Publications by authors named "Stéphanie Puget"

149 Publications

Clinical and molecular analysis of smoothened inhibitors in Sonic Hedgehog medulloblastoma.

Neurooncol Adv 2021 Jan-Dec;3(1):vdab097. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Pediatric and Adolescents Oncology, Gustave Roussy Cancer Institute, Paris Saclay University, Villejuif, France.

Background: Smoothened inhibitors (SMOi) have shown activity in Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) medulloblastoma, however this therapeutic class was not developed in children due to severe effects reported on growth. We hereby report long-term follow-up of young patients treated with SMOi for recurrent medulloblastoma.

Methods: Clinical data on response and toxicity from patients treated with vismodegib or sonidegib from 2011 to 2019 for a SHH medulloblastoma were retrospectively reviewed. Methylation analysis and whole exome sequencing were performed whenever possible.

Results: All patients with a somatic mutation responded to SMOi (6/8), including 2 prolonged complete responses. One patient was free of disease 8.2 years after treatment. SMOi was challenged again for 3 patients. Two of them had a response, one with SMOi alone, the other one in combination with temozolomide despite previous progression under monotherapy. SMO resistance mutations were found in patients from biopsy at relapse. Combination with temozolomide or surgery plus radiotherapy was associated with very long disease control in 2 patients. The most severe adverse events were myalgia and growth plate fusion with metaphyseal sclerosis. Normal growth velocity was recovered for 1 patient although her final height was below estimated target height.

Conclusions: Targeting SMO in mutated is an interesting strategy for long-term responses. Combination of SMOi with chemotherapy or surgery and local radiotherapy is an appealing strategy to prevent early resistance and diminish SMOi exposure, especially in young patients. Inhibition of SHH pathway causes growth and development impairment but partial recovery of the growth velocity is possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/noajnl/vdab097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8367281PMC
July 2021

Supratentorial non-RELA, ZFTA-fused ependymomas: a comprehensive phenotype genotype correlation highlighting the number of zinc fingers in ZFTA-NCOA1/2 fusions.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2021 08 13;9(1):135. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Necker Hospital, APHP, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France.

The cIMPACT-NOW Update 7 has replaced the WHO nosology of "ependymoma, RELA fusion positive" by "Supratentorial-ependymoma, C11orf95-fusion positive". This modification reinforces the idea that supratentorial-ependymomas exhibiting fusion that implicates the C11orf95 (now called ZFTA) gene with or without the RELA gene, represent the same histomolecular entity. A hot off the press molecular study has identified distinct clusters of the DNA methylation class of ZFTA fusion-positive tumors. Interestingly, clusters 2 and 4 comprised tumors of different morphologies, with various ZFTA fusions without involvement of RELA. In this paper, we present a detailed series of thirteen cases of non-RELA ZFTA-fused supratentorial tumors with extensive clinical, radiological, histopathological, immunohistochemical, genetic and epigenetic (DNA methylation profiling) characterization. Contrary to the age of onset and MRI aspects similar to RELA fusion-positive EPN, we noted significant histopathological heterogeneity (pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma-like, astroblastoma-like, ependymoma-like, and even sarcoma-like patterns) in this cohort. Immunophenotypically, these NFκB immunonegative tumors expressed GFAP variably, but EMA constantly and L1CAM frequently. Different gene partners were fused with ZFTA: NCOA1/2, MAML2 and for the first time MN1. These tumors had epigenetic homologies within the DNA methylation class of ependymomas-RELA and were classified as satellite clusters 2 and 4. Cluster 2 (n = 9) corresponded to tumors with classic ependymal histological features (n = 4) but also had astroblastic features (n = 5). Various types of ZFTA fusions were associated with cluster 2, but as in the original report, ZFTA:MAML2 fusion was frequent. Cluster 4 was enriched with sarcoma-like tumors. Moreover, we reported a novel anatomy of three ZFTA:NCOA1/2 fusions with only 1 ZFTA zinc finger domain in the putative fusion protein, whereas all previously reported non-RELA ZFTA fusions have 4 ZFTA zinc fingers. All three cases presented a sarcoma-like morphology. This genotype/phenotype association requires further studies for confirmation. Our series is the first to extensively characterize this new subset of supratentorial ZFTA-fused ependymomas and highlights the usefulness of ZFTA FISH analysis to confirm the existence of a rearrangement without RELA abnormality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40478-021-01238-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8362233PMC
August 2021

Toward a transitional care from childhood and adolescence to adulthood in surgical neurooncology? A lesson from the Necker-Enfants Malades and the Sainte-Anne Hospitals collaboration.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Jul 30:1-7. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

1Service de Neurochirurgie, GHU Paris-Hôpital Sainte-Anne, Paris.

Objective: Transitional care in surgical neurooncology is poorly studied. However, this period is pivotal, since it allows the patient to be empowered in his or her disease management. Here, the authors describe the experience of the Necker-Enfants Malades and the Sainte-Anne Hospital collaboration.

Methods: The mixed transitional consultations started in September 2019 in a dedicated space for transitional care, named the "La Suite" department, located in the Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris, France. The authors organized planned consultations to schedule the clinical and radiological follow-up in the adult neurosurgical department but also emergency consultations to manage tumor recurrence in young adult patients. Transitional care was performed jointly by pediatric and adult neurosurgeons who have developed clinical and research skills in the field of surgical neurooncology. Neuropathological analysis was performed by a neuropathologist who is specialized in pediatric and adult neurooncology.

Results: Fourteen patients benefited from a mixed transitional consultation. All of them accepted to start their management in an adult neurosurgical environment. Eleven patients (78.6%) for whom the disease was controlled benefited from a planned consultation. Three patients (21.4%) required rapid neurosurgical management for a tumor recurrence (n = 2) or for a new primary CNS tumor (n = 1) and benefited from an emergency consultation.

Conclusions: For adult patients harboring a brain tumor during childhood or adolescence, the authors suggest that neurosurgeons specialized in adult surgical neurooncology with a full knowledge in pediatric neurooncology will combine the required skills to optimize care management for these patients within a dedicated multidisciplinary organization framework.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2021.3.PEDS2141DOI Listing
July 2021

An integrative histopathological and epigenetic characterization of primary intracranial mesenchymal tumors, FET:CREB-fused broadening the spectrum of tumor entities in comparison with their soft tissue counterparts.

Brain Pathol 2021 Jul 27:e13010. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Neuropathology, GHU Paris-Psychiatrie et Neurosciences, Sainte-Anne Hospital, Paris, France.

FET:CREB fusions have been described in a variety of tumors from various phenotypes. Recently, these fusion transcripts were reported in intracranial tumors, variably named intracranial mesenchymal myxoid tumors or angiomatoid fibrous histiocytomas. Controversy remains concerning the terminology for these tumors. Here, we report 11 cases of central nervous system mesenchymal tumors with proven FET:CREB fusion. Most DNA methylation profiles were not classifiable using the Heidelberg Brain Tumor or Sarcoma Classifier (v11b4/v12.2). However, by using unsupervised t-SNE and hierarchical clustering analyses, six of the cases constituted a distinct cluster. The remaining four tumors showed no obvious relation to any of the other referenced classes but were close to the clusters of extra-CNS angiomatoid fibrous histiocytomas (n = 1), clear cell sarcomas (n = 1), or solitary fibrous tumors (n = 2). Our findings confirm that intracranial FET:CREB-fused tumors do not represent a single molecular tumor entity, although most samples clustered close to each other, indicating the existence of a distinct epigenetic group that could potentially be partially masked by the low number of cases included. Further analyses are needed to characterize intracranial FET:CREB fused-defined tumors in more detail.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.13010DOI Listing
July 2021

A CBF decrease in the left supplementary motor areas: New insight into postoperative pediatric cerebellar mutism syndrome using arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2021 Jul 14:271678X211031321. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Paediatric Neurosurgery Department, AP-HP, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Postoperative pediatric cerebellar mutism syndrome (pCMS), characterized mainly by delayed onset transient mutism is a poorly understood complication that may occur after pediatric medulloblastoma (MB) resection. Our aim was to investigate postoperative changes in whole-brain cerebral blood flow (CBF) at rest in pCMS patients using arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion imaging. This study compared preoperative and postoperative T2-weighted signal abnormalities and CBF using a voxel-wise, whole-brain analysis in 27 children undergoing MB resection, including 11 patients who developed mutism and 16 who did not. Comparison of postoperative T2 signal abnormalities between patients who developed pCMS (mean age 7.0 years) and those who did not showed that pCMS (mean age 8.9 years) patients were significantly more likely to present with T2-weighted hyperintensities in the right dentate nucleus (DN) (p = 0.02). Comparison of preoperative and postoperative CBF in patients with pCMS showed a significant postoperative CBF decrease in the left pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) (p = 0.007) and SMA (p = 0.009). In patients who did not develop pCMS, no significant differences were observed. Findings provide evidence of an association between pCMS, injury to the right DN, and left pre-SMA/SMA hypoperfusion, areas responsible for speech. This supports the relevance of CBF investigations in pCMS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0271678X211031321DOI Listing
July 2021

Radiogenomics of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs): correlation of histological and biological characteristics with multimodal MRI features.

Eur Radiol 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Pediatric Radiology Department, AP-HP, Hôpital Universitaire Necker-Enfants Malades, 149 rue de Sèvres, F-75015, Paris, France.

Objectives: The diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are now defined by the type of histone H3 mutated at lysine 27. We aimed to correlate the multimodal MRI features of DIPGs, H3K27M mutant, with their histological and molecular characteristics.

Methods: Twenty-seven treatment-naïve children with histopathologically confirmed DIPG H3K27M mutant were prospectively included. MRI performed prior to biopsy included multi-b-value diffusion-weighted imaging, ASL, and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion imaging. The ADC and cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood volume (CBV) were measured at the biopsy site. We assessed quantitative histological data, including microvascular density, nuclear density, and H3K27M-positive nuclear density. Gene expression profiling was also assessed in the samples. We compared imaging and histopathological data according to histone subgroup. We correlated MRI quantitative data with histological data and gene expression.

Results: H3.1K27M mutated tumors showed higher ADC values (median 3151 μm/s vs 1741 μm/s, p = 0.003), and lower perfusion values (DSC-rCBF median 0.71 vs 1.43, p = 0.002, and DSC-rCBV median 1.00 vs 1.71, p = 0.02) than H3.3K27M ones. They had similar microvascular and nuclear density, but lower H3K27M-positive nuclear density (p = 0.007). The DSC-rCBV was positively correlated to the H3K27M-positive nuclear density (rho = 0.74, p = 0.02). ADC values were not correlated with nuclear density nor perfusion values with microvascular density. The expression of gated channel activity-related genes tended to be inversely correlated with ADC values and positively correlated with DSC perfusion.

Conclusions: H3.1K27M mutated tumors have higher ADC and lower perfusion values than H3.3K27M ones, without direct correlation with microvascular or nuclear density. This may be due to tissular edema possibly related to gated channel activity-related gene expression.

Key Points: • H3.1K27M mutant DIPG had higher apparent diffusion coefficient (p = 0.003), lower α (p = 0.048), and lower relative cerebral blood volume (p = 0.02) than H3.3K27M mutant DIPG at their biopsy sites. • Biopsy samples obtained within the tumor's enhancing portion showed higher microvascular density (p = 0.03) than samples obtained outside the tumor's enhancing portion, but similar H3K27M-positive nuclear density (p = 0.84). • Relative cerebral blood volume measured at the biopsy site was significantly correlated with H3K27M-positive nuclear density (rho = 0.74, p = 0.02).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-07991-xDOI Listing
May 2021

Acute surgical management of children with ruptured brain arteriovenous malformation.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Jan 22:1-9. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

1APHP, Necker Hospital.

Objective: Rupture of brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is the main etiology of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in children. Ensuing intracranial hypertension is among the modifiable prognosis factors and sometimes requires emergency hemorrhage evacuation (HE). The authors aimed to analyze variables associated with HE in children with ruptured AVM.

Methods: This study was a single-center retrospective analysis of children treated for ruptured AVM. The authors evaluated the occurrence of HE, its association with other acute surgical procedures (e.g., nidal excision, decompressive hemicraniectomy), and clinical outcome. Variables associated with each intervention were analyzed using univariable and multivariable models. Clinical outcome was assessed at 18 months using the ordinal King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury.

Results: A total of 104 patients were treated for 112 episodes of ruptured AVM between 2002 and 2018. In the 51 children (45.5% of cases) who underwent HE, 37 procedures were performed early (i.e., within 24 hours after initial cerebral imaging) and 14 late. Determinants of HE were a lower initial Glasgow Coma Scale score (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.71-0.97 per point increase); higher ICH/brain volume ratio (aOR 18.6, 95% CI 13-26.5 per percent increase); superficial AVM location; and the presence of a brain herniation (aOR 3.7, 95% CI 1.3-10.4). Concurrent nidal surgery was acutely performed in 69% of Spetzler-Martin grade I-II ruptured AVMs and in 25% of Spetzler-Martin grade III lesions. Factors associated with nidal surgery were superficial AVMs, late HE, and absent alteration of consciousness at presentation. Only 8 cases required additional surgery due to intracranial hypertension. At 18 months, overall mortality was less than 4%, 58% of patients had a favorable outcome regardless of surgical intervention, and 87% were functioning independently.

Conclusions: HE is a lifesaving procedure performed in approximately half of the children who suffer AVM rupture. The good overall outcome justifies intensive initial management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.8.PEDS20479DOI Listing
January 2021

Etiology of intracerebral hemorrhage in children: cohort study, systematic review, and meta-analysis.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Jan 1:1-7. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

1Service d'imagerie Morphologique et Fonctionnelle, GHU Paris Psychiatrie et Neurosciences, Hospitalier Sainte Anne, Institut de Psychiatrie et Neurosciences de Paris (IPNP), UMR_S1266, INSERM, Université de Paris.

Objective: Understanding the etiological spectrum of nontraumatic pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage (pICH) is key to the diagnostic workup and care pathway. The authors aimed to evaluate the etiological spectrum of diseases underlying pICH.

Methods: Children treated at the authors' institution for a pICH were included in an inception cohort initiated in 2008 and retrospectively inclusive to 2000, which was analyzed in October 2019. They then conducted a systematic review of relevant articles in PubMed published between 1990 and 2019, identifying cohorts with pICH. Identified populations and patients from the authors' cohort were pooled in a multicategory meta-analysis.

Results: A total of 243 children with pICH were analyzed in the cohort study. The final primary diagnosis was an intracranial vascular lesion in 190 patients (78.2%), a complication of a cardiac disease in 17 (7.0%), and a coagulation disorder in 14 (5.8%). Hematological and cardiological etiologies were disproportionately more frequent in children younger than 2 years (p < 0.001). The systematic review identified 1309 children in 23 relevant records pooled in the meta-analysis. Overall, there was significant heterogeneity. The dominant etiology was vascular lesion, with an aggregate prevalence of 0.59 (95% CI 0.45-0.64; p < 0.001, Q = 302.8, I2 = 92%). In 18 studies reporting a detailed etiological spectrum, arteriovenous malformation was the dominant etiology (68.3% [95% CI 64.2%-70.9%] of all vascular causes), followed by cavernoma (15.7% [95% CI 13.0%-18.2%]).

Conclusions: The most frequent etiology of pICH is brain arteriovenous malformation. The probability of an underlying vascular etiology increases with age, and, conversely, hematological and cardiac causes are dominant causes in children younger than 2 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.7.PEDS20447DOI Listing
January 2021

Prognostic Clinical and Biologic Features for Overall Survival after Relapse in Childhood Medulloblastoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Dec 27;13(1). Epub 2020 Dec 27.

Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Oncology, Gustave Roussy, 94800 Villejuif, France.

Given the very poor prognosis for children with recurrent medulloblastoma, we aimed to identify prognostic factors for survival post-relapse in children with childhood medulloblastoma. We retrospectively collected clinico-biological data at diagnosis and main clinical characteristics at relapse of children newly diagnosed with a medulloblastoma between 2007 and 2017 at Gustave Roussy and Necker Hospital. At a median follow-up of 6.6 years (range, 0.4-12.3 years), relapse occurred in 48 out 155 patients (31%). The median time from diagnosis to relapse was 14.3 months (range, 1.2-87.2 months). Relapse was local in 9, metastatic in 22 and combined (local and metastatic) in 17 patients. Second-line treatment consisted of chemotherapy in 31 cases, radiotherapy in 9, SHH-inhibitor in four and no treatment in the remaining four. The 1-year overall survival rate post-relapse was 44.8% (CI 95%, 31.5% to 59.0%). While molecular subgrouping at diagnosis was significantly associated with survival post-relapse, the use of radiotherapy at relapse and time to first relapse (>12 months) might also have a potential impact on post-relapse survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13010053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7795432PMC
December 2020

Diagnostic Accuracy of a Reduced Immunohistochemical Panel in Medulloblastoma Molecular Subtyping, Correlated to DNA-methylation Analysis.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 04;45(4):558-566

Departments of Neuropathology.

Medulloblastomas (MBs) are the most frequent childhood malignant brain tumor. Four histopathologic variants and 4 genetic subgroups have been defined in the World Health Organization (WHO) 2016 Classification and constitute major risk stratification items directly affecting the patient management. Although MB subgroups have been molecularly defined, immunohistochemical surrogates are needed. The aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate the concordance between immunohistochemistry, using 4 antibodies (YAP1, GAB1, OTX2, and β-catenin), and DNA-methylation profiling in MB subgrouping. From a series of 155 MBs, the κ coefficient of concordance was almost perfect (0.90), with only 8/152 discrepant cases (no DNA-methylation analysis was available in 3 cases). Interestingly, the discrepancies mostly concerned (7/8 cases) MBs with divergent differentiations (myogenic, melanotic, and others) with all of those classified into group 3 (n=6) and group 4 (n=1) by DNA-methylation profiling. Another discrepant case concerned a WNT-activated MB (showing only 1% of immunopositive tumor cell nuclei), highlighting the difficulties of determining an appropriate β-catenin immunostaining cutoff. The high concordance of the routine immunohistochemical panel (YAP1, GAB1, OTX2, and β-catenin) and DNA-methylation profiling confirm its utility as a reliable predictive marker of molecular subtype in MBs. We analyzed the accuracy of 10 different IHC combinations for the determination of MB subtype and found that a combination of 2 antibodies (YAP1 and OTX2) allows for the successful characterization of 144 cases of 152 cases. Finally, our series extends the molecular data of the rare morphologic variant of MBs with melanotic/myogenic differentiations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001640DOI Listing
April 2021

Clear cell meningiomas are defined by a highly distinct DNA methylation profile and mutations in SMARCE1.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 02 14;141(2):281-290. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Pathology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA.

Clear cell meningioma represents an uncommon variant of meningioma that typically affects children and young adults. Although an enrichment of loss-of-function mutations in the SMARCE1 gene has been reported for this subtype, comprehensive molecular investigations are lacking. Here we describe a molecularly distinct subset of tumors (n = 31), initially identified through genome-wide DNA methylation screening among a cohort of 3093 meningiomas, of which most were diagnosed histologically as clear cell meningioma. This cohort was further supplemented by an additional 11 histologically diagnosed clear cell meningiomas for analysis (n = 42). Targeted DNA sequencing revealed SMARCE1 mutations in 33/34 analyzed samples, accompanied by a nuclear loss of expression determined via immunohistochemistry and a decreased SMARCE1 transcript expression in the tumor cells. Analysis of time to progression or recurrence of patients within the clear cell meningioma group (n = 14) in comparison to those with meningioma WHO grade 2 (n = 220) revealed a similar outcome and support the assignment of WHO grade 2 to these tumors. Our findings indicate the existence of a highly distinct epigenetic signature of clear cell meningiomas, separate from all other variants of meningiomas, with recurrent mutations in the SMARCE1 gene. This suggests that these tumors may arise from a different precursor cell population than the broad spectrum of the other meningioma subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-020-02247-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847462PMC
February 2021

Endoscopic aqueductal stenting in the management of pediatric hydrocephalus.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 Jul 3:1-7. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

1Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Hôpital Necker, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Université de Paris, France; and.

Objective: Pediatric patients with long-term shunts may experience specific complications related to the segregation of the supra- and infratentorial spaces along with different pressure regimens, leading to either mesencephalic syndromes during shunt dysfunction or isolated fourth ventricle (IFV). An accepted treatment to reestablish normal CSF pathways and reequilibrate the transtentorial pressures is endoscopic aqueductal stenting (EAS) to avoid restenosis. In the present paper, the authors studied children treated with EAS during the last decade for both IFV and obstructive hydrocephalus, evaluated its impact on the course of the disease, and identified prognostic factors for EAS success.

Methods: A noninterventional retrospective study of routinely acquired data was performed, including all hydrocephalic children undergoing EAS between 2011 and 2019 at Hôpital Necker, Paris, France. The following variables were analyzed: etiology of hydrocephalus; number of surgeries before and after stent placement; indication for EAS; type of stent connection (i.e., connected or not to a ventriculoperitoneal shunt); and the stent position. Stent failure was defined as the need to perform further shunt revision. Univariate and multivariate analyses were run to identify factors associated with stent failure.

Results: Seventeen patients with a mean age at stent placement of 6 years (SD 6.5 years, range 1 month-18 years) and with a mean follow-up after EAS of 47.5 months (SD 33.7 months, range 5-120 months) were included in the analysis. The etiology of hydrocephalus was as follows: obstructive tumoral (41%), posthemorrhagic (35%), postinfectious (12%), and dysraphism related (12%). The indication for EAS was IFV (47%), rostral midbrain dysfunction syndrome (35%), prevention of secondary aqueductal stenosis after debulking surgery (12%), or primary aqueductal stenosis (6%). No transient or permanent neurological deficits related to the procedure were observed. After EAS, 10 patients did not require further surgeries (59%), and for the others the number of hydrocephalus-related surgeries significantly decreased after stenting. In univariate analysis posthemorrhagic etiology and prevention of aqueductal stenosis were identified as predictors of a good outcome, whereas in multivariate analysis posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus was found to predict a favorable outcome.

Conclusions: The results confirm EAS as a first-line treatment for IFV and suggest its efficacy in changing the history of hydrocephalic patients who have undergone multiple operations and who experience rostral midbrain dysfunction syndrome, as well as efficacy in the prevention of aqueductal stenosis in selected cases of obstructive tumoral hydrocephalus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.4.PEDS20144DOI Listing
July 2020

Hydrocephalus in children with ruptured cerebral arteriovenous malformation.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 May 22:1-5. Epub 2020 May 22.

1APHP, Necker Hospital, Université de Paris.

Objective: Hydrocephalus is a strong determinant of poor neurological outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In children, ruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) are the dominant cause of ICH. In a large prospective cohort of pediatric patients with ruptured bAVMs, the authors analyzed the rates and predictive factors of hydrocephalus requiring acute external ventricular drainage (EVD) or ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS).

Methods: The authors performed a single-center retrospective analysis of the data from a prospectively maintained database of children admitted for a ruptured bAVM since 2002. Admission clinical and imaging predictors of EVD and VPS placement were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical models.

Results: Among 114 patients (mean age 9.8 years) with 125 distinct ICHs due to ruptured bAVM, EVD and VPS were placed for 55/125 (44%) hemorrhagic events and 5/114 patients (4.4%), respectively. A multivariate nominal logistic regression model identified low initial Glasgow Coma Scale (iGCS) score, hydrocephalus on initial CT scan, the presence of intraventicular hemorrhage (IVH), and higher modified Graeb Scale (mGS) score as strongly associated with subsequent need for EVD (all p < 0.001). All children who needed a VPS had initial hydrocephalus requiring EVD and tended to have higher mGS scores.

Conclusions: In a large cohort of pediatric patients with ruptured bAVM, almost half of the patients required EVD and 4.4% required permanent VPS. Use of a low iGCS score and a semiquantitative mGS score as indicators of the IVH burden may be helpful for decision making in the emergency setting and thus improve treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.3.PEDS19680DOI Listing
May 2020

Locoregionally administered B7-H3-targeted CAR T cells for treatment of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors.

Nat Med 2020 05 27;26(5):712-719. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) typically arise in the central nervous system (CNS) of children under 3 years of age. Despite intensive multimodal therapy (surgery, chemotherapy and, if age permits, radiotherapy), median survival is 17 months. We show that ATRTs robustly express B7-H3/CD276 that does not result from the inactivating mutations in SMARCB1 (refs. ), which drive oncogenesis in ATRT, but requires residual SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable (SWI/SNF) activity mediated by BRG1/SMARCA4. Consistent with the embryonic origin of ATRT, B7-H3 is highly expressed on the prenatal, but not postnatal, brain. B7-H3.BB.z-chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells administered intracerebroventricularly or intratumorally mediate potent antitumor effects against cerebral ATRT xenografts in mice, with faster kinetics, greater potency and reduced systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines compared to CAR T cells administered intravenously. CAR T cells administered ICV also traffic from the CNS into the periphery; following clearance of ATRT xenografts, B7-H3.BB.z-CAR T cells administered intracerebroventricularly or intravenously mediate antigen-specific protection from tumor rechallenge, both in the brain and periphery. These results identify B7-H3 as a compelling therapeutic target for this largely incurable pediatric tumor and demonstrate important advantages of locoregional compared to systemic delivery of CAR T cells for the treatment of CNS malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0821-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7992505PMC
May 2020

Germline Elongator mutations in Sonic Hedgehog medulloblastoma.

Nature 2020 04 1;580(7803):396-401. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Department of Neurosciences, University of California San Diego and Rady Children's Hospital, San Diego, CA, USA.

Cancer genomics has revealed many genes and core molecular processes that contribute to human malignancies, but the genetic and molecular bases of many rare cancers remains unclear. Genetic predisposition accounts for 5 to 10% of cancer diagnoses in children, and genetic events that cooperate with known somatic driver events are poorly understood. Pathogenic germline variants in established cancer predisposition genes have been recently identified in 5% of patients with the malignant brain tumour medulloblastoma. Here, by analysing all protein-coding genes, we identify and replicate rare germline loss-of-function variants across ELP1 in 14% of paediatric patients with the medulloblastoma subgroup Sonic Hedgehog (MB) ELP1 was the most common medulloblastoma predisposition gene and increased the prevalence of genetic predisposition to 40% among paediatric patients with MB. Parent-offspring and pedigree analyses identified two families with a history of paediatric medulloblastoma. ELP1-associated medulloblastomas were restricted to the molecular SHHα subtype and characterized by universal biallelic inactivation of ELP1 owing to somatic loss of chromosome arm 9q. Most ELP1-associated medulloblastomas also exhibited somatic alterations in PTCH1, which suggests that germline ELP1 loss-of-function variants predispose individuals to tumour development in combination with constitutive activation of SHH signalling. ELP1 is the largest subunit of the evolutionarily conserved Elongator complex, which catalyses translational elongation through tRNA modifications at the wobble (U) position. Tumours from patients with ELP1-associated MB were characterized by a destabilized Elongator complex, loss of Elongator-dependent tRNA modifications, codon-dependent translational reprogramming, and induction of the unfolded protein response, consistent with loss of protein homeostasis due to Elongator deficiency in model systems. Thus, genetic predisposition to proteome instability may be a determinant in the pathogenesis of paediatric brain cancers. These results support investigation of the role of protein homeostasis in other cancer types and potential for therapeutic interference.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2164-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7430762PMC
April 2020

Role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in metastatic medulloblastoma: a comparative study in 92 children.

Neuro Oncol 2020 11;22(11):1686-1695

Gustave Roussy Cancer Center, Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Oncology, Paris-Saclay University, Villejuif, France.

Background: Previous pilot studies have shown the feasibility of preoperative chemotherapy in patients with medulloblastoma, but benefits and risks compared with initial surgery have not been assessed.

Methods: Two therapeutic strategies were retrospectively compared in 92 patients with metastatic medulloblastoma treated at Gustave Roussy between 2002 and 2015: surgery at diagnosis (n = 54, group A) and surgery delayed after carboplatin and etoposide-based neoadjuvant therapy (n = 38, group B). Treatment strategies were similar in both groups.

Results: The rate of complete tumor excision was significantly higher in group B than in group A (93.3% vs 57.4%, P = 0.0013). Postoperative complications, chemotherapy-associated side effects, and local progressions were not increased in group B. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy led to a decrease in the primary tumor size in all patients; meanwhile 4/38 patients experienced a distant progression. The histological review of 19 matched tumor pairs (before and after chemotherapy) showed that proliferation was reduced and histological diagnosis feasible and accurate even after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The 5-year progression-free and overall survival rates were comparable between groups. Comparison of the longitudinal neuropsychological data showed that intellectual outcome tended to be better in group B (the mean predicted intellectual quotient value was 6 points higher throughout the follow-up).

Conclusion: Preoperative chemotherapy is a safe and efficient strategy for metastatic medulloblastoma. It increases the rate of complete tumor excision and may improve the neuropsychological outcome without jeopardizing survival.

Key Points: 1. Preoperative chemotherapy increases the rate of complete tumor removal.2. No additional risk (toxic or disease progression) is linked to the delayed surgery.3. Preoperative chemotherapy could have a positive impact on the neuropsychological outcome of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noaa083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7846143PMC
November 2020

High-grade gliomas in adolescents and young adults highlight histomolecular differences from their adult and pediatric counterparts.

Neuro Oncol 2020 08;22(8):1190-1202

Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France.

Background: Considering that pediatric high-grade gliomas (HGGs) are biologically distinct from their adult counterparts, the objective of this study was to define the landscape of HGGs in adolescents and young adults (AYAs).

Methods: We performed a multicentric retrospective study of 112 AYAs from adult and pediatric Ile-de-France neurosurgical units, treated between 1998 and 2013 to analyze their clinicoradiological and histomolecular profiles. The inclusion criteria were age between 15 and 25 years, histopathological HGG diagnosis, available clinical data, and preoperative and follow-up MRI. MRI and tumoral samples were centrally reviewed. Immunohistochemistry and complementary molecular techniques such as targeted/next-generation sequencing, whole exome sequencing, and DNA-methylation analyses were performed to achieve an integrated diagnosis according to the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification.

Results: Based on 80 documented AYA patients, HGGs constitute heterogeneous clinicopathological and molecular groups, with a predominant representation of pediatric subtypes (histone H3-mutants, 40%) but also adult subtypes (isocitrate dehydrogenase [IDH] mutants, 28%) characterized by the rarity of oligodendrogliomas, IDH mutants, and 1p/19q codeletion and the relative high frequency of "rare adult IDH mutations" (20%). H3G34-mutants (14%) represent the most specific subgroup in AYAs. In the H3K27-mutant subgroup, non-brainstem diffuse midline gliomas are more frequent (66.7%) than diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (23.8%), contrary to what is observed in children. We found that WHO grade has no prognostic value, but molecular subgrouping has major prognostic importance.

Conclusions: HGGs in AYAs could benefit from a specific classification, driven by molecular subtyping rather than age group. Collaborative efforts are needed from pediatric and adult neuro-oncology teams to improve the management of HGGs in AYAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noaa024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7594566PMC
August 2020

Effects of the growth pattern of medulloblastoma on short-term neurological impairments after surgery: results from the prospective multicenter HIT-SIOP PNET 4 study.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 Jan 17:1-9. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

20Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Germany.

Objective: Extensive resection of a tumor in the posterior fossa in children is associated with the risk of neurological deficits. The objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the short-term neurological morbidity in children after medulloblastoma surgery and relate this to the tumor's growth pattern and to the extent of resection.

Methods: In 160 patients taking part in the HIT-SIOP PNET 4 (Hyperfractionated Versus Conventionally Fractionated Radiotherapy in Standard Risk Medulloblastoma) trial, neurosurgeons prospectively responded to questions concerning the growth pattern of the tumor they had resected. The extent of resection (gross, near, or subtotal) was evaluated using MRI. The patients' neurological status before resection and around 30 days after resection was recorded.

Results: Invasive tumor growth, defined as local invasion in the brain or meninges, cranial nerve, or major vessel, was reported in 58% of the patients. After surgery almost 70% of all patients were affected by one or several neurological impairments (e.g., impaired vision, impaired extraocular movements, and ataxia). However, this figure was very similar to the preoperative findings. Invasive tumor growth implied a significantly higher number of impairments after surgery (p = 0.03) and greater deterioration regarding extraocular movements (p = 0.012), facial weakness (p = 0.048), and ataxia in the arms (p = 0.014) and trunk (p = 0.025) compared with noninvasive tumor growth. This deterioration was not dependent on the extent of resection performed. Progression-free survival (PFS) at 5 years was 80% ± 4% and 76% ± 5% for patients with invasive and noninvasive tumor growth, respectively, with no difference in the 5-year PFS for extent of resection.

Conclusions: Preoperative neurological impairments and invasive tumor growth were strong predictors of deterioration in short-term neurological outcome after medulloblastoma neurosurgery, whereas the extent of resection was not. Neither tumor invasiveness nor extent of resection influenced PFS. These findings support the continuation of maximal safe resection in medulloblastoma surgery where functional risks are not taken in areas with tumor invasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.11.PEDS19349DOI Listing
January 2020

Pattern of loco-regional relapses and treatment in pediatric esthesioneuroblastoma: The French very rare tumors group (Fracture) contribution.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 04 13;67(4):e28154. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

SIREDO Oncology Center (Care, Innovation and Research for Children, Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer), Institut Curie, PSL University, Paris, France.

Background: Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) is a rare neuroectodermal tumor that seldom occurs during childhood. Multimodal treatments are currently proposed, but the place of each therapy is still in debate. Our objective is to describe clinical evolution, especially the pattern of relapses and determine contributors to tumor progression.

Procedure: Medical charts of all children (≤18 years) affected by ENB treated in France from January 1990 to December 2015 were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: Eighteen patients were selected (10 males). Median age at diagnosis was 12.2 years (0.9-18). Tumor extension was Kadish stage A (n = 1), B (n = 3), C (n = 10), and D (n = 4). Hyams histological grades were I (n = 1), II (n = 3), III (n = 6), and IV (n = 6) (in two cases not defined). Initial cervical nodal spread was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (n = 15), computed tomography scan (n = 16), fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography (n = 7), and cytological/histological analysis (n = 2). N1 stage was confirmed by imaging in two of 18 cases and one of two cases had cervical node dissection with neck irradiation (58 Gy). After a median follow-up of survivors of 7.6 years (3.8-17.9), 10 patients developed neuromeningeal progression, whereas no cervical nodal relapse occurred and only eight survived. Both 5-year overall and event-free survival rates were 44.4% (±11.7%).

Conclusions: The poor prognosis is mainly related to neuromeningeal dissemination that should be considered during treatment strategy. However, cervical lymph node relapse is rare.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.28154DOI Listing
April 2020

Blood-brain barrier disruption with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound for the treatment of pediatric brain tumors: a review and perspectives.

Neurosurg Focus 2020 01;48(1):E10

5Department of Neurosurgery, Sorbonne Université, UPMC Paris 6, AP-HP, Hôpitaux Universitaires La Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

Pediatric brain tumors are the most common solid tumor and the first cause of cancer death in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Current treatments are far from optimal in most of these tumors and the prognosis remains dismal for many of them. One of the main causes of the failure of current medical treatments is in part due to the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which limits drug delivery to tumors. Opening of the BBB with low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPU) has emerged during the last 2 decades as a promising technique for enhancing drug delivery to the brain. In preclinical models, enhanced delivery of a wide range of therapeutic agents, from low-molecular-weight drugs, to antibodies and immune cells, has been observed as well as tumor control and increased survival. This technique has recently entered clinical trials with extracranial and intracranial devices. The safety and feasibility of this technique has furthermore been shown in patients treated monthly for recurrent glioblastoma receiving carboplatin chemotherapy. In this review, the characteristics of the BBB in the most common pediatric brain tumors are reviewed. Then, principles and mechanisms of BBB disruption with ultrasound (US) are summarized and described at the histological and biological levels. Lastly, preclinical studies that have used US-induced BBB opening in tumor models, recent clinical trials, and the potential use of this technology in pediatrics are provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.10.FOCUS19726DOI Listing
January 2020

Posterior Fossa Arachnoid Cyst in a Pediatric Population is Associated with Social Perception and Rest Cerebral Blood Flow Abnormalities.

Cerebellum 2020 Feb;19(1):58-67

INSERM U1000, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Hôpital Necker Enfants Malades, AP-HP, University René Descartes, Institut Imagine and UMR 1163, Paris, France.

Posterior fossa arachnoid cysts (PFAC) may produce not only neurological symptoms but also other symptoms still poorly understood such as behavioral and learning deficits, awkwardness, and difficulties in social interaction. These subtle social impairments have not been formally described and their underlying brain mechanisms remain unknown. In the present case-control study, we aimed to empirically characterize social impairments in a pediatric population with PFAC using eye tracking. In addition, we investigated putative functional cortical abnormalities in these children using arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging. Overall, 15 patients with PFAC (3f, age = 9.4 ± 4 years) and 43 typically developing volunteer children (16f, age = 9.3 ± 3.6 years) were enrolled in this study. Eye tracking was used to record gaze patterns during visualization of social interaction scenes. Viewing times to faces of characters and non-social background were analyzed. A voxel-wise whole-brain analysis was performed to investigate rest cerebral blood flow (CBF) abnormalities. Significantly reduced viewing time to faces was observed in patients compared with controls (p < 0.01). A ROC curve analysis revealed that 30% of PFAC patients presented viewing time to the face lower than the cutoff, while none of the controls did. The whole-brain analysis revealed a significant decrease in rest CBF in PFAC patients compared with controls bilaterally in the superior temporal gyrus and the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) (p < 0.05 FWE). These results suggest that early life PFAC may have an impact on functional activity of the temporal lobe, which could be associated with social perception deficits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12311-019-01082-wDOI Listing
February 2020

Clonally Expanded T Cells Reveal Immunogenicity of Rhabdoid Tumors.

Cancer Cell 2019 12 7;36(6):597-612.e8. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

PSL Research University, Institut Curie Research Center, INSERM U830, Paris, France; PSL Research University, Institut Curie Research Center, Translational Research Department, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Rhabdoid tumors (RTs) are genomically simple pediatric cancers driven by the biallelic inactivation of SMARCB1, leading to SWI/SNF chromatin remodeler complex deficiency. Comprehensive evaluation of the immune infiltrates of human and mice RTs, including immunohistochemistry, bulk RNA sequencing and DNA methylation profiling studies showed a high rate of tumors infiltrated by T and myeloid cells. Single-cell RNA (scRNA) and T cell receptor sequencing highlighted the heterogeneity of these cells and revealed therapeutically targetable exhausted effector and clonally expanded tissue resident memory CD8 T subpopulations, likely representing tumor-specific cells. Checkpoint blockade therapy in an experimental RT model induced the regression of established tumors and durable immune responses. Finally, we show that one mechanism mediating RTs immunogenicity involves SMARCB1-dependent re-expression of endogenous retroviruses and interferon-signaling activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2019.10.008DOI Listing
December 2019

Craniopharyngioma.

Nat Rev Dis Primers 2019 11 7;5(1):75. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Service de Neurochirurgie, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France.

Craniopharyngiomas are rare malformational tumours of low histological malignancy arising along the craniopharyngeal duct. The two histological subtypes, adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) and papillary craniopharyngioma (PCP), differ in genesis and age distribution. ACPs are diagnosed with a bimodal peak of incidence (5-15 years and 45-60 years), whereas PCPs are restricted to adults mainly in the fifth and sixth decades of life. ACPs are driven by somatic mutations in CTNNB1 (encoding β-catenin) that affect β-catenin stability and are predominantly cystic in appearance. PCPs frequently harbour somatic BRAF mutations and are typically solid tumours. Clinical manifestations due to increased intracranial pressure, visual impairment and endocrine deficiencies should prompt imaging investigations, preferentially MRI. Treatment comprises neurosurgery and radiotherapy; intracystic chemotherapy is used in monocystic ACP. Although long-term survival is high, quality of life and neuropsychological function are frequently impaired due to the close anatomical proximity to the optic chiasm, hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Indeed, hypothalamic involvement and treatment-related hypothalamic lesions frequently result in hypothalamic obesity, physical fatigue and psychosocial deficits. Given the rarity of these tumours, efforts to optimize infrastructure and international collaboration should be research priorities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41572-019-0125-9DOI Listing
November 2019

The histomolecular criteria established for adult anaplastic pilocytic astrocytoma are not applicable to the pediatric population.

Acta Neuropathol 2020 02 1;139(2):287-303. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Department of Neuropathology, GHU Paris-Neurosciences Sainte-Anne, 1 rue Cabanis, 75014, Paris, France.

Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common pediatric glioma, arising from a single driver MAPK pathway alteration. Classified as a grade I tumor according to the 2016 WHO classification, prognosis is excellent with a 10-year survival rate > 95% after surgery. However, rare cases present with anaplastic features, including an unexpected high mitotic/proliferative index, thus posing a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Based on small histomolecular series and case reports, such tumors arising at the time of diagnosis or recurrence have been designated by many names including pilocytic astrocytoma with anaplastic features (PAAF). Recent DNA methylation-profiling studies performed mainly on adult cases have revealed that PAAF exhibit a specific methylation signature, thus constituting a distinct methylation class from typical PA [methylation class anaplastic astrocytoma with piloid features-(MC-AAP)]. However, the diagnostic and prognostic significance of MC-AAP remains to be determined in children. We performed an integrative work on the largest pediatric cohort of PAAF, defined according to strict criteria: morphology compatible with the diagnosis of PA, with or without necrosis, ≥ 4 mitoses for 2.3 mm, and MAPK pathway alteration. We subjected 31 tumors to clinical, imaging, morphological and molecular analyses, including DNA methylation profiling. We identified only one tumor belonging to the MC-AAP (3%), the others exhibiting a methylation profile typical for PA (77%), IDH-wild-type glioblastoma (7%), and diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor (3%), while three cases (10%) did not match to a known DNA methylation class. No significant outcome differences were observed between PAAF with necrosis versus no necrosis (p = 0.07), or with 4-6 mitoses versus 7 or more mitoses (p = 0.857). Our findings argue that the diagnostic histomolecular criteria established for anaplasia in adult PA are not of diagnostic or prognostic value in a pediatric setting. Further extensive and comprehensive integrative studies are necessary to accurately define this exceptional entity in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-019-02088-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6989446PMC
February 2020

Management of advanced uni- or bilateral retinoblastoma with macroscopic optic nerve invasion.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2020 01 1;67(1):e27998. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Oncology Center SIREDO: Care, Innovation and Research for Children, Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer, Institut Curie, Paris, France.

Background: Retinoblastoma with macroscopic optic nerve (ON) invasion depicted by imaging at diagnosis remains a major problem and carries a poor prognosis. We sought to describe the treatment and outcome of these high-risk patients.

Methods: Retrospective mono-institutional clinical, radiological, and histological review of patients with uni- or bilateral retinoblastoma with obvious ON invasion, defined by radiological optic nerve enlargement (RONE) depicted by computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), was performed.

Results: Between 1997 and 2014, among the 936 patients with retinoblastoma treated at Institut Curie, 11 had detectable RONE. Retinoblastoma was unilateral in 10 and bilateral in one. Median age at diagnosis was 28 months (range, 11-96). ON enlargement extended to the orbital portion in three patients, to the optic canal in five, to the prechiasmatic portion in two, and to the optic chiasm in one. Nine patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and partial response was obtained in all. Enucleation was performed in 10/11 patients-by an anterior approach in three and by anterior and subfrontal approaches in seven. Three patients had a positive ON resection margin (2/3 after primary enucleation). All enucleated patients received adjuvant treatment (conventional chemotherapy: 10, high-dose chemotherapy: seven, radiotherapy: five). Leptomeningeal progression occurred in four patients. Seven are in first complete remission (median follow up: 8 years [3.5-19.4]).

Conclusion: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and microscopic complete resection have a pivotal role in the management of retinoblastoma with RONE. MRI is recommended for initial and pre-operative accurate staging. Surgery should be performed by neurosurgeons in case of posterior nerve invasion. Radiotherapy is required in case of incomplete resection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.27998DOI Listing
January 2020

TP53 Pathway Alterations Drive Radioresistance in Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas (DIPG).

Clin Cancer Res 2019 11 3;25(22):6788-6800. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

UMR8203, "Vectorologie & Thérapeutiques Anticancéreuses," CNRS, Gustave Roussy, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif, France.

Purpose: Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) are the most severe pediatric brain tumors. Although accepted as the standard therapeutic, radiotherapy is only efficient transiently and not even in every patient. The goal of the study was to identify the underlying molecular determinants of response to radiotherapy in DIPG.

Experimental Design: We assessed response to ionizing radiations in 13 different DIPG cellular models derived from treatment-naïve stereotactic biopsies reflecting the genotype variability encountered in patients at diagnosis and correlated it to their principal molecular alterations. Clinical and radiologic response to radiotherapy of a large cohort of 73 DIPG was analyzed according to their genotype. Using a kinome-wide synthetic lethality RNAi screen, we further identified target genes that can sensitize DIPG cells to ionizing radiations.

Results: We uncover mutation as the main driver of increased radioresistance and validated this finding in four isogenic pairs of DIPG cells with or without knockdown. In an integrated clinical, radiological, and molecular study, we show that DIPG patients respond less to irradiation, relapse earlier after radiotherapy, and have a worse prognosis than their counterparts. Finally, a kinome-wide synthetic lethality RNAi screen identifies CHK1 as a potential target, whose inhibition increases response to radiation specifically in cells.

Conclusions: Here, we demonstrate that mutations are driving DIPG radioresistance both in patients and corresponding cellular models. We suggest alternative treatment strategies to mitigate radioresistance with CHK1 inhibitors. These findings will allow to consequently refine radiotherapy schedules in DIPG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-0126DOI Listing
November 2019
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