative predictive value of 99.8% (95% CI, 98.7%-100.0%), sensitivity of 99.1% (95% CI, 95.1%-100.0%), and 48.3% of patients ruled out, whereas 15.1% were ruled in with a positive predictive value of 68.0% (95% CI, 59.1%-75.9%) and specificity of 94.4% (95% CI, 92.5%-96.0%). The diagnostic performance was comparable to guideline-recommended application of an established hs-cTnI assay in a rapid 0/1 h strategy.

Conclusions: The Siemens hs-cTnI assay is well suited for application in rapid diagnostic stratification of patients with suspected MI.

Study Registration: www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02355457).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/clinchem/hvab070DOI Listing
September 2021

Aortic root dimensions as a correlate for aortic regurgitation's severity.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Partner Site Hamburg/Kiel/Luebeck, Hamburg, Germany.

To evaluate the prevalence of aortic regurgitation (AR) and associations between the individual aortic root components and AR severity in the general population. The study included the first 10,000 participants of the population-based Hamburg City Health Study (HCHS) of whom 8259 subjects, aged 62.23 ± 8.46 years (51.3% females), enrolled 2016-2018, provided echocardiographic data. 69 subjects with bicuspid valves and 23 subjects with moderate/severe aortic stenosis were excluded. Aortic root dimensions were measured using state-of-the-art cardiac ultrasound, including the aortic annulus, sinus of Valsalva, sinotubular junction (STJ), and ascending aorta, in diastole and systole. The distribution of AR was: 932 (11.4%) mild, 208 (2.5%) moderate, and 20 (0.24%) severe. Patients with moderate or severe AR were predominantly male at advanced age who had hypertension, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, and renal dysfunction. Increasing AR severity correlated with higher absolute and indexed aortic root diameters (e.g., end-diastolic sinus of Valsalva for no-mild-moderate-severe AR in mm ± standard deviation: 34.06 ± 3.81; 35.65 ± 4.13; 36.13 ± 4.74; 39.67 ± 4.61; p < 0.001). In binary logistic regression analysis, all aortic root components showed significant associations with moderate/severe AR. Mid-systolic STJ showed the strongest association with moderate/severe AR (OR 1.33, 95% confidence interval 1.25-1.43, p < 0.001). AR was prevalent in 14.2%, of whom 2.8% showed moderate/severe AR. All assessed aortic root diameters correlated with the prevalence and severity of AR. STJ diameter had the strongest association with moderate/severe AR possibly reflecting the pathophysiological impact of an increasingly dilated STJ in the context of an ageing aorta.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10554-021-02337-6DOI Listing
July 2021

Cardiovascular profiling in the diabetic continuum: results from the population-based Gutenberg Health Study.

Clin Res Cardiol 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Cardiology - Cardiology I, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Langenbeckstr. 1, 55131, Mainz, Germany.

Aims: To assess the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and prediabetes in the general population and to investigate the associated cardiovascular burden and clinical outcome.

Methods And Results: The study sample comprised 15,010 individuals aged 35-74 years of the population-based Gutenberg Health Study. Subjects were classified into euglycaemia, prediabetes and T2DM according to clinical and metabolic (HbA1c) information. The prevalence of prediabetes was 9.5% (n = 1415) and of T2DM 8.9% (n = 1316). Prediabetes and T2DM showed a significantly increased prevalence ratio (PR) for age, obesity, active smoking, dyslipidemia, and arterial hypertension compared to euglycaemia (for all, P < 0.0001). In a robust Poisson regression analysis, prediabetes was established as an independent predictor of clinically-prevalent cardiovascular disease (PR 1.20, 95% CI 1.07-1.35, P = 0.002) and represented as a risk factor for asymptomatic cardiovascular organ damage independent of traditional risk factors (PR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.08, P = 0.025). Prediabetes was associated with a 1.5-fold increased 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease compared to euglycaemia. In Cox regression analysis, prediabetes (HR 2.10, 95% CI 1.76-2.51, P < 0.0001) and T2DM (HR 4.28, 95% CI 3.73-4.92, P < 0.0001) indicated for an increased risk of death. After adjustment for age, sex and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, only T2DM (HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.63-2.20, P < 0.0001) remained independently associated with increased all-cause mortality.

Conclusion: Besides T2DM, also prediabetes inherits a significant cardiovascular burden, which translates into poor clinical outcome and indicates the need for new concepts regarding the prevention of cardiometabolic disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00392-021-01879-yDOI Listing
June 2021

Prevention of coronary obstruction in patients at risk undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation: the Hamburg BASILICA experience.

Clin Res Cardiol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, University Heart and Vascular Center Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Objectives: This study aimed to assess the clinical outcome of the bioprosthetic or native aortic scallop intentional laceration to prevent iatrogenic coronary obstruction (BASILICA) technique in a single-center patient cohort considered at high or prohibitive risk of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)-induced coronary obstruction.

Methods: Between October 2019 and January 2021, a total of 15 consecutive patients (age 81.0 [78.1, 84.4] years; 53.3% female; EuroSCORE II 10.6 [6.3, 14.8] %) underwent BASILICA procedure prior to TAVI at our institution. Indications for TAVI were degeneration of stented (n = 12, 80.0%) or stentless (n = 1, 6.7%) bioprosthetic aortic valves, or calcific stenosis of native aortic valves (n = 2, 13.3%), respectively. Individual risk of TAVI-induced coronary obstruction was assessed by pre-procedural computed tomography analysis. Procedural and 30-day outcomes were documented in accordance with Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC)-2 criteria.

Results: BASILICA was attempted for single left coronary cusp in 12 patients (80.0%), for single right coronary cusp in 2 patients (13.3%), and for both cusps in 1 patient (6.7%), respectively. The procedure was feasible in 13 patients (86.7%) resulting in effective prevention of coronary obstruction, whilst TAVI was performed without prior successful bioprosthetic leaflet laceration in two patients (13.3%). In one of these patients (6.7%), additional chimney stenting immediately after TAVI was performed. No all-cause deaths or strokes were documented after 30 days.

Conclusion: The BASILICA technique appears to be a feasible, safe and effective concept to avoid iatrogenic coronary artery obstruction during TAVI in both native and bioprosthetic valves of patients at high or prohibitive risk. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04227002 (Hamburg AoRtic Valve cOhoRt).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00392-021-01881-4DOI Listing
June 2021

Eligibility for mechanical circulatory support devices based on current and past randomised cardiogenic shock trials.

Eur J Heart Fail 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Cardiology, University Heart and Vascular Center Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Aims: Mechanical circulatory support devices (MCS) are potentially effective treatments for cardiogenic shock (CS) and are thus evaluated in several randomised controlled trials (RCTs). However, it is not clear how enrolment criteria of these RCTs apply to a real-world CS population. This study aimed to shed light on eligibility to these trials.

Methods And Results: Pragmatic enrolment criteria for the IABP-SHOCK II, the DanGer-SHOCK, the ECLS-SHOCK and the EURO-SHOCK trials were retrospectively applied to 1305 CS patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital between 2009 and 2019. Based on this, major enrolment criteria were identified and outcome between eligible and ineligible patients was assessed. In this study, 415 (31.8%) patients were eligible for any study. Lowest eligibility was observed for DanGer-SHOCK (11.9%) and the highest for IABP-SHOCK II (26.9%). Over all trials, inclusion criteria were more restrictive than exclusion criteria and absence of CS caused by acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was the primary reason for non-eligibility. However, even in CS caused by AMI, enrolment criteria were only met in 65.4% of patients. Importantly, 30-day mortality was high across all patients/trials, irrespective of eligibility or non-eligibility.

Conclusion: The present study highlights that current and past RCTs only reflect about a third of the overall CS population. While enrolment criteria are a necessary aspect of RCTs, their application limits generalisability of the trials' findings. More trials on CS sub-populations not represented by current or past trials, e.g. CS not caused by AMI, are needed, especially as mortality is high irrespective of eligibility status.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.2274DOI Listing
June 2021

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance demonstrates structural cardiac changes following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt.

Sci Rep 2021 06 16;11(1):12719. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

I. Department of Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) reduces portal hypertension in patients with liver cirrhosis. The exact cardiac consequences of subsequent increase of central blood volume are unknown. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is the method of choice for quantifying cardiac volumes and ventricular function. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of TIPS on the heart using CMR, laboratory, and imaging cardiac biomarkers. 34 consecutive patients with liver cirrhosis were evaluated for TIPS. Comprehensive CMR with native T1 mapping, transthoracic echocardiography, and laboratory biomarkers were assessed before and after TIPS insertion. Follow-up (FU) CMR was obtained in 16 patients (47%) 207 (170-245) days after TIPS. From baseline (BL) to FU, a significant increase of all indexed cardiac chamber volumes was observed (all P < 0.05). Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic mass index increased significantly from 45 (38-51) to 65 (51-73) g/m (P =  < 0.01). Biventricular systolic function, NT-proBNP, high-sensitive troponin T, and native T1 time did not differ significantly from BL to FU. No patient experienced cardiac decompensation following TIPS. In conclusion, in patients without clinically significant prior heart disease, increased cardiac preload after TIPS resulted in increased volumes of all cardiac chambers and eccentric LV hypertrophy, without leading to cardiac impairment during follow-up in this selected patient population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92064-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8209000PMC
June 2021

Alcohol intake and total mortality in 142 960 individuals from the MORGAM Project: a population-based study.

Addiction 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy.

Aim: To test the association of alcohol consumption with total and cause-specific mortality risk.

Design: Prospective observational multi-centre population-based study.

Setting: Sixteen cohorts (15 from Europe) in the MOnica Risk, Genetics, Archiving and Monograph (MORGAM) Project.

Participants: A total of 142 960 individuals (mean age 50 ± 13 years, 53.9% men).

Measurements: Average alcohol intake by food frequency questionnaire, total and cause-specific mortality.

Findings: In comparison with life-time abstainers, consumption of alcohol less than 10 g/day was associated with an average 11% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 7-14%] reduction in the risk of total mortality, while intake > 20 g/day was associated with a 13% (95% CI = 7-20%) increase in the risk of total mortality. Comparable findings were observed for cardiovascular (CV) deaths. With regard to cancer, drinking up to 10 g/day was not associated with either mortality risk reduction or increase, while alcohol intake > 20 g/day was associated with a 22% (95% CI = 10-35%) increased risk of mortality. The association of alcohol with fatal outcomes was similar in men and women, differed somewhat between countries and was more apparent in individuals preferring wine, suggesting that benefits may not be due to ethanol but other ingredients. Mediation analysis showed that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol explained 2.9 and 18.7% of the association between low alcohol intake and total as well as CV mortality, respectively.

Conclusions: In comparison with life-time abstainers, consuming less than one drink per day (nadir at 5 g/day) was associated with a reduced risk of total, cardiovascular and other causes mortality, except cancer. Intake of more than two drinks per day was associated with an increased risk of total, cardiovascular and especially cancer mortality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.15593DOI Listing
June 2021

The Association of Periodontitis and Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease in a Prospective Population-Based Cross-Sectional Cohort Study.

J Clin Med 2021 May 11;10(10). Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Vascular Medicine, University Heart and Vascular Center UKE Hamburg, Research Group GermanVasc, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

Objectives: Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) and periodontitis are common chronic diseases, which together affect almost 1 billion people worldwide. There is growing evidence suggesting a relationship between chronic inflammatory conditions such as periodontitis and PAOD. This study aims to determine an association between both entities using high quality research data and multiple phenotypes derived from an epidemiological cohort study.

Design: This population-based cross-sectional cohort study included data from 3271 participants aged between 45 and 74 years enrolled in the Hamburg City Health Study (NCT03934957).

Material & Methods: An ankle-brachial-index below 0.9, color-coded ultrasound of the lower extremity arteries, and survey data was used to identify participants with either asymptomatic or symptomatic PAOD. Periodontitis data was collected at six sites per tooth and included the probing depth, gingival recession, clinical attachment loss, and bleeding on probing index. Multivariate analyses using logistic regression models were adjusted for variables including age, sex, smoking, education, diabetes, and hypertension.

Results: The baseline characteristics differed widely between participants neither affected by periodontitis nor PAOD vs. the group where both PAOD and severe periodontitis were identified. A higher rate of males, higher age, lower education level, smoking, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease was observed in the group affected by both diseases. After adjusting, presence of severe periodontitis (odds ratio 1.265; 97.5% CI 1.006-1.591; = 0.045) was independently associated with PAOD.

Conclusion: In this cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort study, an independent association between periodontitis and PAOD was revealed. The results of the current study emphasize a potential for preventive medicine in an extremely sensitive target population. Future studies should determine the underlying factors modifying the relationship between both diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10102048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8152001PMC
May 2021
-->