Publications by authors named "Stéphanie Desvaux"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Contrasted Epidemiological Patterns of West Nile Virus Lineages 1 and 2 Infections in France from 2015 to 2019.

Pathogens 2020 Oct 30;9(11). Epub 2020 Oct 30.

UMR 1161 Virology, ANSES, INRAE, ENVA, ANSES Animal Health Laboratory, EURL for Equine Diseases, 94704 Maisons-Alfort, France.

Since 2015, annual West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks of varying intensities have been reported in France. Recent intensification of enzootic WNV circulation was observed in the South of France with most horse cases detected in 2015 ( = 49), 2018 ( = 13), and 2019 ( = 13). A WNV lineage 1 strain was isolated from a horse suffering from West Nile neuro-invasive disease (WNND) during the 2015 episode in the Camargue area. A breaking point in WNV epidemiology was achieved in 2018, when WNV lineage 2 emerged in Southeastern areas. This virus most probably originated from WNV spread from Northern Italy and caused WNND in humans and the death of diurnal raptors. WNV lineage 2 emergence was associated with the most important human WNV epidemics identified so far in France (n = 26, including seven WNND cases and two infections in blood and organ donors). Two other major findings were the detection of WNV in areas with no or limited history of WNV circulation (Alpes-Maritimes in 2018, Corsica in 2018-2019, and Var in 2019) and distinct spatial distribution of human and horse WNV cases. These new data reinforce the necessity to enhance French WNV surveillance to better anticipate future WNV epidemics and epizootics and to improve the safety of blood and organ donations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9110908DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7692118PMC
October 2020

Infection of Wildlife by in France Assessment Through a National Surveillance System, Sylvatub.

Front Vet Sci 2018 30;5:262. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Anses, Nancy Laboratory for Rabies and Wildlife, Malzéville, France.

infection was first described in free-ranging wildlife in France in 2001, with subsequent detection in hunter-harvested ungulates and badgers in areas where outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis (TB) were also detected in cattle. Increasing concerns regarding TB in wildlife led the French General Directorate for Food (DGAL) and the main institutions involved in animal health and wildlife management, to establish a national surveillance system for TB in free-ranging wildlife. This surveillance system is known as "Sylvatub." The system coordinates the activities of various national and local partners. The main goal of Sylvatub is to detect and monitor infection in wildlife through a combination of passive and active surveillance protocols adapted to the estimated risk level in each area of the country. Event-base surveillance relies on identification (molecular detection) () in gross lesions detected in hunter-harvested ungulates, () in ungulates that are found dead or dying, and () in road-killed badgers. Additional targeted surveillance in badgers, wild boars and red deer is implemented on samples from trapped or hunted animals in at-risk areas. With the exception of one unexplained case in a wild boar, infection in free-living wildlife has always been detected in the vicinity of cattle TB outbreaks with the same genotype of the infectious strains. Since 2012, was actively monitored in these infected areas and detected mainly in badgers and wild boars with apparent infection rates of 4.57-5.14% and 2.37-3.04%, respectively depending of the diagnostic test used (culture or PCR), the period and according to areas. Sporadic infection has also been detected in red deer and roe deer. This surveillance has demonstrated that infection, in different areas of France, involves a multi-host system including cattle and wildlife. However, infection rates are lower than those observed in badgers in the United Kingdom or in wild boars in Spain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2018.00262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6220493PMC
October 2018

Successful Application of the Gamma-Interferon Assay in a Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication Program: The French Bullfighting Herd Experience.

Front Vet Sci 2018 27;5:27. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Unité Sanitaire de la Faune, Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage (ONCFS), Birieux, France.

In the French Camargue region, where bovine tuberculosis had been enzootic for several years in bullfighting cattle herds, the gamma-interferon (IFN) assay was used since 2003 in parallel with the intradermal test in order to increase overall disease detection sensitivity in infected herds. This study presents the results of a field-evaluation of the assay during a 10-year period (2004-2014) of disease control and surveillance program and explores the particular pattern of IFN assay results in bullfight herds in comparison to cattle from other regions of France. The low sensitivity [59.2% (50.6; 67.3)] of IFN assay using the tuberculin stimulation could be related to the poor gamma-IFN production from bullfight cattle blood cells which is significantly lower than in animals of conventional breeds. The characteristics of the assay were progressively adapted to the epidemiological situation and the desired strategic applications. Data analysis with a receiver operating characteristic curve based on a simple S/P value algorithm allowed for the determination of a new cutoff adapted for a global screening, giving a high specificity of 99.9% results and a high accuracy of the assay. Having regularly risen to above 5% since 2005, with a peak around 10% in 2010, the annual incidence dropped to under 1% in 2014. The positive predictive value relative to the bacteriological confirmation evolved during the years, from 33% in 2009 to 12% during the last screening period, a normal trend in a context of decreasing prevalence. The estimated rate of false-positive reactions during screening campaigns was 0.67%, confirming the high specificity of the test, measured in bTB negative herds, in this epidemiological context. The proportion of false-positive reactions decreased with the age and was higher in males than in females. Although these results indicate that the IFN assay is accurate in the field, it also emphasizes great differences between interferon quantities produced by bullfight cattle blood samples compared to those of classical bovine breeds, which underlines the necessity to adapt the algorithms and combinations of the assay according to local epidemiological contexts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2018.00027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5835129PMC
February 2018

Agro-environmental determinants of avian influenza circulation: a multisite study in Thailand, Vietnam and Madagascar.

PLoS One 2014 16;9(7):e101958. Epub 2014 Jul 16.

Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement (CIRAD), UR AGIRs, Montpellier, France.

Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza have occurred and have been studied in a variety of ecological systems. However, differences in the spatial resolution, geographical extent, units of analysis and risk factors examined in these studies prevent their quantitative comparison. This study aimed to develop a high-resolution, comparative study of a common set of agro-environmental determinants of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in domestic poultry in four different environments: (1) lower-Northern Thailand, where H5N1 circulated in 2004-2005, (2) the Red River Delta in Vietnam, where H5N1 is circulating widely, (3) the Vietnam highlands, where sporadic H5N1 outbreaks have occurred, and (4) the Lake Alaotra region in Madagascar, which features remarkable similarities with Asian agro-ecosystems and where low pathogenic avian influenza viruses have been found. We analyzed H5N1 outbreak data in Thailand in parallel with serological data collected on the H5 subtype in Vietnam and on low pathogenic AIV in Madagascar. Several agro-environmental covariates were examined: poultry densities, landscape dominated by rice cultivation, proximity to a water body or major road, and human population density. Relationships between covariates and AIV circulation were explored using spatial generalized linear models. We found that AIV prevalence was negatively associated with distance to the closest water body in the Red River Delta, Vietnam highlands and Madagascar. We also found a positive association between AIV and duck density in the Vietnam highlands and Thailand, and with rice landscapes in Thailand and Madagascar. Our findings confirm the important role of wetlands-rice-ducks ecosystems in the epidemiology of AI in diverse settings. Variables influencing circulation of the H5 subtype in Southeast Asia played a similar role for low pathogenic AIV in Madagascar, indicating that this area may be at risk if a highly virulent strain is introduced.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0101958PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4100877PMC
March 2015

Interventions for avian influenza A (H5N1) risk management in live bird market networks.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013 May 6;110(22):9177-82. Epub 2013 May 6.

Veterinary Epidemiology, Economics and Public Health Group, Department of Production and Population Health, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hatfield AL9 7TA, United Kingdom.

Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 is endemic in Asia, with live bird trade as a major disease transmission pathway. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in northern Vietnam to investigate the structure of the live bird market (LBM) contact network and the implications for virus spread. Based on the movements of traders between LBMs, weighted and directed networks were constructed and used for social network analysis and individual-based modeling. Most LBMs were connected to one another, suggesting that the LBM network may support large-scale disease spread. Because of cross-border trade, it also may promote transboundary virus circulation. However, opportunities for disease control do exist. The implementation of thorough, daily disinfection of the market environment as well as of traders' vehicles and equipment in only a small number of hubs can disconnect the network dramatically, preventing disease spread. These targeted interventions would be an effective alternative to the current policy of a complete ban of LBMs in some areas. Some LBMs that have been banned still are very active, and they likely have a substantial impact on disease dynamics, exhibiting the highest levels of susceptibility and infectiousness. The number of trader visits to markets, information that can be collected quickly and easily, may be used to identify LBMs suitable for implementing interventions. This would not require prior knowledge of the force of infection, for which laboratory-confirmed surveillance would be necessary. These findings are of particular relevance for policy development in resource-scarce settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1220815110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3670392PMC
May 2013

Identifying live bird markets with the potential to act as reservoirs of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus: a survey in northern Viet Nam and Cambodia.

PLoS One 2012 4;7(6):e37986. Epub 2012 Jun 4.

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Department, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, United Kingdom.

Wet markets are common in many parts of the world and may promote the emergence, spread and maintenance of livestock pathogens, including zoonoses. A survey was conducted in order to assess the potential of Vietnamese and Cambodian live bird markets (LBMs) to sustain circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 (HPAIV H5N1). Thirty Vietnamese and 8 Cambodian LBMs were visited, and structured interviews were conducted with the market managers and 561 Vietnamese and 84 Cambodian traders. Multivariate and cluster analysis were used to construct a typology of traders based on their poultry management practices. As a result of those practices and large poultry surplus (unsold poultry reoffered for sale the following day), some poultry traders were shown to promote conditions favorable for perpetuating HPAIV H5N1 in LBMs. More than 80% of these traders operated in LBMs located in the most densely populated areas, Ha Noi and Phnom Penh. The profiles of sellers operating at a given LBM could be reliably predicted using basic information about the location and type of market. Consequently, LBMs with the largest combination of risk factors for becoming virus reservoirs could be easily identified, potentially allowing control strategies to be appropriately targeted. These findings are of particular relevance to resource-scarce settings with extensively developed LBM systems, commonly found in South-East Asia.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0037986PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3366999PMC
October 2012

Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) outbreak in captive wild birds and cats, Cambodia.

Emerg Infect Dis 2009 Mar;15(3):475-8

Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, Montpellier, France.

From December 2003 through January 2004, the Phnom Tamao Wildlife Rescue Centre, Cambodia, was affected by the highly pathogenic influenza virus (H5N1). Birds from 26 species died. Influenza virus subtype H5N1 was detected in 6 of 7 species tested. Cats from 5 of 7 species were probably infected; none died.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2681101PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1503.071410DOI Listing
March 2009

Avian influenza viruses in water birds, Africa.

Emerg Infect Dis 2007 Apr;13(4):626-9

Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, Montpellier, France.

We report the first large-scale surveillance of avian influenza viruses in water birds conducted in Africa. This study shows evidence of avian influenza viruses in wild birds, both Eurasian and Afro-tropical species, in several major wetlands of Africa.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2725964PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1304.061011DOI Listing
April 2007