Publications by authors named "Stanley P Balcerzak"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of weekly oxaliplatin followed by paclitaxel in patients with solid tumors.

Clin Cancer Res 2008 Jun;14(11):3434-40

Division of Hematology and Oncology, The Ohio State University, A434B Starling Loving Hall, 320 West 10th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Purpose: Oxaliplatin and paclitaxel are widely used in treating solid tumors. We designed a phase I study with the purpose of determining the maximal tolerated dose and pharmacokinetic properties of weekly oxaliplatin followed by paclitaxel based on evidence suggesting that weekly administration of both drugs allows equivalent dose intensity with less neurotoxicity.

Experimental Design: Twenty-three patients with advanced solid tumors were treated. Starting doses were 35 mg/m2 oxaliplatin followed by 45 mg/m2 paclitaxel weekly for 4 weeks every 6 weeks. Dose was escalated as follows: 45 mg/m2 oxaliplatin and 45 mg/m2 paclitaxel, 60 mg/m2 oxaliplatin and 45 mg/m2 paclitaxel, and 60 mg/m2 oxaliplatin and 60 mg/m2 paclitaxel. Pharmacokinetic studies were evaluated during the first course of therapy for oxaliplatin using population kinetics approach.

Results: A total of 49 courses were administered. The dose-limiting toxicity was peripheral neuropathy with oxaliplatin and paclitaxel both at 60 mg/m2. There were three partial responses. There was evidence of pharmacokinetic interaction with a significant amount of total platinum (46.2-49.5%/24 h) eliminated in the urine in this group of patients, consistent with published data from others. The total body clearance values of plasma platinum and ultrafiltrable platinum were higher in this combination compared with corresponding values from our previous study with oxaliplatin only (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: The recommended phase II dose of this combination is 60 mg/m2 oxaliplatin followed by 45 mg/m2 paclitaxel. Evidence of antitumor activity and acceptable toxicity with this combination and schedule warrants further investigation. We have obtained more definitive pharmacokinetic properties of oxaliplatin and confirmed its drug interaction with paclitaxel in the current sequence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-4903DOI Listing
June 2008

Phase II evaluation of an intensified induction therapy with standard daunomycin and cytarabine followed by high dose cytarabine for adults with previously untreated acute myeloid leukemia: a Southwest Oncology Group study (SWOG-9500).

Am J Hematol 2007 Dec;82(12):1056-62

Division of Medical Oncology, Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Puget Sound Oncology Consortium, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA.

Induction therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) usually consists of 7 days of cytarabine at 100-200 mg/m(2)/day and an anthracycline. Such combinations produce complete response (CR) rates of 60-80% in patients with de novo AML. On the basis of a previous report, suggesting a higher CR rate using a regimen of standard daunomycin and cytarabine followed by 3 days of high-dose cytarabine (HDAC), 101 eligible patients received this regimen in a phase II trial. Sixty patients [59%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 49-69%] achieved a CR, and 10 patients died of infection during induction. Although cytogenetic risk group affected overall survival (P = 0.0016) and relapse-free survival (P = 0.0043), it had no impact on CR rate (P = 0.63). Patients received postremission therapy with repetitive courses of alternate day high-dose cytarabine; this was associated with considerable toxicity and the majority of patients could not receive all of the scheduled postremission therapy. The estimated median survival was 23 months (95% CI 15-34 months), and the estimated probability of surviving 5 years was 34% (95% CI 24-43%). The results of this intensive induction regimen were similar to that seen in previous trials and were not as promising as reported in the previous pilot study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.20994DOI Listing
December 2007

A phase II pilot study of high-dose 24-hour continuous infusion of 5-FU and leucovorin and low-dose PALA for patients with colorectal cancer: a Southwest Oncology Group study.

Invest New Drugs 2004 Nov;22(4):467-73

University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of this phase II multi-institutional study was to define the efficacy and toxicity of infusional 5-FU in combination with PALA and leucovorin in patients with advanced colorectal cancer.

Patients And Methods: Patients were required to have histologically confirmed colorectal cancer with distant metastases. The treatment regimen consisted of 5-FU 2600 mg/m(2) as a 24-hours continuous infusion given once a week, concurrently with leucovorin (LV) at 500 mg/m(2) as a 24-hour continuous infusion. PALA was administered 24 hours prior to 5-FU/LV at a dose of 250 mg/m(2) iv over 15 minutes weekly. Patients were continued on the assigned treatment regimen until progression of disease, unacceptable toxicity, or the patient declined further therapy.

Results: This study accrued 28 patients and all were eligible and evaluable for toxicity. Four patients had inadequate assessment of response and are considered non-responders. There was one complete response and five partial responses for an overall response rate of 6/28 or 21% (95% confidence interval 8-41%). Estimated median survival was 17.4 months (95% confidence interval 13.3-20.5 months). One patient died of a treatment related infection. This patient also had grade 4 diarrhea and vomiting.

Conclusion: The combination of 5-FU, leucovorin, and PALA in the doses and schedule used here, produces a response rate similar to other modulated schedules of 5-FU with similar survival and toxicity profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:DRUG.0000036689.28596.c6DOI Listing
November 2004

A phase II study of high-dose 24 hour continuous infusion 5-FU and leucovorin and low-dose PALA for patients with advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a Southwest Oncology Group Study.

Invest New Drugs 2004 Aug;22(3):335-41

University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of this phase II multi-institutional study was to define the efficacy and toxicity of infusional 5-FU in combination with PALA and leucovorin in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.

Patients And Methods: Patients were required to have histologically confirmed pancreatic cancer that was locally advanced, unresectable or disseminated. The treatment regimen consisted of weekly 5-FU 2600 mg/m(2) given concurrently with leucovorin at 500 mg/m(2). Both drugs were administered by 24-hour continuous infusion. PALA was administered 24 hours prior to the administration of 5-FU/LV at a dose of 250 mg/m(2) IV over 15 minutes weekly. Patients were continued on the assigned treatment regimen until progression of disease, unacceptable toxicity, or the patient declined further therapy.

Results: This study accrued 30 patients. Four of these patients were ineligible. All 26 eligible patients were evaluated for toxicity. One patient had inadequate assessment of response and was considered a non-responder. Three of the twenty-six eligible patients had partial responses, for a response rate of 12% (95% confidence interval 2% to 30%). All 26 eligible patients have died and the median overall survival was 7 months (95% confidence interval: 5.2 to 9 months). Four patients experienced grade 4 toxicities, including bilirubin increase (2 patients), vomiting (1 patient) and non-local skin ulceration (1). Two patients discontinued therapy due to toxicity.

Conclusion: The dual modulation of 5-FU with PALA and leucovorin in the dose and schedule used here, has a response rate similar to other single agents in pancreatic cancer and can result in some long term survival while having relatively mild toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:DRUG.0000026261.76197.54DOI Listing
August 2004

A Southwest Oncology Group Randomized Phase II Study of doxorubicin and paclitaxel as frontline chemotherapy for women with metastatic breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2004 05;85(2):143-50

James P. Wilmot Cancer Center, University of Rochester Medical Center, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Strong Memorial Hospital, Rochester, NY 14642-0001, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate whether the high complete response (CR) rates for the combination of doxorubicin and paclitaxel in metastatic breast cancer observed in two European studies could be replicated in a multi-institutional cooperative group trial.

Patients And Methods: This was a phase II study with 91 patients randomized between either doxorubicin (60 mg/m(2)) followed immediately by paclitaxel (200 mg/m(2) over 3 h) (AT), or with doxorubicin (60 mg/m(2)) followed immediately by cyclophosphamide (600 mg/m(2)) (AC). Treatment was limited to six cycles of therapy for the doxorubicin and paclitaxel combination. Left ventricular ejection fraction was evaluated at on study and after four and six cycles of treatment on AT.

Results: Estimates of overall objective response were 31% (with 9% CR) and 39% (with 11% CR) for patients on the AT and AC regimens, respectively. Response was lower than anticipated on the standard AC arm. On average the reduction of LVEF was similar in the two groups, with no patients developing congestive heart failure during the six cycles of therapy, although one patient in the AT group died of delayed congestive heart failure.

Conclusions: The results of this multi-institutional study in patients with metastatic breast cancer suggest that the combination of doxorubicin and paclitaxel is well tolerated with relatively low rates of cardiac toxicity if the total dose of doxorubicin is held to
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:BREA.0000025405.63953.f9DOI Listing
May 2004

Health status and quality of life in patients with early-stage Hodgkin's disease treated on Southwest Oncology Group Study 9133.

J Clin Oncol 2003 Sep;21(18):3512-9

University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Purpose: We describe the short and intermediate-term quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes in patients treated on a randomized clinical trial in early-stage Hodgkin's disease (Southwest Oncology Group [SWOG] 9133) comparing subtotal lymphoid irradiation (STLI) with combined-modality treatment (CMT).

Patients And Methods: Two hundred forty-seven patients participated in the QOL study (SWOG 9208), completing several standardized instruments (Symptom Distress Scale; Cancer Rehabilitation Evaluation System - Short Form; Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey Vitality Scale; and a health perception item), as well as questions about work, marital status, and concerns about having children. This article reports on results from baseline before random assignment, at 6 months, and at 1 and 2 years after random assignment.

Results: Patients receiving CMT experienced significantly greater symptom distress (P = .0001), [corrected] fatigue (P =.0001), [corrected] and poorer QOL (P =.015) at 6 months than the STLI patients, reflecting a shorter time since completion of therapy in the CMT arm. Importantly, patients in the two groups did not differ on any outcomes at the 1-and 2-year assessments. The study cohort at randomization exhibited more fatigue [corrected] than healthy reference populations. Fatigue levels did not exceed baseline estimates by the end of the study. [corrected].

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that patients with early-stage Hodgkin's disease experience a short-term decrease in QOL and an increase in symptoms and fatigue with treatment, which is more severe with CMT; by 1 year, however, CMT and STLI patients report similar outcomes. Fatigue scores for both arms were lower at baseline than scores for the general population and did not return to normal levels 2 years after random assignment. The mechanisms responsible for this lingering problem warrant further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2003.01.044DOI Listing
September 2003

High-dose ifosfamide with mesna and granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (recombinant human G-CSF) in patients with unresectable malignant mesothelioma.

Cancer 2003 Jul;98(2):331-6

Division of Medical Oncology, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, USA.

Background: The current study was conducted to assess the activity and toxicity of high-dose ifosfamide and mesna with recombinant human granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF), given in an outpatient setting, in the treatment of patients with unresectable malignant mesothelioma.

Methods: Between September 1994 and September 1996, 41 patients with histologically verified, unresectable malignant mesothelioma were registered, 38 of whom were analyzable (2 were ineligible and 1 was nonanalyzable). Patients received intravenous ifosfamide at a dose of 2.8 g/m2 over 3 hours (total dose of 14 g/m2), plus mesna at a dose of 0.56 g/m2 prior to and at 4 hours and 8 hours after ifosfamide infusion daily for 5 days every 21 days. rhG-CSF at a dose of 5 microg/kg/day was administered subcutaneously on days 6-15.

Results: Response assessment could be determined adequately in 21 patients. Two patients obtained responses; 1 was a confirmed partial response (3%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0-14%) and 1 was an unconfirmed response (3%; 95% CI, 5-14%). Eleven patients had stable disease (29%), 7 patients developed disease progression (18%), 1 patient had an early death (3%), and 17 patients had inadequate assessment (45%). At the time of last follow-up, 36 of the 38 eligible patients had developed disease progression, with a median progression-free survival of 5 months (95% CI, 3-7 months) and 34 patients had died with a median survival of 7 months (95% CI, 6-9 months). Twenty-four patients (63%) and 7 patients (18%), respectively, had Grade (according to Southwestern Oncology Group Toxicity Criteria) 4 hematologic toxicities and Grade 4 nonhematological toxicities. There was one treatment-related death, the result of infection, pulmonary edema, and renal failure.

Conclusions: This regimen demonstrated a low overall objective response rate with substantial toxicity, and in the opinion of the authors does not warrant further investigation in the treatment of patients with unresectable malignant mesothelioma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.11512DOI Listing
July 2003

Combination of fludarabine and mitoxantrone in untreated stages III and IV low-grade lymphoma: S9501.

J Clin Oncol 2003 May;21(10):1996-2003

University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, USA.

Purpose: To determine the efficacy of combination fludarabine and mitoxantrone (FN) in untreated stages III and IV low-grade lymphoma. The major end point was to estimate progression-free survival (PFS) in all eligible patients.

Patients And Methods: Seventy-eight eligible patients were registered. Chemotherapy courses were administered every 4 weeks with mitoxantrone 10 mg/m2 on day 1 and fludarabine 25 mg/m2 on days 1, 2, and 3 for a total of six to eight cycles. Pneumocystis carinii prophylaxis was required.

Results: Seventy-three patients (94%) attained an objective response. Complete remission was demonstrated in 34 patients (44%) and partial remission was demonstrated in 39 patients (50%). With a median follow-up time of 5.5 years, the median PFS was 32 months, with a 4-year PFS rate of 38%. Median survival has not been reached and 88% of all patients are alive at 4 years. The application of the International Prognostic Index and serologic staging showed significant differences in PFS in all risk groups, whereas overall survival was markedly worse for the highest-risk group in either prognostic model. Three prior Southwest Oncology Group trials using a regimen of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone or a combination of prednisone, vincristine, methotrexate, cytarabine, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, nitrogen mustard, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone in similar patient populations demonstrated comparable clinical outcome, although the 4-year survival for FN was better. FN was well tolerated, but mild to severe reversible myelosuppression was noted. Other complications were rare.

Conclusion: FN is an effective, safe chemotherapy combination for patients with advanced-stage, low-grade lymphoma. Clinical outcomes were comparable to prior published data using anthracycline-based regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2003.09.047DOI Listing
May 2003

Outcome after induction chemotherapy for older patients with acute myeloid leukemia is not improved with mitoxantrone and etoposide compared to cytarabine and daunorubicin: a Southwest Oncology Group study.

Blood 2002 Dec 1;100(12):3869-76. Epub 2002 Aug 1.

Katmai Oncology Group, Anchorage, AK, USA.

Complete remission and long-term survival rates are low for older adults treated for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Because of favorable phase 2 data using mitoxantrone and etoposide, we conducted a phase 3 study (SWOG-9333) in which patients over 55 years of age with previously untreated AML were randomized to receive mitoxantrone (10 mg/m(2) per day x 5) and etoposide (100 mg/m(2) per day x 5) [ME], or cytarabine (200 mg/m(2) per day x 7) and daunorubicin (45 mg/m(2) per day x 3) [AD] as induction therapy. The randomization was stratified by age, onset of leukemia, and multidrug resistance phenotype. Over a 4-year period, 328 eligible patients from 66 institutions were enrolled. The complete remission rate was 34% (95% confidence interval [CI] 26%-41%) for patients in the ME and 43% (CI 35%-51%) for patients in the AD treatment arm (one-tailed P value.96). The rates of resistant disease were 43% (CI 35%-51%) and 34% (CI 27%-42%), respectively, for the 2 treatment arms (one-tailed P value.95). The estimated overall survival at 2 years was 11% (CI 6%-15%) and 19% (CI 12%-25%) for patients randomized to ME and to AD induction therapy, respectively (one-tailed P value.99). After accounting for the independent prognostic factors associated with survival (karyotype, performance status, age, white blood cell count), exploratory analysis suggested there was a worse survival for patients who received ME compared with AD induction therapy (2-tailed P value.0066). We conclude that the results of our study do not demonstrate any benefit to the use of ME induction chemotherapy instead of AD in older patients with AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2001-12-0354DOI Listing
December 2002

Phase 1 and pharmacodynamic studies of G3139, a Bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotide, in combination with chemotherapy in refractory or relapsed acute leukemia.

Blood 2003 Jan 22;101(2):425-32. Epub 2002 Aug 22.

Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, and the Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ohio State University, Columbus 43210, USA.

Overexpression of Bcl-2 is a potential mechanism for chemoresistance in acute leukemia and has been associated with unfavorable clinical outcome. We hypothesized that down-regulation of Bcl-2 would restore chemosensitivity in leukemic cells. To test this hypothesis, we performed a phase 1 study of G3139 (Genasense, Genta, Berkeley Heights, NJ), an 18-mer phosphorothioate Bcl-2 antisense, with fludarabine (FL), cytarabine (ARA-C), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (FLAG) salvage chemotherapy in patients with refractory or relapsed acute leukemia. Twenty patients with refractory or relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were enrolled. G3139 was delivered by continuous infusion on days 1 to 10. FLAG chemotherapy was administered on days 5 to 10. Common side effects of this combination included fever, nausea, emesis, electrolyte imbalance, and fluid retention that were not dose limiting. Plasma pharmacokinetics of G3139 demonstrated steady-state concentration (Css) within 24 hours. Of the 20 patients, 9 (45%) had disease response, 6 (5 AML, 1 ALL) with complete remission (CR) and 3 (2 AML and 1 ALL) with no evidence of disease but failure to recover normal neutrophil and/or platelet counts or to remain in remission for at least 30 days (incomplete remission). Bcl-2 mRNA levels were down-regulated in 9 of the 12 (75%) evaluable patients. This study demonstrates that G3139 can be administered safely with FLAG chemotherapy and down-regulate its target, Bcl-2. The encouraging clinical and laboratory results justify the current plans for a phase 3 study in previously untreated high-risk AML (ie, age at least 60 years).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2002-06-1899DOI Listing
January 2003

A phase II study of CI-980 in previously untreated extensive small cell lung cancer: an Ohio State University phase II research consortium study.

Cancer Invest 2002 ;20(2):192-8

Division of Hematology/Oncology, James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute, Ohio, USA.

CI-980, (ethyl (S)-(5-amino-1,2-dihydro-2-methyl-3-phenylpyrido[3,4-b] pyrazine-7-yl) carbamate 2-hydroxyethansulfonate (1:1)), is a water-soluble mitotic inhibitor. It acts by binding to the colchicine-binding site on tubulin, a site different from that of the vinca alkaloids, inhibiting tubulin polymerization. Cells exposed to CI-980 accumulate in M phase and die. In preclinical tumor models, CI-980 showed a broad spectrum of activity, including in multi-drug resistant tumor cell lines, with activity at least equal to that of vincristine. Extensive small cell lung cancer, despite its responsiveness to chemotherapy, is usually an incurable disease with survival in patients of less than one year. Due to the preclinical activity of CI-980 and its similar mechanism of action to drugs effective in small cell lung cancer, a phase II trial in extensive small cell lung cancer was initiated by The Ohio State University Phase II Research Consortium. A "window of opportunity" design was chosen where a short six-week trial of the drug was given unless there was significant objective response. Twelve patients were entered in the study and underwent a total of 16 cycles of chemotherapy. The median age of the patients was 54 years old (range 34-71) and performance status was ECOG 0 (four patients), ECOG 1 (seven patients), and ECOG 2 (one patient). The patients were treated with a 72-hr infusion at a dose of 4.5 mg/m2/day. Toxicity was predominantly myelosuppression with granulocytopenia (nine episodes), and anemia (seven episodes). There were no objective responses with 11 patients being removed from study due to progressive disease. Evaluation of leukocyte microtubule structure in peripheral blood revealed microtubule depolymerization, which was seen after treatment (t = 72 hr) and was reversible within 24 hr of stopping the drug. We conclude that despite antitumor activity demonstrated in preclinical studies, CI-980 does not have biological activity in previously untreated small cell lung cancer at this dose and infusion protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/cnv-120001146DOI Listing
May 2002

A phase II study of topotecan in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: an Ohio State University phase II research consortium study.

Cancer Invest 2002 ;20(2):174-9

Ohio State University Medical Center and Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Research Institute, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Purpose: This multicenter phase II trial evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of the topoisomerase I inhibitor topotecan (TPT, 9-dimethylaminomethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin) in patients with refractory or relapsing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Patients And Methods: Thirty-two patients with previously treated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were accrued in this study from June 1992 to June 1997. Patients were eligible if they had measurable disease and had received two or less chemotherapy treatments for indolent lymphoma or no more than one treatment for aggressive lymphoma. Nineteen patients with aggressive lymphoma including seven with transformed indolent disease and 11 patients with indolent disease were treated. Two additional patients had both indolent and aggressive lymphoma in the bone marrow and lymph nodes at entrance into the study. Topotecan was administered as a 30-min infusion at a dose of 1.25 mg/m2 for five days and repeated at three week intervals.

Results: Thirty-two patients were evaluable for toxicity and 29 patients were evaluable for response. There were five objective responses including two complete remissions and three partial remissions (17%; CI 4-30%). Four of the five responders had aggressive disease and had been responsive to prior chemotherapy. The duration of remissions were short, lasting a median of 2 months (range 2-52 months). The major toxicity seen was myelosuppression with 28 of the 32 patients having grade three or greater granulocytopenia.

Conclusion: Topotecan given as a five day 30 min infusion at a dose of 1.25 mg/m2 has modest activity in previously treated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma as compared to other active agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/cnv-120001143DOI Listing
May 2002

Phase I trial of the histone deacetylase inhibitor, depsipeptide (FR901228, NSC 630176), in patients with refractory neoplasms.

Clin Cancer Res 2002 Mar;8(3):718-28

McGill University, Sir Mortimer B. Davis Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3T 1E2.

Purpose: The primary objectives of this trial were to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and to characterize the toxicities and pharmacokinetics of depsipeptide (FR901228) given on a day-1 and day-5 schedule every 21 days. A secondary objective of the trial was to seek evidence of antineoplastic activity.

Patients And Methods: Patients with advanced or refractory neoplasms received depsipeptide by a 4-h i.v. infusion on days 1 and 5 of a 21-day cycle. On the basis of preclinical data suggesting that depsipeptide may have significant cardiac toxicity, patients were treated while receiving continuous cardiac monitoring and were followed with serial cardiac enzyme determinations, electrocardiograms (ECGs), and nuclear ventriculograms (MUGA scans). The starting dose of the trial was 1 mg/m(2), and dose escalations proceeded through a total of eight dose levels to a maximum of 24.9 mg/m(2). Toxicities were graded using the National Cancer Institute common toxicity criteria, and pharmacokinetics were determined using a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method.

Results: Patients (37) received a total of 88 cycles of treatment on study (range: one to eight cycles). Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was observed, and the MTD exceeded at a dose of 24.9 mg/m(2). The DLTs included grade-3 fatigue (3 patients), grade-3 nausea and vomiting (1 patient), grade-4 thrombocytopenia (2 patients), and grade-4 cardiac arrhythmia (1 patient, atrial fibrillation). The MTD was defined at the seventh dose level (17.8 mg/m(2)). Reversible ST/T changes and mild reversible dysrhythmias were observed on the post-treatment ECG. There were no clinically significant changes in left ventricular ejection fraction. One patient achieved a partial response. The plasma disposition of depsipeptide was well described by a first-order, two-compartment model. The mean volume of distribution, clearance, t(1/2alpha) and t(1/2beta) at a dose of 17.8 mg/m(2) was: 8.6 liters/m(2), 11.6 liters/h/m(2), 0.42 h, and 8.1 h, respectively. The mean maximum plasma concentration at the MTD was 472.6 ng/ml (range: 249-577.8 ng/ml). Biological assays showed that the serum levels achieved could cause the characteristic cell cycle effects of this agent when serum was added to PC3 cells in culture, as well as increased histone acetylation in patient-derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Conclusion: The MTD of depsipeptide given on a day-1 and -5 schedule every 21 days is 17.8 mg/m(2). The DLTs are fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and transient thrombocytopenia and neutropenia. Whereas cardiac toxicity was anticipated based on preclinical data, there was no evidence of myocardial damage. However, reversible ECG changes with ST/T wave flattening were regularly observed. Biologically active serum concentrations were achieved, and 1 patient obtained a partial response. The recommended Phase II dose is 17.8 mg/m(2) administered on day 1 and 5 of a 21-day cycle.
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March 2002