Publications by authors named "Stanislava Macura"

4 Publications

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Efficacy and safety of once-weekly semaglutide 2·0 mg versus 1·0 mg in patients with type 2 diabetes (SUSTAIN FORTE): a double-blind, randomised, phase 3B trial.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2021 09 21;9(9):563-574. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background: Semaglutide is an effective treatment for type 2 diabetes; however, 20-30% of patients given semaglutide 1·0 mg do not reach glycaemic treatment goals. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of once-weekly semaglutide 2·0 mg versus 1·0 mg in adults with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes on a stable dose of metformin with or without a sulfonylurea.

Methods: We did a 40-week, randomised, active-controlled, parallel-group, double-blind, phase 3B trial (SUSTAIN FORTE) at 125 outpatient clinics in ten countries. Participants (≥18 years) with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes (HbA 8·0-10·0%) with metformin and with or without sulfonylurea were randomly assigned (1:1) by an interactive web-response system to 2·0 mg or 1·0 mg once-weekly semaglutide. Participants, site personnel, the clinical study group, and investigators were masked to the randomised treatment. Outcomes included change from baseline at week 40 in HbA (primary outcome) and bodyweight (secondary confirmatory outcome), evaluated through trial product estimand (no treatment discontinuation or without rescue medication) and treatment policy estimand (regardless of treatment discontinuation or rescue medication) strategies. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03989232; EudraCT, 2018-004529-96; and WHO, U1111-1224-5162.

Findings: Between June 19 and Nov 28, 2019, of 1515 adults assessed for eligibility, 961 participants (mean age 58·0 years [SD 10·0]; 398 [41%] women) were included. Participants were randomly assigned to once-weekly semaglutide 2·0 mg (n=480 [50%]) or 1·0 mg (n=481 [50%]); 462 (96%) patients in the semaglutide 2·0 mg group and 471 (98%) in the semaglutide 1·0 mg group completed the trial. Mean baseline HbA was 8·9% (SD 0·6; 73·3 mmol/mol [SD 6·9]) and BMI was 34·6 kg/m (SD 7·0). Mean change in HbA from baseline at week 40 was -2·2 percentage points with semaglutide 2·0 mg and -1·9 percentage points with semaglutide 1·0 mg (estimated treatment difference [ETD] -0·23 percentage points [95% CI -0·36 to -0·11]; p=0·0003; trial product estimand) and -2·1 percentage points with semaglutide 2·0 mg and -1·9 percentage points with semaglutide 1·0 mg (ETD -0·18 percentage points [-0·31 to -0·04]; p=0·0098; treatment policy estimand). Mean change in bodyweight from baseline at week 40 was -6·9 kg with semaglutide 2·0 mg and -6·0 kg with semaglutide 1·0 mg (ETD -0·93 kg [95% CI -1·68 to -0·18]; p=0·015; trial product estimand) and -6·4 kg with semaglutide 2·0 mg and -5·6 kg with semaglutide 1·0 mg (ETD -0·77 kg [-1·55 to 0·01]; p=0·054; treatment policy estimand). Gastrointestinal disorders were the most commonly reported adverse events (163 [34%] in the 2·0 mg group and 148 [31%] in the 1·0 mg group). Serious adverse events were similar between treatment groups, reported for 21 (4%) participants given semaglutide 2·0 mg and 25 (5%) participants given semaglutide 1·0 mg. Three deaths were reported during the trial (one in the semaglutide 1·0 mg group and two in the semaglutide 2·0 mg group).

Interpretation: Semaglutide 2·0 mg was superior to 1·0 mg in reducing HbA, with additional bodyweight loss and a similar safety profile. This higher dose provides a treatment intensification option for patients with type 2 diabetes treated with semaglutide in need of additional glycaemic control.

Funding: Novo Nordisk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(21)00174-1DOI Listing
September 2021

Superior weight loss with once-weekly semaglutide versus other glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists is independent of gastrointestinal adverse events.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2020 10;8(2)

Department of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, Institute of Life Course and Medical Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Introduction: Gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events (AEs) are the most common AEs with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs). Weight loss (WL) is slightly greater in people who experience GI AEs than those who do not. A previous mediation analysis of the SUSTAIN 1-5 trials indicated minor contribution of nausea/vomiting to the greater WL with once-weekly semaglutide versus comparators. Semaglutide demonstrated superior glycated hemoglobin and body weight (BW) reductions versus other GLP-1RAs in SUSTAIN 3 (versus exenatide extended release 2.0 mg), SUSTAIN 7 (versus dulaglutide) and SUSTAIN 10 (liraglutide 1.2 mg). The objective of this analysis was to assess if significantly greater WL with semaglutide versus other GLP-1RAs is mediated by nausea/vomiting and other GI AEs (diarrhea, constipation, dyspepsia) during dose escalation (baseline to week 12, when GI AEs are generally most prevalent) and from baseline to end of treatment (EOT: week 56 (SUSTAIN 3), 40 (SUSTAIN 7) or 30 (SUSTAIN 10)).

Research Design And Methods: Subjects within trials were subdivided into those who reported (yes/no) nausea/vomiting or any other GI AE. Change from baseline in BW was assessed within each trial and subgroup. A mediation analysis separated WL into direct or indirect (mediated by GI AEs) effects.

Results: From baseline to week 12 or EOT, the nausea/vomiting-mediated difference in WL was, respectively: 0.05 or 0.09 kg of 3.78 kg at EOT (SUSTAIN 3); 0.06 or 0.03 kg of 2.26 kg at EOT (low-dose comparison) and 0.08 or 0.04 kg of 3.55 kg at EOT (high-dose comparison) (SUSTAIN 7) and 0.05 or 0.09 kg of 3.82 kg at EOT (SUSTAIN 10).

Conclusions: In SUSTAIN 3, 7 and 10, nausea/vomiting by week 12 (end of dose escalation) or throughout treatment contributed minimally (<0.1 kg) to the superior WL with semaglutide versus GLP-1RA comparators at EOT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001706DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7594204PMC
October 2020

Impact of baseline characteristics and beta-cell function on the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous once-weekly semaglutide: A patient-level, pooled analysis of the SUSTAIN 1-5 trials.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2020 03 14;22(3):303-314. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Diabetes Research Unit Cymru, Swansea University Medical School, Swansea, UK.

Aim: To evaluate the impact of relevant patient-level characteristics on the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous, once-weekly semaglutide in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

Materials And Methods: Exploratory post hoc analyses of pooled SUSTAIN 1-5 (phase 3a) randomized, controlled trials examined the change from baseline in HbA1c and body weight (BW), and the proportions of subjects achieving the composite endpoint (HbA1c < 7.0% [53 mmol/mol]), without weight gain or severe/blood glucose-confirmed symptomatic hypoglycaemia at week 30 with semaglutide (0.5/1.0 mg) across clinically relevant patient subgroups: baseline HbA1c (≤7.5%, >7.5%-8.0%, >8.0%-8.5%, >8.5%-9.0% and > 9.0%), background medications, diabetes duration and pancreatic beta-cell function.

Results: Mean HbA1c (% point) reductions increased from lowest to highest HbA1c subgroups (-0.9%, -1.2%,-1.5%, -1.7% and -2.3% [effect of subgroup within treatment: P = 0.247] for semaglutide 0.5 mg, and -1.1%, -1.4%, -1.9%, -2.1% and -2.7% [P = 0.045] for semaglutide 1.0 mg), with mean HbA1c ranges at week 30 of 6.3%-7.3% and 6.1%-6.9%, respectively. The corresponding BW reductions generally decreased with increasing baseline HbA1c (-4.4, -3.9, -3.9, -3.3 and -2.9 kg [P = 0.004], and -6.4, -5.9, -5.2, -4.5 and -4.8 kg [P < 0.001], respectively). HbA1c and BW reductions were consistently greater for semaglutide 1.0 mg versus 0.5 mg across background medication, diabetes duration and pancreatic beta-cell function subgroups. Adverse events with semaglutide were consistent with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist class, with gastrointestinal events the most common.

Conclusions: Semaglutide was consistently efficacious across the continuum of diabetes care in a broad spectrum of patient subgroups with a range of clinical characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dom.13896DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7065219PMC
March 2020

TREATMENT INTENSIFICATION WITH INSULIN DEGLUDEC/INSULIN ASPART TWICE DAILY: RANDOMIZED STUDY TO COMPARE SIMPLE AND STEP-WISE TITRATION ALGORITHMS.

Endocr Pract 2016 May 31;22(5):546-54. Epub 2015 Dec 31.

Objective: This 26-week, multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, treat-to-target trial in adults with type 2 diabetes compared the efficacy and safety of treatment intensification algorithms with twice-daily (BID) insulin degludec/insulin aspart (IDegAsp).

Methods: Patients randomized 1:1 to IDegAsp BID used either a 'Simple' algorithm (twice-weekly dose adjustments based on a single prebreakfast and pre-evening meal self-monitored plasma glucose [SMPG] measurement; IDegAsp[BIDSimple], n = 136) or a 'Stepwise' algorithm (once-weekly dose adjustments based on the lowest of 3 pre-breakfast and 3 pre-evening meal SMPG values; IDegAsp[BIDStep-wise], n = 136).

Results: After 26 weeks, mean change from baseline in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) with IDegAsp[BIDSimple] was noninferior to IDegAsp[BIDStep-wise] (-15 mmol/mol versus -14 mmol/mol; 95% confidence interval [CI] upper limit, <4 mmol/mol) (baseline HbA1c: 66.3 mmol/mol IDegAsp[BIDSimple] and 66.6 mmol/mol IDegAsp[BIDStep-wise]). The proportion of patients who achieved HbA1c <7.0% (<53 mmol/mol) at the end of the trial was 66.9% with IDegAsp[BIDSimple] and 62.5% with IDegAsp[BIDStep-wise]. Fasting plasma glucose levels were reduced with each titration algorithm (-1.51 mmol/L IDegAsp[BIDSimple] versus -1.95 mmol/L IDegAsp[BIDStep-wise]). Weight gain was 3.8 kg IDegAsp[BIDSimple] versus 2.6 kg IDegAsp[BIDStep-wise], and rates of overall confirmed hypoglycemia (5.16 episodes per patient-year of exposure [PYE] versus 8.93 PYE) and nocturnal confirmed hypoglycemia (0.78 PYE versus 1.33 PYE) were significantly lower with IDegAsp[BIDStep-wise] versus IDegAsp[BIDSimple]. There were no significant differences in insulin dose increments between groups.

Conclusion: Treatment intensification with IDegAsp[BIDSimple] was noninferior to IDegAsp[BIDStep-wise]. Both titration algorithms were well tolerated; however, the more conservative step-wise algorithm led to less weight gain and fewer hypoglycemic episodes. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01680341.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4158/EP15893.ORDOI Listing
May 2016
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