Publications by authors named "Stacy Steinberg"

55 Publications

Genome-wide association study of more than 40,000 bipolar disorder cases provides new insights into the underlying biology.

Nat Genet 2021 06 17;53(6):817-829. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Neuroscience, Istituto Di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Bipolar disorder is a heritable mental illness with complex etiology. We performed a genome-wide association study of 41,917 bipolar disorder cases and 371,549 controls of European ancestry, which identified 64 associated genomic loci. Bipolar disorder risk alleles were enriched in genes in synaptic signaling pathways and brain-expressed genes, particularly those with high specificity of expression in neurons of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Significant signal enrichment was found in genes encoding targets of antipsychotics, calcium channel blockers, antiepileptics and anesthetics. Integrating expression quantitative trait locus data implicated 15 genes robustly linked to bipolar disorder via gene expression, encoding druggable targets such as HTR6, MCHR1, DCLK3 and FURIN. Analyses of bipolar disorder subtypes indicated high but imperfect genetic correlation between bipolar disorder type I and II and identified additional associated loci. Together, these results advance our understanding of the biological etiology of bipolar disorder, identify novel therapeutic leads and prioritize genes for functional follow-up studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00857-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192451PMC
June 2021

Genome-wide association study identifies 48 common genetic variants associated with handedness.

Nat Hum Behav 2021 01 28;5(1):59-70. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Institute of Biological Psychiatry, Mental Health Services of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Handedness has been extensively studied because of its relationship with language and the over-representation of left-handers in some neurodevelopmental disorders. Using data from the UK Biobank, 23andMe and the International Handedness Consortium, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of handedness (N = 1,766,671). We found 41 loci associated (P < 5 × 10) with left-handedness and 7 associated with ambidexterity. Tissue-enrichment analysis implicated the CNS in the aetiology of handedness. Pathways including regulation of microtubules and brain morphology were also highlighted. We found suggestive positive genetic correlations between left-handedness and neuropsychiatric traits, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Furthermore, the genetic correlation between left-handedness and ambidexterity is low (r = 0.26), which implies that these traits are largely influenced by different genetic mechanisms. Our findings suggest that handedness is highly polygenic and that the genetic variants that predispose to left-handedness may underlie part of the association with some psychiatric disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41562-020-00956-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7116623PMC
January 2021

Genome-wide association study of panic disorder reveals genetic overlap with neuroticism and depression.

Mol Psychiatry 2019 Nov 11. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Department of Psychology, Humboldt-University Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Panic disorder (PD) has a lifetime prevalence of 2-4% and heritability estimates of 40%. The contributory genetic variants remain largely unknown, with few and inconsistent loci having been reported. The present report describes the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) of PD to date comprising genome-wide genotype data of 2248 clinically well-characterized PD patients and 7992 ethnically matched controls. The samples originated from four European countries (Denmark, Estonia, Germany, and Sweden). Standard GWAS quality control procedures were conducted on each individual dataset, and imputation was performed using the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel. A meta-analysis was then performed using the Ricopili pipeline. No genome-wide significant locus was identified. Leave-one-out analyses generated highly significant polygenic risk scores (PRS) (explained variance of up to 2.6%). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) score regression analysis of the GWAS data showed that the estimated heritability for PD was 28.0-34.2%. After correction for multiple testing, a significant genetic correlation was found between PD and major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism. A total of 255 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with p < 1 × 10 were followed up in an independent sample of 2408 PD patients and 228,470 controls from Denmark, Iceland and the Netherlands. In the combined analysis, SNP rs144783209 showed the strongest association with PD (pcomb = 3.10  × 10). Sign tests revealed a significant enrichment of SNPs with a discovery p-value of <0.0001 in the combined follow up cohort (p = 0.048). The present integrative analysis represents a major step towards the elucidation of the genetic susceptibility to PD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-019-0590-2DOI Listing
November 2019

A polygenic resilience score moderates the genetic risk for schizophrenia.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 03 6;26(3):800-815. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Psychiatric Genetic Epidemiology & Neurobiology Laboratory (PsychGENe Lab), Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, USA.

Based on the discovery by the Resilience Project (Chen R. et al. Nat Biotechnol 34:531-538, 2016) of rare variants that confer resistance to Mendelian disease, and protective alleles for some complex diseases, we posited the existence of genetic variants that promote resilience to highly heritable polygenic disorders1,0 such as schizophrenia. Resilience has been traditionally viewed as a psychological construct, although our use of the term resilience refers to a different construct that directly relates to the Resilience Project, namely: heritable variation that promotes resistance to disease by reducing the penetrance of risk loci, wherein resilience and risk loci operate orthogonal to one another. In this study, we established a procedure to identify unaffected individuals with relatively high polygenic risk for schizophrenia, and contrasted them with risk-matched schizophrenia cases to generate the first known "polygenic resilience score" that represents the additive contributions to SZ resistance by variants that are distinct from risk loci. The resilience score was derived from data compiled by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, and replicated in three independent samples. This work establishes a generalizable framework for finding resilience variants for any complex, heritable disorder.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-019-0463-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058518PMC
March 2021

Genome-wide association study identifies 30 loci associated with bipolar disorder.

Nat Genet 2019 05 1;51(5):793-803. Epub 2019 May 1.

Department of Psychiatry, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA.

Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable psychiatric disorder. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) including 20,352 cases and 31,358 controls of European descent, with follow-up analysis of 822 variants with P < 1 × 10 in an additional 9,412 cases and 137,760 controls. Eight of the 19 variants that were genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10) in the discovery GWAS were not genome-wide significant in the combined analysis, consistent with small effect sizes and limited power but also with genetic heterogeneity. In the combined analysis, 30 loci were genome-wide significant, including 20 newly identified loci. The significant loci contain genes encoding ion channels, neurotransmitter transporters and synaptic components. Pathway analysis revealed nine significantly enriched gene sets, including regulation of insulin secretion and endocannabinoid signaling. Bipolar I disorder is strongly genetically correlated with schizophrenia, driven by psychosis, whereas bipolar II disorder is more strongly correlated with major depressive disorder. These findings address key clinical questions and provide potential biological mechanisms for bipolar disorder.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0397-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6956732PMC
May 2019

Identification of common genetic risk variants for autism spectrum disorder.

Nat Genet 2019 03 25;51(3):431-444. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, iPSYCH, Aarhus, Denmark.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable and heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental phenotypes diagnosed in more than 1% of children. Common genetic variants contribute substantially to ASD susceptibility, but to date no individual variants have been robustly associated with ASD. With a marked sample-size increase from a unique Danish population resource, we report a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 18,381 individuals with ASD and 27,969 controls that identified five genome-wide-significant loci. Leveraging GWAS results from three phenotypes with significantly overlapping genetic architectures (schizophrenia, major depression, and educational attainment), we identified seven additional loci shared with other traits at equally strict significance levels. Dissecting the polygenic architecture, we found both quantitative and qualitative polygenic heterogeneity across ASD subtypes. These results highlight biological insights, particularly relating to neuronal function and corticogenesis, and establish that GWAS performed at scale will be much more productive in the near term in ASD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0344-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454898PMC
March 2019

Correction: Dose response of the 16p11.2 distal copy number variant on intracranial volume and basal ganglia.

Mol Psychiatry 2020 Mar;25(3):692-695

Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Anzio Road, 7925, Cape Town, South Africa.

Prior to and following the publication of this article the authors noted that the complete list of authors was not included in the main article and was only present in Supplementary Table 1. The author list in the original article has now been updated to include all authors, and Supplementary Table 1 has been removed. All other supplementary files have now been updated accordingly. Furthermore, in Table 1 of this Article, the replication cohort for the row Close relative in data set, n (%) was incorrect. All values have now been corrected to 0(0%). The publishers would like to apologise for this error and the inconvenience it may have caused.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-019-0358-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7608381PMC
March 2020

Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies new loci and functional pathways influencing Alzheimer's disease risk.

Nat Genet 2019 03 7;51(3):404-413. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

MRC Biostatistics Unit, Cambridge Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is highly heritable and recent studies have identified over 20 disease-associated genomic loci. Yet these only explain a small proportion of the genetic variance, indicating that undiscovered loci remain. Here, we performed a large genome-wide association study of clinically diagnosed AD and AD-by-proxy (71,880 cases, 383,378 controls). AD-by-proxy, based on parental diagnoses, showed strong genetic correlation with AD (r = 0.81). Meta-analysis identified 29 risk loci, implicating 215 potential causative genes. Associated genes are strongly expressed in immune-related tissues and cell types (spleen, liver, and microglia). Gene-set analyses indicate biological mechanisms involved in lipid-related processes and degradation of amyloid precursor proteins. We show strong genetic correlations with multiple health-related outcomes, and Mendelian randomization results suggest a protective effect of cognitive ability on AD risk. These results are a step forward in identifying the genetic factors that contribute to AD risk and add novel insights into the neurobiology of AD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0311-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6836675PMC
March 2019

Meta-analysis of Alzheimer's disease on 9,751 samples from Norway and IGAP study identifies four risk loci.

Sci Rep 2018 12 27;8(1):18088. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Neurology, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway.

A large fraction of genetic risk factors for Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is still not identified, limiting the understanding of AD pathology and study of therapeutic targets. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of AD cases and controls of European descent from the multi-center DemGene network across Norway and two independent European cohorts. In a two-stage process, we first performed a meta-analysis using GWAS results from 2,893 AD cases and 6,858 cognitively normal controls from Norway and 25,580 cases and 48,466 controls from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project (IGAP), denoted the discovery sample. Second, we selected the top hits (p < 1 × 10) from the discovery analysis for replication in an Icelandic cohort consisting of 5,341 cases and 110,008 controls. We identified a novel genomic region with genome-wide significant association with AD on chromosome 4 (combined analysis OR = 1.07, p = 2.48 x 10). This finding implicated HS3ST1, a gene expressed throughout the brain particularly in the cerebellar cortex. In addition, we identified IGHV1-68 in the discovery sample, previously not associated with AD. We also associated USP6NL/ECHDC3 and BZRAP1-AS1 to AD, confirming findings from a follow-up transethnic study. These new gene loci provide further evidence for AD as a polygenic disorder, and suggest new mechanistic pathways that warrant further investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-36429-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6308232PMC
December 2018

Dose response of the 16p11.2 distal copy number variant on intracranial volume and basal ganglia.

Mol Psychiatry 2020 03 3;25(3):584-602. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Anzio Road, 7925, Cape Town, South Africa.

Carriers of large recurrent copy number variants (CNVs) have a higher risk of developing neurodevelopmental disorders. The 16p11.2 distal CNV predisposes carriers to e.g., autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. We compared subcortical brain volumes of 12 16p11.2 distal deletion and 12 duplication carriers to 6882 non-carriers from the large-scale brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging collaboration, ENIGMA-CNV. After stringent CNV calling procedures, and standardized FreeSurfer image analysis, we found negative dose-response associations with copy number on intracranial volume and on regional caudate, pallidum and putamen volumes (β = -0.71 to -1.37; P < 0.0005). In an independent sample, consistent results were obtained, with significant effects in the pallidum (β = -0.95, P = 0.0042). The two data sets combined showed significant negative dose-response for the accumbens, caudate, pallidum, putamen and ICV (P = 0.0032, 8.9 × 10, 1.7 × 10, 3.5 × 10 and 1.0 × 10, respectively). Full scale IQ was lower in both deletion and duplication carriers compared to non-carriers. This is the first brain MRI study of the impact of the 16p11.2 distal CNV, and we demonstrate a specific effect on subcortical brain structures, suggesting a neuropathological pattern underlying the neurodevelopmental syndromes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-018-0118-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7042770PMC
March 2020

MAP1B mutations cause intellectual disability and extensive white matter deficit.

Nat Commun 2018 08 27;9(1):3456. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

deCODE genetics/Amgen, Reykjavik, 101, Iceland.

Discovery of coding variants in genes that confer risk of neurodevelopmental disorders is an important step towards understanding the pathophysiology of these disorders. Whole-genome sequencing of 31,463 Icelanders uncovers a frameshift variant (E712KfsTer10) in microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B) that associates with ID/low IQ in a large pedigree (genome-wide corrected P = 0.022). Additional stop-gain variants in MAP1B (E1032Ter and R1664Ter) validate the association with ID and IQ. Carriers have 24% less white matter (WM) volume (β = -2.1SD, P = 5.1 × 10), 47% less corpus callosum (CC) volume (β = -2.4SD, P = 5.5 × 10) and lower brain-wide fractional anisotropy (P = 6.7 × 10). In summary, we show that loss of MAP1B function affects general cognitive ability through a profound, brain-wide WM deficit with likely disordered or compromised axons.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-05595-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6110722PMC
August 2018

MAP1B mutations cause intellectual disability and extensive white matter deficit.

Nat Commun 2018 08 27;9(1):3456. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

deCODE genetics/Amgen, Reykjavik, 101, Iceland.

Discovery of coding variants in genes that confer risk of neurodevelopmental disorders is an important step towards understanding the pathophysiology of these disorders. Whole-genome sequencing of 31,463 Icelanders uncovers a frameshift variant (E712KfsTer10) in microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B) that associates with ID/low IQ in a large pedigree (genome-wide corrected P = 0.022). Additional stop-gain variants in MAP1B (E1032Ter and R1664Ter) validate the association with ID and IQ. Carriers have 24% less white matter (WM) volume (β = -2.1SD, P = 5.1 × 10), 47% less corpus callosum (CC) volume (β = -2.4SD, P = 5.5 × 10) and lower brain-wide fractional anisotropy (P = 6.7 × 10). In summary, we show that loss of MAP1B function affects general cognitive ability through a profound, brain-wide WM deficit with likely disordered or compromised axons.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-05595-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6110722PMC
August 2018

Common schizophrenia alleles are enriched in mutation-intolerant genes and in regions under strong background selection.

Nat Genet 2018 03 26;50(3):381-389. Epub 2018 Feb 26.

Department of Neurology, Center for Autism Research and Treatment, Semel Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric condition often associated with poor quality of life and decreased life expectancy. Lack of progress in improving treatment outcomes has been attributed to limited knowledge of the underlying biology, although large-scale genomic studies have begun to provide insights. We report a new genome-wide association study of schizophrenia (11,260 cases and 24,542 controls), and through meta-analysis with existing data we identify 50 novel associated loci and 145 loci in total. Through integrating genomic fine-mapping with brain expression and chromosome conformation data, we identify candidate causal genes within 33 loci. We also show for the first time that the common variant association signal is highly enriched among genes that are under strong selective pressures. These findings provide new insights into the biology and genetic architecture of schizophrenia, highlight the importance of mutation-intolerant genes and suggest a mechanism by which common risk variants persist in the population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0059-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5918692PMC
March 2018

Truncating mutations in RBM12 are associated with psychosis.

Nat Genet 2017 Aug 19;49(8):1251-1254. Epub 2017 Jun 19.

deCODE Genetics/Amgen, Reykjavik, Iceland.

Thus far, a handful of highly penetrant mutations conferring risk of psychosis have been discovered. Here we used whole-genome sequencing and long-range phasing to investigate an Icelandic kindred containing ten individuals with psychosis (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or psychotic bipolar disorder). We found that all affected individuals carry RBM12 (RNA-binding-motif protein 12) c.2377G>T (P = 2.2 × 10), a nonsense mutation that results in the production of a truncated protein lacking a predicted RNA-recognition motif. We replicated the association in a Finnish family in which a second RBM12 truncating mutation (c.2532delT) segregates with psychosis (P = 0.020). c.2377G>T is not fully penetrant for psychosis; however, we found that carriers unaffected by psychosis resemble patients with schizophrenia in their non-psychotic psychiatric disorder and neuropsychological test profile (P = 0.0043) as well as in their life outcomes (including an increased chance of receiving disability benefits, P = 0.011). As RBM12 has not previously been linked to psychosis, this work provides new insight into psychiatric disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3894DOI Listing
August 2017

Polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder associate with addiction.

Addict Biol 2018 01 23;23(1):485-492. Epub 2017 Feb 23.

deCODE genetics/Amgen, Iceland.

We use polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD) to predict smoking, and addiction to nicotine, alcohol or drugs in individuals not diagnosed with psychotic disorders. Using PRSs for 144 609 subjects, including 10 036 individuals admitted for in-patient addiction treatment and 35 754 smokers, we find that diagnoses of various substance use disorders and smoking associate strongly with PRSs for SCZ (P = 5.3 × 10 -1.4 × 10 ) and BPD (P = 1.7 × 10 -1.9 × 10 ), showing shared genetic etiology between psychosis and addiction. Using standardized scores for SCZ and BPD scaled to a unit increase doubling the risk of the corresponding disorder, the odds ratios for alcohol and substance use disorders range from 1.19 to 1.31 for the SCZ-PRS, and from 1.07 to 1.29 for the BPD-PRS. Furthermore, we show that as regular smoking becomes more stigmatized and less prevalent, these biological risk factors gain importance as determinants of the behavior.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/adb.12496DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5811785PMC
January 2018

Genome-wide Association for Major Depression Through Age at Onset Stratification: Major Depressive Disorder Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium.

Biol Psychiatry 2017 02 24;81(4):325-335. Epub 2016 May 24.

Medical Genetics Section, Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a disabling mood disorder, and despite a known heritable component, a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies revealed no replicable genetic risk variants. Given prior evidence of heterogeneity by age at onset in MDD, we tested whether genome-wide significant risk variants for MDD could be identified in cases subdivided by age at onset.

Methods: Discovery case-control genome-wide association studies were performed where cases were stratified using increasing/decreasing age-at-onset cutoffs; significant single nucleotide polymorphisms were tested in nine independent replication samples, giving a total sample of 22,158 cases and 133,749 control subjects for subsetting. Polygenic score analysis was used to examine whether differences in shared genetic risk exists between earlier and adult-onset MDD with commonly comorbid disorders of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease, and coronary artery disease.

Results: We identified one replicated genome-wide significant locus associated with adult-onset (>27 years) MDD (rs7647854, odds ratio: 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.11-1.21, p = 5.2 × 10). Using polygenic score analyses, we show that earlier-onset MDD is genetically more similar to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder than adult-onset MDD.

Conclusions: We demonstrate that using additional phenotype data previously collected by genetic studies to tackle phenotypic heterogeneity in MDD can successfully lead to the discovery of genetic risk factor despite reduced sample size. Furthermore, our results suggest that the genetic susceptibility to MDD differs between adult- and earlier-onset MDD, with earlier-onset cases having a greater genetic overlap with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2016.05.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5262436PMC
February 2017

Meta-analysis of 375,000 individuals identifies 38 susceptibility loci for migraine.

Nat Genet 2016 08 20;48(8):856-66. Epub 2016 Jun 20.

Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Migraine is a debilitating neurological disorder affecting around one in seven people worldwide, but its molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. There is some debate about whether migraine is a disease of vascular dysfunction or a result of neuronal dysfunction with secondary vascular changes. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have thus far identified 13 independent loci associated with migraine. To identify new susceptibility loci, we carried out a genetic study of migraine on 59,674 affected subjects and 316,078 controls from 22 GWA studies. We identified 44 independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with migraine risk (P < 5 × 10(-8)) that mapped to 38 distinct genomic loci, including 28 loci not previously reported and a locus that to our knowledge is the first to be identified on chromosome X. In subsequent computational analyses, the identified loci showed enrichment for genes expressed in vascular and smooth muscle tissues, consistent with a predominant theory of migraine that highlights vascular etiologies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3598DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5331903PMC
August 2016

Identification of Common Genetic Variants Influencing Spontaneous Dizygotic Twinning and Female Fertility.

Am J Hum Genet 2016 May 28;98(5):898-908. Epub 2016 Apr 28.

QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, 4029 Brisbane, Australia.

Spontaneous dizygotic (DZ) twinning occurs in 1%-4% of women, with familial clustering and unknown physiological pathways and genetic origin. DZ twinning might index increased fertility and has distinct health implications for mother and child. We performed a GWAS in 1,980 mothers of spontaneous DZ twins and 12,953 control subjects. Findings were replicated in a large Icelandic cohort and tested for association across a broad range of fertility traits in women. Two SNPs were identified (rs11031006 near FSHB, p = 1.54 × 10(-9), and rs17293443 in SMAD3, p = 1.57 × 10(-8)) and replicated (p = 3 × 10(-3) and p = 1.44 × 10(-4), respectively). Based on ∼90,000 births in Iceland, the risk of a mother delivering twins increased by 18% for each copy of allele rs11031006-G and 9% for rs17293443-C. A higher polygenic risk score (PRS) for DZ twinning, calculated based on the results of the DZ twinning GWAS, was significantly associated with DZ twinning in Iceland (p = 0.001). A higher PRS was also associated with having children (p = 0.01), greater lifetime parity (p = 0.03), and earlier age at first child (p = 0.02). Allele rs11031006-G was associated with higher serum FSH levels, earlier age at menarche, earlier age at first child, higher lifetime parity, lower PCOS risk, and earlier age at menopause. Conversely, rs17293443-C was associated with later age at last child. We identified robust genetic risk variants for DZ twinning: one near FSHB and a second within SMAD3, the product of which plays an important role in gonadal responsiveness to FSH. These loci contribute to crucial aspects of reproductive capacity and health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2016.03.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4863559PMC
May 2016

Association of AADAC Deletion and Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome in a Large European Cohort.

Biol Psychiatry 2016 Mar 3;79(5):383-391. Epub 2015 Sep 3.

Clinic of Psychiatry, Social Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, and Institute of Human Genetics, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Background: Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder with a strong genetic influence where copy number variations are suggested to play a role in disease pathogenesis. In a previous small-scale copy number variation study of a GTS cohort (n = 111), recurrent exon-affecting microdeletions of four genes, including the gene encoding arylacetamide deacetylase (AADAC), were observed and merited further investigations.

Methods: We screened a Danish cohort of 243 GTS patients and 1571 control subjects for submicroscopic deletions and duplications of these four genes. The most promising candidate gene, AADAC, identified in this Danish discovery sample was further investigated in cohorts from Iceland, the Netherlands, Hungary, Germany, and Italy, and a final meta-analysis, including a total of 1181 GTS patients and 118,730 control subjects from these six European countries, was performed. Subsequently, expression of the candidate gene in the central nervous system was investigated using human and mouse brain tissues.

Results: In the Danish cohort, we identified eight patients with overlapping deletions of AADAC. Investigation of the additional five countries showed a significant association between the AADAC deletion and GTS, and a final meta-analysis confirmed the significant association (p = 4.4 × 10(-4); odds ratio = 1.9; 95% confidence interval = 1.33-2.71). Furthermore, RNA in situ hybridization and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction studies revealed that AADAC is expressed in several brain regions previously implicated in GTS pathology.

Conclusions: AADAC is a candidate susceptibility factor for GTS and the present findings warrant further genomic and functional studies to investigate the role of this gene in the pathogenesis of GTS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.08.027DOI Listing
March 2016

Heterozygote carriers for CNVs in PARK2 are at increased risk of Parkinson's disease.

Hum Mol Genet 2015 Oct 17;24(19):5637-43. Epub 2015 Jul 17.

deCODE Genetics/AMGEN, Reykjavik 101, Iceland, Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik IS-101, Iceland

Together with point mutations, homozygous deletions or duplications in PARK2 are responsible for the majority of autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinsonism. It is debated, however, whether heterozygous carriers of these mutations are at increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). Our goal was to determine whether heterozygous carriers of copy number variants (CNVs) affecting exons of the PARK2 gene are at risk of PD that is greater than that of non-carriers. We searched for CNVs affecting exons of PARK2 in a sample of 105 749 genotyped Icelanders. In total, 989 carriers, including 24 diagnosed with PD, were identified. The heterozygous carriers were tested for association in a sample of 1415 PD patients and 40 474 controls ≥65 years of age. PD patients were more often heterozygous carriers of PARK2 CNVs than controls [odds ratio (OR) = 1.69, P = 0.03] and compound heterozygous PD patients for a CNV and a missense mutation were not found. Furthermore, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies reporting on case-control samples screened for heterozygous PARK2 CNVs. Ten studies were included in the final analysis, with 4538 cases and 4213 controls. The pooled OR and P-value for the published and Icelandic results showed significant association between PARK2 CNVs and risk of PD (OR = 2.11, P = 2.54 × 10(-6)). Our analysis shows that heterozygous carriers of CNVs affecting exons of PARK2 have greater risk of PD than non-carriers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddv277DOI Listing
October 2015

Polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder predict creativity.

Nat Neurosci 2015 Jul 8;18(7):953-5. Epub 2015 Jun 8.

1] deCODE Genetics/Amgen, Reykjavík, Iceland. [2] Department of Anthropology, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.

We tested whether polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder would predict creativity. Higher scores were associated with artistic society membership or creative profession in both Icelandic (P = 5.2 × 10(-6) and 3.8 × 10(-6) for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder scores, respectively) and replication cohorts (P = 0.0021 and 0.00086). This could not be accounted for by increased relatedness between creative individuals and those with psychoses, indicating that creativity and psychosis share genetic roots.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nn.4040DOI Listing
July 2015

Polygenic Overlap Between C-Reactive Protein, Plasma Lipids, and Alzheimer Disease.

Circulation 2015 Jun 10;131(23):2061-2069. Epub 2015 Apr 10.

Departments of Medicine (Biomedical Genetics), Neurology, Ophthalmology, Biostatistics, and Epidemiology, Boston University Schools of Medicine and Public Health, Boston, MA.

Background: Epidemiological findings suggest a relationship between Alzheimer disease (AD), inflammation, and dyslipidemia, although the nature of this relationship is not well understood. We investigated whether this phenotypic association arises from a shared genetic basis.

Methods And Results: Using summary statistics (P values and odds ratios) from genome-wide association studies of >200 000 individuals, we investigated overlap in single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with clinically diagnosed AD and C-reactive protein (CRP), triglycerides, and high- and low-density lipoprotein levels. We found up to 50-fold enrichment of AD single-nucleotide polymorphisms for different levels of association with C-reactive protein, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride single-nucleotide polymorphisms using a false discovery rate threshold <0.05. By conditioning on polymorphisms associated with the 4 phenotypes, we identified 55 loci associated with increased AD risk. We then conducted a meta-analysis of these 55 variants across 4 independent AD cohorts (total: n=29 054 AD cases and 114 824 healthy controls) and discovered 2 genome-wide significant variants on chromosome 4 (rs13113697; closest gene, HS3ST1; odds ratio=1.07; 95% confidence interval=1.05-1.11; P=2.86×10(-8)) and chromosome 10 (rs7920721; closest gene, ECHDC3; odds ratio=1.07; 95% confidence interval=1.04-1.11; P=3.38×10(-8)). We also found that gene expression of HS3ST1 and ECHDC3 was altered in AD brains compared with control brains.

Conclusions: We demonstrate genetic overlap between AD, C-reactive protein, and plasma lipids. By conditioning on the genetic association with the cardiovascular phenotypes, we identify novel AD susceptibility loci, including 2 genome-wide significant variants conferring increased risk for AD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.015489DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4677995PMC
June 2015

Loss-of-function variants in ABCA7 confer risk of Alzheimer's disease.

Nat Genet 2015 May 25;47(5):445-7. Epub 2015 Mar 25.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Halle, Halle, Germany.

We conducted a search for rare, functional variants altering susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease that exploited knowledge of common variants associated with the same disease. We found that loss-of-function variants in ABCA7 confer risk of Alzheimer's disease in Icelanders (odds ratio (OR) = 2.12, P = 2.2 × 10(-13)) and discovered that the association replicated in study groups from Europe and the United States (combined OR = 2.03, P = 6.8 × 10(-15)).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3246DOI Listing
May 2015

The association between candidate migraine susceptibility loci and severe migraine phenotype in a clinical sample.

Cephalalgia 2016 Jun 9;36(7):615-23. Epub 2015 Feb 9.

The Danish Headache Center, Department of Neurology, Glostrup Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark

Introduction: The objective of the study was to follow up and to test whether 12 previously identified migraine-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms were associated as risk factors and/or modifying factors for severe migraine traits in a Danish clinic-based population.

Methods: Semi-structured migraine interviews, blood sampling and genotyping were performed on 1806 unrelated migraineurs recruited from the Danish Headache Center. Genotyping was also performed on a control group of 6415 people with no history of migraine. Association analyses were carried out using logistic regression and odds ratios were calculated assuming an additive model for risk. The proxies for severe migraine traits (early onset of migraine; many lifetime attacks, prolonged migraine and tendency to chronification of migraine) were tested against the 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms and a combined genetic score in both a case-control and case-only logistic regression model.

Results: We successfully replicated five out of the 12 previously reported loci and confirmed the same direction of effects for all the 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms. In line with the recently published genome-wide association meta-analysis, the associations were significant for all migraine and migraine without aura but not for migraine with typical aura. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2274316 and rs11172113) conferred risk of many lifetime attacks inthe case-control analysis. In the case-only analysis, only three single nucleotide polymorphisms showed nominal association with many lifetime attacks and prolonged migraine attacks.

Conclusion: Our study supports previously reported findings on the association of several single nucleotide polymorphisms with migraine. It also suggests that the migraine susceptibility loci may be risk factors for severe migraine traits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0333102415570492DOI Listing
June 2016

CNVs conferring risk of autism or schizophrenia affect cognition in controls.

Nature 2014 Jan 18;505(7483):361-6. Epub 2013 Dec 18.

1] University of Iceland, Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, IS-101 Reykjavík, Iceland [2] The State Diagnostic and Counselling Centre, Digranesvegur 5, IS-200 Kópavogur, Iceland.

In a small fraction of patients with schizophrenia or autism, alleles of copy-number variants (CNVs) in their genomes are probably the strongest factors contributing to the pathogenesis of the disease. These CNVs may provide an entry point for investigations into the mechanisms of brain function and dysfunction alike. They are not fully penetrant and offer an opportunity to study their effects separate from that of manifest disease. Here we show in an Icelandic sample that a few of the CNVs clearly alter fecundity (measured as the number of children by age 45). Furthermore, we use various tests of cognitive function to demonstrate that control subjects carrying the CNVs perform at a level that is between that of schizophrenia patients and population controls. The CNVs do not all affect the same cognitive domains, hence the cognitive deficits that drive or accompany the pathogenesis vary from one CNV to another. Controls carrying the chromosome 15q11.2 deletion between breakpoints 1 and 2 (15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion) have a history of dyslexia and dyscalculia, even after adjusting for IQ in the analysis, and the CNV only confers modest effects on other cognitive traits. The 15q11.2(BP1-BP2) deletion affects brain structure in a pattern consistent with both that observed during first-episode psychosis in schizophrenia and that of structural correlates in dyslexia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature12818DOI Listing
January 2014

A mouse model that recapitulates cardinal features of the 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome including schizophrenia- and epilepsy-related alterations.

Biol Psychiatry 2014 Jul 3;76(2):128-37. Epub 2013 Oct 3.

Neuroscience Research DK, H. Lundbeck A/S, Valby, Denmark. Electronic address:

Background: Genome-wide scans have uncovered rare copy number variants conferring high risk of psychiatric disorders. The 15q13.3 microdeletion is associated with a considerably increased risk of idiopathic generalized epilepsy, intellectual disability, and schizophrenia.

Methods: A 15q13.3 microdeletion mouse model (Df[h15q13]/+) was generated by hemizygous deletion of the orthologous region and characterized with focus on schizophrenia- and epilepsy-relevant parameters.

Results: Df(h15q13)/+ mice showed marked changes in neuronal excitability in acute seizure assays, with increased propensity to develop myoclonic and absence-like seizures but decreased propensity for clonic and tonic seizures. Furthermore, they had impaired long-term spatial reference memory and a decreased theta frequency in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Electroencephalogram characterization revealed auditory processing deficits similar to those observed in schizophrenia. Gamma band power was increased during active state, but evoked gamma power following auditory stimulus (40 Hz) was dramatically reduced, mirroring observations in patients with schizophrenia. In addition, Df(h15q13)/+ mice showed schizophrenia-like decreases in amplitudes of auditory evoked potentials. Although displaying a grossly normal behavior, Df(h15q13)/+ mice are more aggressive following exposure to mild stressors, similar to what is described in human deletion carriers. Furthermore, Df(h15q13)/+ mice have increased body weight, and a similar increase in body weight was subsequently found in a sample of human subjects with 15q13.3 deletion.

Conclusions: The Df(h15q13)/+ mouse shows similarities to several alterations related to the 15q13.3 microdeletion syndrome, epilepsy, and schizophrenia, offering a novel tool for addressing the underlying biology of these diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.08.014DOI Listing
July 2014

Genome-wide association analysis identifies 13 new risk loci for schizophrenia.

Nat Genet 2013 Oct 25;45(10):1150-9. Epub 2013 Aug 25.

1] Analytical and Translational Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. [2] Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. [3].

Schizophrenia is an idiopathic mental disorder with a heritable component and a substantial public health impact. We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) for schizophrenia beginning with a Swedish national sample (5,001 cases and 6,243 controls) followed by meta-analysis with previous schizophrenia GWAS (8,832 cases and 12,067 controls) and finally by replication of SNPs in 168 genomic regions in independent samples (7,413 cases, 19,762 controls and 581 parent-offspring trios). We identified 22 loci associated at genome-wide significance; 13 of these are new, and 1 was previously implicated in bipolar disorder. Examination of candidate genes at these loci suggests the involvement of neuronal calcium signaling. We estimate that 8,300 independent, mostly common SNPs (95% credible interval of 6,300-10,200 SNPs) contribute to risk for schizophrenia and that these collectively account for at least 32% of the variance in liability. Common genetic variation has an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia, and larger studies will allow more detailed understanding of this disorder.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.2742DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3827979PMC
October 2013
-->