Publications by authors named "Stanley Cheatham"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Chemotherapy induced gastrointestinal toxicities.

Adv Cancer Res 2022 21;155:131-166. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, United States.

Chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction is a common occurrence associated with many different classes of chemotherapeutic agents. Gastrointestinal toxicity includes mucositis, diarrhea, and constipation, and can often be a dose-limiting complication, induce cessation of treatment and could be life threatening. The gastrointestinal epithelium is rich in rapidly dividing cells and hence is a prime target for chemotherapeutic drugs. The incidence of gastrointestinal toxicity, including diarrhea and mucositis, is extremely high for a wide array of chemotherapeutic and radiation regimens. In fact, 60%-100% of patients on high-dose chemotherapy suffer from gastrointestinal side effects. Unfortunately, treatment options are limited, and therapy is often restricted to palliative care. Therefore, there is a great unmet therapeutic need for preventing and treating chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicities in the clinic. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying chemotherapy-induced diarrhea and mucositis, and emerging mechanisms involving the enteric nervous system, smooth muscle cells and enteric immune cells. Recent evidence has also implicated gut dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of not only chemotherapy-induced mucositis and diarrhea, but also chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Oxidative stress induced by chemotherapeutic agents results in post-translational modification of ion channels altering neuronal excitability. Thus, investigating how chemotherapy-induced changes in the gut- microbiome axis may lead to gut-related toxicities will be critical in the discovery of new drug targets for mitigating adverse gastrointestinal effects associated with chemotherapy treatment.
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July 2022

Morphine Exacerbates Experimental Colitis-Induced Depression of Nesting in Mice.

Front Pain Res (Lausanne) 2021 13;2:738499. Epub 2021 Dec 13.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, United States.

Opioids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are excellent analgesics, but recent clinical evidence suggests that these drugs might worsen disease severity in Crohn's disease patients, limiting their clinical utility for treating Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). One indicator of change in well-being from conditions such as IBD is behavioral depression and disruption to activities of daily living. Preclinical measures of behavioral depression can provide an indicator of changes in quality of life and subsequent modification by candidate analgesics. In mice, nesting is an adaptive unconditioned behavior that is susceptible to disruption by noxious stimuli, and some types of pain related nesting depression are responsive to opioid and NSAID analgesics. Here we show that a 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) model of experimental colitis depresses nesting behavior in mice, and we evaluated effects of morphine, an opioid, and ketoprofen, a NSAID, on TNBS-induced nesting depression. In Swiss Webster mice, TNBS significantly reduced nesting that peaked on Day 3 and recovered in a time-dependent manner with complete recovery by Day 7. In the absence of colonic inflammation, daily treatment with morphine (1-10 mg/kg) did not decrease nesting except at 10mg/kg/day. However, in TNBS-treated mice 3.2 mg/kg/day morphine significantly exacerbated TNBS-induced nesting depression and delayed recovery. While 3.2 mg/kg/day morphine alone did not alter locomotor activity and TNBS-induced depression of locomotion recovered, the combination of TNBS and 3.2 mg/kg/day morphine significantly attenuated locomotion and prevented recovery. Daily treatment with 3.2 or 10 mg/kg ketoprofen in TNBS-treated mice did not prevent depression of nesting. These data suggest that opioid analgesics but not NSAIDS worsen colonic inflammation-induced behavioral depression. Furthermore, these findings highlight the importance of evaluating analgesic effects in models of colonic inflammation induced depression of behavior.
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December 2021