Publications by authors named "Stéphanie Chatel"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Prediction of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysm Evolution: The UCAN Project.

Neurosurgery 2020 07;87(1):150-156

CHU Nantes, Neuroradiology Department, Nantes, France.

Background: Management of small (<7 mm) unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA) remains controversial. Retrospective studies have suggested that post gadolinium arterial wall enhancement (AWE) of UIA on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may reflect aneurysm wall instability, and hence may highlight a higher risk of UIA growth. This trial aims at exploring wall imaging findings of UIAs with consecutive follow-up to substantiate these assumptions.

Objective: To develop diagnostic and predictive tools for the risk of IA evolution. Our aim is to demonstrate in clinical practice the predictive value of AWE for UIA growth. The growth will be determined by any modification of the UIA measurement. UIA growth and the UIA wall enhancement will be assessed in consensus by 2 expert neuroradiologists.

Methods: The French prospective UCAN project is a noninterventional international wide and multicentric cohort. UIA of bifurcation between 3 and 7 mm for whom a clinical and imaging follow-up without occlusion treatment was scheduled by local multidisciplinary staff will be included. Extensive clinical, biological, and imaging data will be recorded during a 3-yr follow-up.

Expected Outcomes: Discovering to improve the efficiency of UIA follow-up by identifying additional clinical, imaging, biological, and anatomic risk factors of UIA growth.

Discussion: A prospective nationwide recruitment allows for the inclusion of a large cohort of patients with UIA. It will combine clinical phenotyping and specific imaging with AWE screening. It will enable to exploit metadata and to explore some pathophysiological pathways by crossing clinical, genetic, biological, and imaging information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa093DOI Listing
July 2020

Rare Coding Variants in ANGPTL6 Are Associated with Familial Forms of Intracranial Aneurysm.

Am J Hum Genet 2018 01;102(1):133-141

INSERM, CNRS, UNIV Nantes, l'institut du thorax, 44007 Nantes, France; CHU Nantes, l'institut du thorax, 44093 Nantes, France. Electronic address:

Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are acquired cerebrovascular abnormalities characterized by localized dilation and wall thinning in intracranial arteries, possibly leading to subarachnoid hemorrhage and severe outcome in case of rupture. Here, we identified one rare nonsense variant (c.1378A>T) in the last exon of ANGPTL6 (Angiopoietin-Like 6)-which encodes a circulating pro-angiogenic factor mainly secreted from the liver-shared by the four tested affected members of a large pedigree with multiple IA-affected case subjects. We showed a 50% reduction of ANGPTL6 serum concentration in individuals heterozygous for the c.1378A>T allele (p.Lys460Ter) compared to relatives homozygous for the normal allele, probably due to the non-secretion of the truncated protein produced by the c.1378A>T transcripts. Sequencing ANGPTL6 in a series of 94 additional index case subjects with familial IA identified three other rare coding variants in five case subjects. Overall, we detected a significant enrichment (p = 0.023) in rare coding variants within this gene among the 95 index case subjects with familial IA, compared to a reference population of 404 individuals with French ancestry. Among the 6 recruited families, 12 out of 13 (92%) individuals carrying IA also carry such variants in ANGPTL6, versus 15 out of 41 (37%) unaffected ones. We observed a higher rate of individuals with a history of high blood pressure among affected versus healthy individuals carrying ANGPTL6 variants, suggesting that ANGPTL6 could trigger cerebrovascular lesions when combined with other risk factors such as hypertension. Altogether, our results indicate that rare coding variants in ANGPTL6 are causally related to familial forms of IA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.12.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5778084PMC
January 2018

Understanding the Pathophysiology of Intracranial Aneurysm: The ICAN Project.

Neurosurgery 2017 04;80(4):621-626

Neuroradiological Department, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire of Nantes, Nan-tes, France.

Background: Understanding the pathophysiologic mechanism of intracranial aneurysm (IA) formation is a prerequisite to assess the potential risk of rupture. Nowadays, there are neither reliable biomarkers nor diagnostic tools to predict the formation or the evolution of IA. Increasing evidence suggests a genetic component of IA but genetics studies have failed to identify genetic variation causally related to IA.

Objective: To develop diagnostic and predictive tools for the risk of IA formation and rupture.

Methods: The French ICAN project is a noninterventional nationwide and multicentric research program. Each typical IA of bifurcation will be included. For familial forms, further IA screening will be applied among first-degree relatives. By accurate phenotype description with high-throughput genetic screening, we aim to identify new genes involved in IA. These potential genetic markers will be tested in large groups of patients. Any relevant pathway identified will be further explored in a large cohort of sporadic carriers of IA, which will be well documented with clinical, biological, and imaging data.

Expected Outcomes: Discovering genetic risk factors, better understanding the pathophysiology, and identifying molecular mechanisms responsible for IA formation will be essential bases for the development of biomarkers and identification of therapeutic targets.

Discussion: Our protocol has many assets. A nationwide recruitment allows for the inclusion of large pedigrees with familial forms of IA. It will combine accurate phenotyping and comprehensive imaging with high-throughput genetic screening. Last, it will enable exploiting metadata to explore new pathophysiological pathways of interest by crossing clinical, genetic, biological, and imaging information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyw135DOI Listing
April 2017

Variants in the SCN5A Promoter Associated With Various Arrhythmia Phenotypes.

J Am Heart Assoc 2016 09 13;5(9). Epub 2016 Sep 13.

Division of Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Japan Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Mutations in the coding sequence of SCN5A, which encodes the cardiac Na(+) channel α subunit, have been associated with inherited susceptibility to various arrhythmias. Variable expression of SCN5A is a possible mechanism responsible for this pleiotropic effect; however, it is unknown whether variants in the promoter and regulatory regions of SCN5A also modulate the risk of arrhythmias.

Methods And Results: We resequenced the core promoter region of SCN5A and the regulatory regions of SCN5A transcription in 1298 patients with arrhythmia phenotypes (atrial fibrillation, n=444; sinus node dysfunction, n=49; conduction disease, n=133; Brugada syndrome, n=583; and idiopathic ventricular fibrillation, n=89). We identified 26 novel rare variants in the SCN5A promoter in 29 patients affected by various arrhythmias (atrial fibrillation, n=6; sinus node dysfunction, n=1; conduction disease, n=3; Brugada syndrome, n=14; idiopathic ventricular fibrillation, n=5). The frequency of rare variants was higher in patients with arrhythmias than in controls. In the alignment with chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing data, the majority of variants were located at regions bound by transcription factors. Using a luciferase reporter assay, 6 variants (Brugada syndrome, n=3; idiopathic ventricular fibrillation, n=2; conduction disease, n=1) were functionally characterized, and each displayed decreased promoter activity compared with the wild-type sequences. We also identified rare variants in the regulatory region that were associated with atrial fibrillation, and the variant decreased promoter activity.

Conclusions: Variants in the core promoter region and the transcription regulatory region of SCN5A were identified in multiple arrhythmia phenotypes, consistent with the idea that altered SCN5A transcription levels modulate susceptibility to arrhythmias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.116.003644DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5079027PMC
September 2016

Dysfunction of the Voltage-Gated K+ Channel β2 Subunit in a Familial Case of Brugada Syndrome.

J Am Heart Assoc 2016 06 10;5(6). Epub 2016 Jun 10.

INSERM, UMR 1087, l'Institut du Thorax, Nantes, France CNRS, UMR 6291, Nantes, France Université de Nantes, Nantes, France CHU Nantes, l'Institut du Thorax, Service de Cardiologie, Nantes, France

Background: The Brugada syndrome is an inherited cardiac arrhythmia associated with high risk of sudden death. Although 20% of patients with Brugada syndrome carry mutations in SCN5A, the molecular mechanisms underlying this condition are still largely unknown.

Methods And Results: We combined whole-exome sequencing and linkage analysis to identify the genetic variant likely causing Brugada syndrome in a pedigree for which SCN5A mutations had been excluded. This approach identified 6 genetic variants cosegregating with the Brugada electrocardiographic pattern within the pedigree. In silico gene prioritization pointed to 1 variant residing in KCNAB2, which encodes the voltage-gated K(+) channel β2-subunit (Kvβ2-R12Q). Kvβ2 is widely expressed in the human heart and has been shown to interact with the fast transient outward K(+) channel subunit Kv4.3, increasing its current density. By targeted sequencing of the KCNAB2 gene in 167 unrelated patients with Brugada syndrome, we found 2 additional rare missense variants (L13F and V114I). We then investigated the physiological effects of the 3 KCNAB2 variants by using cellular electrophysiology and biochemistry. Patch-clamp experiments performed in COS-7 cells expressing both Kv4.3 and Kvβ2 revealed a significant increase in the current density in presence of the R12Q and L13F Kvβ2 mutants. Although biotinylation assays showed no differences in the expression of Kv4.3, the total and submembrane expression of Kvβ2-R12Q were significantly increased in comparison with wild-type Kvβ2.

Conclusions: Altogether, our results indicate that Kvβ2 dysfunction can contribute to the Brugada electrocardiographic pattern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.115.003122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4937261PMC
June 2016

Variants of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin Member 4 in Childhood Atrioventricular Block.

J Am Heart Assoc 2016 05 20;5(5). Epub 2016 May 20.

Department of Clinical Research, and Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) TransCure, University of Bern, Switzerland

Background: Transient receptor potential melastatin member 4 (TRPM4) is a nonselective cation channel. TRPM4 mutations have been linked to cardiac conduction disease and Brugada syndrome. The mechanisms underlying TRPM4-dependent conduction slowing are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to characterize TRPM4 genetic variants found in patients with congenital or childhood atrioventricular block.

Methods And Results: Ninety-one patients with congenital or childhood atrioventricular block were screened for candidate genes. Five rare TRPM4 genetic variants were identified and investigated. The variants were expressed heterologously in HEK293 cells. Two of the variants, A432T and A432T/G582S, showed decreased expression of the protein at the cell membrane; inversely, the G582S variant showed increased expression. Further functional characterization of these variants using whole-cell patch-clamp configuration showed a loss of function and a gain of function, respectively. We hypothesized that the observed decrease in expression was caused by a folding and trafficking defect. This was supported by the observation that incubation of these variants at lower temperature partially rescued their expression and function. Previous studies have suggested that altered SUMOylation of TRPM4 may cause a gain of function; however, we did not find any evidence that supports SUMOylation as being directly involved for the gain-of-function variant.

Conclusions: This study underpins the role of TRPM4 in the cardiac conduction system. The loss-of-function variants A432T/G582S found in 2 unrelated patients with atrioventricular block are most likely caused by misfolding-dependent altered trafficking. The ability to rescue this variant with lower temperature may provide a novel use of pharmacological chaperones in treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.114.001625DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4889160PMC
May 2016

Increased Tpeak-Tend interval is highly and independently related to arrhythmic events in Brugada syndrome.

Heart Rhythm 2015 Dec 21;12(12):2469-76. Epub 2015 Jul 21.

University Hospital Rangueil, Toulouse, France.

Background: Risk stratification in Brugada syndrome (BS) remains controversial. The time interval between the peak and the end of the T wave (Tpe interval), a marker of transmural dispersion of repolarization, has been linked to malignant ventricular arrhythmias in various settings but leads to discordant results in BS.

Objective: We study the correlation of the Tpe interval with arrhythmic events in a large cohort of patients with BS.

Methods: A total of 325 consecutive patients with BS (mean age 47±13 years, 259 men-80%) with spontaneous (n=143, 44%) or drug-induced (n=182, 56%) type 1 electrocardiogram were retrospectively included. 235 were asymptomatic (70%), 80 presented with unexplained syncope (22%), and 10 presented with sudden death (SD) or appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy (AT) (8%) at diagnosis or over a mean follow-up of 48 ± 34 months. The Tpe interval was calculated as the difference between the QT interval and the QT peak interval as measured in each of the precordial leads.

Results: The Tpe interval from lead V1 to lead V4, maximum value of the Tpe interval (max Tpe), and Tpe dispersion in all precordial leads were significantly higher in patients with SD/AT or in patients with syncope than in asymptomatic patients (P < .001). A max Tpe of ≥100 ms was present in 47 of 226 asymptomatic patients (21%), in 48 of 73 patients with syncope (66%), and in 22 of 26 patients with SD/AT (85%) (P < .0001). In multivariate analysis, a max Tpe of ≥100 ms was independently related to arrhythmic events (odds ratio 9.61; 95% confidence interval 3.13-29.41; P < .0001).

Conclusion: The Tpe interval in the precordial leads is highly related to malignant ventricular arrhythmias in this large cohort of patients with BS. This simple electrocardiographic parameter could be used to refine risk stratification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrthm.2015.07.029DOI Listing
December 2015

Testing the burden of rare variation in arrhythmia-susceptibility genes provides new insights into molecular diagnosis for Brugada syndrome.

Hum Mol Genet 2015 May 3;24(10):2757-63. Epub 2015 Feb 3.

Inserm, UMR 1087, l'institut du thorax, Nantes, France, CNRS, UMR 6291, Nantes, France, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France, CHU Nantes, l'institut du thorax, Service de Cardiologie, Nantes, France,

The Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a rare heritable cardiac arrhythmia disorder associated with ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Mutations in the SCN5A gene have been causally related to BrS in 20-30% of cases. Twenty other genes have been described as involved in BrS, but their overall contribution to disease prevalence is still unclear. This study aims to estimate the burden of rare coding variation in arrhythmia-susceptibility genes among a large group of patients with BrS. We have developed a custom kit to capture and sequence the coding regions of 45 previously reported arrhythmia-susceptibility genes and applied this kit to 167 index cases presenting with a Brugada pattern on the electrocardiogram as well as 167 individuals aged over 65-year old and showing no history of cardiac arrhythmia. By applying burden tests, a significant enrichment in rare coding variation (with a minor allele frequency below 0.1%) was observed only for SCN5A, with rare coding variants carried by 20.4% of cases with BrS versus 2.4% of control individuals (P = 1.4 × 10(-7)). No significant enrichment was observed for any other arrhythmia-susceptibility gene, including SCN10A and CACNA1C. These results indicate that, except for SCN5A, rare coding variation in previously reported arrhythmia-susceptibility genes do not contribute significantly to the occurrence of BrS in a population with European ancestry. Extreme caution should thus be taken when interpreting genetic variation in molecular diagnostic setting, since rare coding variants were observed in a similar extent among cases versus controls, for most previously reported BrS-susceptibility genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddv036DOI Listing
May 2015

Genetic association study of QT interval highlights role for calcium signaling pathways in myocardial repolarization.

Nat Genet 2014 Aug 22;46(8):826-36. Epub 2014 Jun 22.

Center for Biomedicine, European Academy Bozen/Bolzano (EURAC), Bolzano, Italy (affiliated institute of the University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany).

The QT interval, an electrocardiographic measure reflecting myocardial repolarization, is a heritable trait. QT prolongation is a risk factor for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD) and could indicate the presence of the potentially lethal mendelian long-QT syndrome (LQTS). Using a genome-wide association and replication study in up to 100,000 individuals, we identified 35 common variant loci associated with QT interval that collectively explain ∼8-10% of QT-interval variation and highlight the importance of calcium regulation in myocardial repolarization. Rare variant analysis of 6 new QT interval-associated loci in 298 unrelated probands with LQTS identified coding variants not found in controls but of uncertain causality and therefore requiring validation. Several newly identified loci encode proteins that physically interact with other recognized repolarization proteins. Our integration of common variant association, expression and orthogonal protein-protein interaction screens provides new insights into cardiac electrophysiology and identifies new candidate genes for ventricular arrhythmias, LQTS and SCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4124521PMC
August 2014

Prevalence and prognostic role of various conduction disturbances in patients with the Brugada syndrome.

Am J Cardiol 2013 Nov 3;112(9):1384-9. Epub 2013 Sep 3.

Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Rangueil, Toulouse, France. Electronic address:

Prevalence and prognostic value of conduction disturbances in patients with the Brugada syndrome (BrS) remains poorly known. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) from 325 patients with BrS (47 ± 13 years, 258 men) with spontaneous (n = 143) or drug-induced (n = 182) type 1 ECG were retrospectively reviewed. Two hundred twenty-six patients (70%) were asymptomatic, 73 patients (22%) presented with unexplained syncope, and 26 patients (8%) presented with sudden death or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator appropriated therapies at diagnosis or during a mean follow-up of 48 ± 34 months. P-wave duration of ≥120 ms was present in 129 patients (40%), first degree atrioventricular block (AVB) in 113 (35%), right bundle branch block (BBB) in 90 (28%), and fascicular block in 52 (16%). Increased P-wave duration, first degree AVB, and right BBB were more often present in patients after drug challenge than in patients with spontaneous type 1 ST elevation. Left BBB was present in 3 patients. SCN5A mutation carriers had longer P-wave duration and longer PR and HV intervals. In multivariate analysis, first degree AVB was independently associated with sudden death or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator appropriated therapies (odds ratio 2.41, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 5.73, p = 0.046) together with the presence of syncope and spontaneous type 1 ST elevation. In conclusion, conduction disturbances are frequent and sometimes diffuse in patients with BrS. First degree AVB is independently linked to outcome and may be proposed to be used for individual risk stratification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2013.06.033DOI Listing
November 2013

Common variants at SCN5A-SCN10A and HEY2 are associated with Brugada syndrome, a rare disease with high risk of sudden cardiac death.

Nat Genet 2013 Sep 21;45(9):1044-9. Epub 2013 Jul 21.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Cardiology, Heart Failure Research Center, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Brugada syndrome is a rare cardiac arrhythmia disorder, causally related to SCN5A mutations in around 20% of cases. Through a genome-wide association study of 312 individuals with Brugada syndrome and 1,115 controls, we detected 2 significant association signals at the SCN10A locus (rs10428132) and near the HEY2 gene (rs9388451). Independent replication confirmed both signals (meta-analyses: rs10428132, P = 1.0 × 10(-68); rs9388451, P = 5.1 × 10(-17)) and identified one additional signal in SCN5A (at 3p21; rs11708996, P = 1.0 × 10(-14)). The cumulative effect of the three loci on disease susceptibility was unexpectedly large (Ptrend = 6.1 × 10(-81)). The association signals at SCN5A-SCN10A demonstrate that genetic polymorphisms modulating cardiac conduction can also influence susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmia. The implication of association with HEY2, supported by new evidence that Hey2 regulates cardiac electrical activity, shows that Brugada syndrome may originate from altered transcriptional programming during cardiac development. Altogether, our findings indicate that common genetic variation can have a strong impact on the predisposition to rare diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.2712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3869788PMC
September 2013

Molecular genetics and functional anomalies in a series of 248 Brugada cases with 11 mutations in the TRPM4 channel.

PLoS One 2013 30;8(1):e54131. Epub 2013 Jan 30.

Laboratoire Cardiogénétique, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Groupe Hospitalier Est, Bron, France.

Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a condition defined by ST-segment alteration in right precordial leads and a risk of sudden death. Because BrS is often associated with right bundle branch block and the TRPM4 gene is involved in conduction blocks, we screened TRPM4 for anomalies in BrS cases. The DNA of 248 BrS cases with no SCN5A mutations were screened for TRPM4 mutations. Among this cohort, 20 patients had 11 TRPM4 mutations. Two mutations were previously associated with cardiac conduction blocks and 9 were new mutations (5 absent from ~14'000 control alleles and 4 statistically more prevalent in this BrS cohort than in control alleles). In addition to Brugada, three patients had a bifascicular block and 2 had a complete right bundle branch block. Functional and biochemical studies of 4 selected mutants revealed that these mutations resulted in either a decreased expression (p.Pro779Arg and p.Lys914X) or an increased expression (p.Thr873Ile and p.Leu1075Pro) of TRPM4 channel. TRPM4 mutations account for about 6% of BrS. Consequences of these mutations are diverse on channel electrophysiological and cellular expression. Because of its effect on the resting membrane potential, reduction or increase of TRPM4 channel function may both reduce the availability of sodium channel and thus lead to BrS.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0054131PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3559649PMC
September 2013

Identification of large families in early repolarization syndrome.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2013 Jan;61(2):164-72

INSERM, UMR1087, L'Institut du Thorax, Nantes, France.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify families affected by early repolarization syndrome (ERS) and to determine the mode of transmission of the disease.

Background: Early repolarization (ER) has recently been linked to idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. Familial inheritance of the disease has been suggested but not demonstrated.

Methods: We screened relatives of 4 families affected by ERS. ER was defined as a distinct J-wave in at least 2 consecutive leads and a 1-mm amplitude above baseline. The Valsalva maneuver was performed in affected and unaffected family members to decrease heart rate and thus increase or reveal an ER pattern.

Results: Twenty-two sudden cardiac deaths occurred in the 4 families including 10 before 35 years of age. In the 4 families, the prevalence of ER was 56%, 34%, 61%, and 33% of, respectively, 30, 82, 29, and 30 screened relatives. In these families, transmission of an ER pattern is compatible with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. All probands were screened for genes identified in ERS, and no mutation was found. The Valsalva maneuver was performed in 80 relatives, resulting in increased J-wave amplitude for 17 of 20 affected patients and revealing an ER pattern in 17 relatives in whom 5 are obligate transmitters of an ER pattern.

Conclusions: ERS can be inherited through autosomal dominant transmission and should be considered a real inherited arrhythmia syndrome. Familial investigation can be facilitated by using the Valsalva maneuver to reveal the electrocardiographic pattern in family members. The prognosis value of this test remains to be assessed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2012.09.040DOI Listing
January 2013

Risk Stratification and Therapeutic Approach in Brugada Syndrome.

Arrhythm Electrophysiol Rev 2012 Sep;1(1):17-21

Professor of Cardiology and Head, Thorax Institute, Nantes, France.

Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a clinical entity characterised by an incomplete right bundle branch block associated with an ST segment elevation in the right precordial leads and a risk of ventricular arrhythmia and sudden death in the absence of structural abnormalities. Patients with a personal history of sudden death have an annual arrhythmia risk of recurrence as high as 10 %. Similarly, the presence of syncope is consistently associated with an increased arrhythmic risk. This risk can be estimated at about 1.5 % per year. The risk is lower in asymptomatic patients. Regarding the relatively high rate of complication of Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation, in most of the cases, asymptomatic patients with a Brugada syndrome revealed during ajmaline challenge do not need to be implanted. The situation is more complex in patients with a spontaneous type 1 aspect since the risk could be estimated to be around 0.8 % per year. For these patients, a careful evaluation of the arrhythmic risk using all the different tools available is mandatory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15420/aer.2012.1.17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4711526PMC
September 2012

Parental electrocardiographic screening identifies a high degree of inheritance for congenital and childhood nonimmune isolated atrioventricular block.

Circulation 2012 Sep 16;126(12):1469-77. Epub 2012 Aug 16.

Department de Chirurgie Cardiaque des Cardiopathies Congénitales, Centre Chirurgical Marie Lannelongue, Le Plessis-Robinson, France.

Background: The origin of congenital or childhood nonimmune isolated atrioventricular (AV) block remains unknown. We hypothesized that this conduction abnormality in the young may be a heritable disease.

Methods And Results: A multicenter retrospective study (13 French referral centers, from 1980-2009) included 141 children with AV block diagnosed in utero, at birth, or before 15 years of age without structural heart abnormalities and without maternal antibodies. Parents and matched control subjects were investigated for family history and for ECG screening. In parents, a family history of sudden death or progressive cardiac conduction defect was found in 1.4% and 11.1%, respectively. Screening ECGs from 130 parents (mean age 42.0 ± 6.8 years, 57 couples) were compared with those of 130 matched healthy control subjects. All parents were asymptomatic and in sinus rhythm, except for 1 with undetected complete AV block. Conduction abnormalities were more frequent in parents than in control subjects, found in 50.8% versus 4.6%, respectively (P<0.001). A long PR interval was found in 18.5% of the parents but never in control subjects (P<0.0001). Complete or incomplete right bundle-branch block was observed in 39.2% of the parents and 1.5% of the control subjects (P<0.0001). Complete or incomplete left bundle-branch block was found in 15.4% of the parents and 3.1% of the control subjects (P<0.0006). Estimated heritability for isolated conduction disturbances was 91% (95% confidence interval, 80%-100%). SCN5A mutation screening identified 2 mutations in 2 patients among 97 children.

Conclusions: ECG screening in parents of children affected by idiopathic AV block revealed a high prevalence of conduction abnormalities. These results support the hypothesis of an inheritable trait in congenital and childhood nonimmune isolated AV block.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.069161DOI Listing
September 2012

Identification of a strong genetic background for progressive cardiac conduction defect by epidemiological approach.

Heart 2012 Sep 19;98(17):1305-10. Epub 2012 Jun 19.

INSERM, UMR1087, CNRS UMR 6291, l’institut du thorax, Nantes, France.

Introduction: Progressive cardiac conduction defect (PCCD) is a frequent disease attributed to degeneration and fibrosis of the His bundle. Over the past years, gene defects have been identified demonstrating that PCCD could be a genetic disease. The aim of this study was to show a familial aggregation for PCCD using a genetic epidemiological approach to improve in fine genetic knowledge of the transmission of the disease.

Methods And Results: Using the French social security number, the authors have been able to determine the city of birth of the 6667 patients implanted with a pacemaker (PM) for PCCD between 1995 and 2005 in the western part of France. The authors then mapped the frequency of PM implantations for PCCD. A large heterogeneity of the frequency of the disease has been observed, with a frequency of 0.21% in the major city (Nantes) ranging up to 2.28% in specific parishes. Familial studies performed in the parishes with the highest frequency of the disease allowed the authors to identify five large families with PCCD. Clinical investigations demonstrated phenotype heterogeneity between families. Three patterns have been differentiated.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates a disparate geographical repartition of the frequency of PM implantation in the area of the authors at least in part related to a hereditary factor. The identification of five large families affected by PCCD using epidemiological approach underlines the existence of a major genetic background in PCCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2012-301872DOI Listing
September 2012

Early Repolarization Disease.

Card Electrophysiol Clin 2010 Dec;2(4):559-569

Hôpital Cardiologique du Haut-Lévêque, Université Bordeaux II, 33604 Bordeaux, France.

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is defined as an unexpected natural death from a cardiac cause within a short time period, generally less than or equal to 1 hour from the onset of symptoms, in a person without any prior condition that seems to result in instantaneous fatality. Although such a rapid death process is attributed to cardiac arrhythmia, arrhythmia often represents the final common event in a series of events precipitated by known (95%) or unknown (5%) cardiac disorder. Electrocardiographic early repolarization involving the inferolateral leads, which was labeled benign until recently, is the latest of the primary electrical cardiac diseases discovered to have significantly high prevalence in SCD cases. Careful evaluation of patients having early repolarization associated with unexplained syncope, family history of SCD, or idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccep.2010.09.002DOI Listing
December 2010

Ventricular fibrillation with prominent early repolarization associated with a rare variant of KCNJ8/KATP channel.

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2009 Jan;20(1):93-8

Université Bordeaux, Bordeaux-Pessac, France.

Background: Early repolarization in the inferolateral leads has been recently recognized as a frequent syndrome associated with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (VF). We report the case of a patient presenting dramatic changes in the ECG in association with recurrent VF in whom a novel genetic variant has been identified.

Case Report: This young female (14 years) was resuscitated in 2001 following an episode of sudden death due to VF. All examinations including coronary angiogram with ergonovine injection, MRI, and flecainide or isoproterenol infusion were normal. The patient had multiple (>100) recurrences of VF unresponsive to beta-blockers, lidocaine/mexiletine, verapamil, and amiodarone. Recurrences of VF were associated with massive accentuation of the early repolarization pattern at times mimicking acute myocardial ischemia. Coronary angiography during an episode with 1.2 mV J/ST elevation was normal. Isoproterenol infusion acutely suppressed electrical storms, while quinidine eliminated all recurrences of VF and restored a normal ECG over a follow-up of 65 months. Genomic DNA sequencing of K(ATP) channel genes showed missense variant in exon 3 (NC_000012) of the KCNJ8 gene, a subunit of the K(ATP) channel, conferring predisposition to dramatic repolarization changes and ventricular vulnerability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-8167.2008.01326.xDOI Listing
January 2009
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