Publications by authors named "Srisopa Ruangnoo"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Improvement of dioscorealide B production by elicitation in shoot cultures of Pierre ex Prain & Burkill.

Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2020 Mar 24;26(3):585-591. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

2Department of Applied Thai Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Rangsit Campus, Pathumthani, 12120 Thailand.

Dioscorealide B is an important secondary metabolite isolated from Pierre ex Prain & Burkill. The effect on secondary metabolite content of different concentrations of two elicitors [jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA)], and of medium status and JA exposure period were investigated. In the JA and SA concentration experiment, 6-week-old shoots were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 8.87 µM BA (6-benzyladenine) in combination with 100-500 µM JA or 50-200 µM SA for 3 weeks. MS medium supplemented only with 8.87 µM BA was used as a control. The highest dioscorealide B content was recorded in the 100 µM JA shoots. To determine the optimal medium status and JA exposure period, shoots were cultured on solid and in liquid MS media supplemented with 8.87 µM BA and 100 µM JA for 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks. No interaction was found between the medium status and the elicitor exposure period in the dioscorealide B production. Shoots cultured on the solid MS medium supplemented with 100 µM JA had a higher dioscorealide B content (0.57 ± 0.35% w/w) than those cultured in liquid medium (0.36 ± 0.40% w/w) and 5-week JA exposure produced the highest dioscorealide B content of 1.05 ± 0.15% (w/w).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12298-020-00762-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7078432PMC
March 2020

A novel steroid and cytotoxic constituents from Dioscorea membranacea Pierre against hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma cells.

J Ethnopharmacol 2016 Dec 24;194:91-97. Epub 2016 Aug 24.

Department of Applied Thai Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Klongluang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand; Center of Excellence in Applied Thai Traditional Medicine Research (CEATMR), Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Klongluang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The rhizomes of Dioscorea membrancea Pierre have been used in Thai traditional medicine as an ingredient formula for liver cancer and cholangiocarcinoma treatment.

Aim Of The Study: To investigate the cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract and constituents of D. membrancea to support its traditional use.

Materials And Methods: The SRB assay was used to determine the cytotoxic activity against hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), cholangiocarcinoma (KKU-M156) cells and one normal human keratinocyte immortal cells (HaCaT) with its ethanolic extract and isolated compounds. Bioassay guided isolation was used for isolating cytotoxic compounds.

Results: The ethanolic extract of D. membranacea rhizome showed weak cytotoxic against KKU-M156 and HepG2 (IC at 72h exposure=30.49±0.82 and 38.97±2.04µg/mL respectively). A new steroid [epipanthogenin B (1)], a known steroid [panthogenin B (2)], two napthofuranoxepins [dioscorealide A (3) and dioscorealide B (4)], phenanthraquinone [dioscoreanone (5)] and two phenanthrene [5,6-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (6) and 2,5,6-trihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxy, 9, 10-dihydrophenanthrene (7)] were isolated from active chloroform fraction. Compound 4 showed the highest cytotoxicity against HepG2 (IC at 72h exposure=2.87±0.21µM) and KKU-M156 (IC at 72h exposure=1.67±0.10µM) and less toxicity against normal cell line (HaCaT) (IC at 72h exposure>100µM). Compound 5 showed selective cytotoxic activity against KKU-M156 (IC at 72h exposure=3.46±0.11µM). Compounds 6 and 7 showed weak cytotoxic activity against HepG2 (IC at 72h exposure=24.96±2.32 and 51.31±3.52µM). Compounds (1-3) showed no cytotoxic activity against HepG2 and KKU-M156 cell lines (IC at 72 h exposure>100µM).

Conclusion: Seven compounds were isolated from active chloroform fraction of the ethanolic extract of D. membranacea rhizomes. Only dioscorealide B (4) might be served as a good anticancer agent for liver cancer and cholangiocarcinoma cancer because it can kill cancer cell but not toxic on normal cell. This research support Thai traditional medicine use of D. membranacea for liver cancer and cholangiocarcinoma cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.08.037DOI Listing
December 2016

Anti-inflammatory Activities of Extracts of Cinnamomum porrectum (Roxb.) Kosterm. Wood (Thep-tha-ro).

J Med Assoc Thai 2016 07;99 suppl 4:S138-43

Background: Cinnamomum porrectum (Roxb.) Kosterm. (Thai name Thep-tha-ro) is a medicinal and aromatic tree mostly distributed throughout southern Thailand. It is traditionally used as spices, vegetable, carminative, tonic, febrifuge and postpartum care for being anti-inflammation whilst chemical components and its anti-inflammatory activity of this plant extracts were rarely reported.

Objective: To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of the crude extracts from different extraction method of C. porrectum wood.

Material And Method: Steam distillation, maceration in 50% or 95% ethanol or decoction method were used for extraction. The extracts were obtained as oil, ethanolic or aqueous extracts, respectively. These extracts were tested in vitro for antiinflammatory activity using nitric inhibitory assay by determining the inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 cell lines.

Results: The 50%, 95% ethanolic extracts of this plant showed high anti-inflammatory activity (IC50 values as 19.28±2.43 and 13.78±3.76 μg/ml, respectively), where water extract of this plant showed low anti-inflammatory activity (IC50 values >100 μg/ml), oily extracts showed cytotoxicity.

Conclusion: The results revealed that ethanolic extracts showed strong anti-inflammatory activity; therefore these extracts of Cinnamomum porrectum should be further developed as a health product for treatment of inflammation.
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July 2016

Cytotoxic Activity Against Cancer Cell Lines from The Ethanolic Extracts and Its VLC Fractions of Bauhinia strychnifolia Leaves.

J Med Assoc Thai 2016 Jul;99 Suppl 4:S110-5

Background: Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Bauhinia strychnifolia Craib leaves is used in Thai traditional medicine for detoxification. Its leaves contain total phenolic content and also exhibit high antioxidant activity. However, there has been no report on cytotoxicity testing from its leave extracts. Thus, the present study aims to investigate its cytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines.

Objective: To study cytotoxicity from the ethanolic extracts of B. strychnifolia leaves and its vacuum liquid chromatography fraction against cholangiocarcinoma cell line (KKU-M156) and two types of colon adenocarcinoma cell lines (SW480, LS174T).

Material And Method: In vitro cytotoxic activity of the ethanolic extracts against three human cancer cell lines were investigated by using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay.

Results: The 95% ethanolic extract of dried leaves showed the higher cytotoxic activity against KKU-M156, SW480, and LS174T than 50% ethanolic extract of dried leaves. The chloroform fraction from the 95% EtOH extract of dried leaves showed the best cytotoxicity against KKU-M156 and SW480 with IC50 value of 5.79±0.47 and 6.9±0.14 μg/ml, respectively.

Conclusion: The chloroform fraction from the 95% ethanolic extract of dried leaves was the most effective fraction against bile duct and colon cancer cell lines, thus this extract should be further investigated for active compounds possessing those observed cytotoxic activity.
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July 2016

Anti-Allergic Activities of Smilax glabra Rhizome Extracts and Its Isolated Compounds.

J Med Assoc Thai 2015 Apr;98 Suppl 3:S66-74

Background: The rhizomes of Smilax glabra (SG) has long been used in Traditional Chinese and Thai herbal medicine to treat a variety of infectious diseases and immunological disorders.

Objective: To investigate the in vitro anti-allergic activities of crude extracts andpure isolated flavonoid compounds from SG by determination of inhibitory effect on antigen-induced release of β-hexosaminidasefrom RBL-2H3 cells.

Material And Method: The in vitro inhibitory effects ofcrude aqueous and organic extracts on β-hexosaminidase release in RBL-2H3 cells were evaluated as an in vitro indication ofpossible anti-allergic activity. Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts was used to isolate flavonoid compounds from the ethanolic extracts.

Results: The 95% and 50% ethanolic extracts of SG showed remarkably high anti-allergic activity, with IC50 values of 5.74 ± 2.44 and 23.54 ± 4.75 µg/ml, much higher activity than that for Ketotifen (IC50 58.90 µM). The water extract had negligible activity (IC50 > 100 µg/ml). The two isolated flavonols, Engeletin and Astilbin, showed weak anti-allergic activity, IC50 values 97.46 ± 2.04 and >100 µg/ml, respectively.

Conclusion: The 95% and 50% ethanolic extracts of SG showed strong anti-allergic activity, but two flavonol constituents did not show any significant anti-allergic activity. These findings suggest that a combination of effects of various phytochemicals in crude extracts used in traditional medicine, are responsible for the purported anti-allergic activity of SG herbal preparations. The plethora of constituents in crude extracts, as yet unidentified, are likely to be acting synergistically to account for the strong observed anti-allergic in vitro activity.
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April 2015

In vitro cytotoxic activity of Sa-Tri-Lhung-Klod remedy and its herbal ingredients on ovarian and cervical carcinoma cell lines.

J Med Assoc Thai 2014 Aug;97 Suppl 8:S149-55

Background: Sa-Tri-Lhung-Klod is a Thai traditional medicine remedy for postpartum in the lists of The National Drug List ofHerbal Medicine Products AD. It consists ofseventeen herbs and were obtained by maceration and used in the form of liquor for women's health care such as treatment ofamenorrhea, menopause and blood tonic. In addition, it also usedfor postpartum care for being anti-inflammation in postpartum and prevention of cancer in women.

Objective: To investigate cytotoxic activity ofSa-Tri-Lhung-Klod remedy extracts and its herbal ingredients against human ovarian carcinoma cell line (SKOV-3) and cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) cell line.

Material And Method: Sa-Tri-Lhung-Klod remedy and its plant ingredients were extracted by maceration in 95% ethanol and dried using evaporator. All extracts were testedfor cytotoxic activity by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay.

Results: Ethanolic extract ofSa-Tri-Lhung-Klod remedy displayed cytotoxic activity against SKOV-3 and HeLa with IC50 values of 72.84±1.07 and 47.24±2.83 μg/ml, respectively. It was classified as "less-active" according to the NCI guideline. However, Caesalpinia sappan, Mammea siamensis and Curcuma comosa showed high cytotoxic activity against SKOV-3 with IC50 values of 9.55±1.38 13.45±0.82 and 14.21±1.30 μg/ml, respectively. The ethanolic extracts ofCaesalpiniasappan and Mammea siamensis also exhibited cytotoxic activity against HeLa with IC50 values of 6.30±0.06 and 7.72±0.11 μg/ml, respectively.

Conclusion: These results support the use of Sa-Tri-Lhung-Klod remedy in Thai traditional medicine for preventing of ovarian cancer and cervical cancer Caesalpinia sappan, Curcuma comosa and Mammea siamensis were strikingly active against ovarian and cervical cancer cells. Their extracts have the potential for developing as new anti-cancer drugs for women health.
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August 2014

In vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic activities against prostate cancer of extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves.

J Med Assoc Thai 2014 Aug;97 Suppl 8:S81-7

Background: Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) leaves are a vegetable, which is used as a healthy sour soup for protection against chronic diseases in Thai traditional medicine.

Objectives: To investigate antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa leave extracts from diferent extraction methods.

Material And Method: Fresh and dry Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves were extracted by various methods such as maceration with 95% and 50% ethanol, squeeze, and boiling with water or decoction. All extracts were testedfor antioxidant activity by using DPPH radical scavenging assay, anti-inflammatory activity by determination on inhibitory effect of nitric oxide production on RAW264. 7 cell. Cytotoxic activity also tested against human prostate cancer cell line (PC-3) by using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Total phenolic content determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method.

Results: The results found that the 95% ethanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa dried leaves (HSDE95) showed the highest antioxidant activity with an EC50 of 34.51±2.62 μg/ml and had the highest phenolic content (57.00±3.73 mg GAE/g). HSDE95 also showed potent cytotoxicity against prostate cancer cell line with an IC50 of 8.58±0.68 μg/ml whereas HSDE95 and all of extracts ofHibiscus sabdariffa leaves had no anti-inflammatory activity.

Conclusion: The obtained results revealed that HSDE95 extract showedpotent cytotoxic activity against prostate cancer cells but low antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This extract should be further isolated as active compounds against prostate cancer.
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August 2014

Immunomodulatory activity of Dioscorea membranacea Pierre rhizomes and of its main active constituent Dioscorealide B.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2014 Oct 16;14:403. Epub 2014 Oct 16.

Department of Applied Thai Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand.

Background: The rhizomes of Dioscorea membranacea Pierre, also called Hua-Khao-Yen by Thai name, are used as ingredients in many Thai traditional medicines for the alternative or complementary treatment of cancer and AIDs. Preliminary in vitro studies have indicated that D. membranacea extracts exhibited high cytotoxic activity with several cancer cell lines, but the underlining mechanisms are far from clear. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of ethanolic and aqueous crude extracts from D. membranacea Pierre, and pure compound from D. membranacea Pierre, Dioscorealide B, on natural killer cells activity and on lymphocyte proliferation.

Methods: Immunomodulatory activity was investigated using PBMCs from healthy donors. NK cells activity was performed by the chromium release assay using PBMCs as effector cells, and K562 cells line labelled with chromium as target cells. Lymphocyte proliferation was determined by 3H-thymidine uptake. The degree of activation was expressed as the stimulation index.

Results: The crude ethanolic extracts of D. membranacea Pierre significantly stimulated NK cells activity against K562 cells line at lower concentrations of 10 and 100 ng/ml, but not at higher concentrations. The ethanolic extracts showed no observable effect on lymphocyte proliferation. The crude water extracts significantly increased NK cell activity at concentrations of 10 ng/ml, 100 ng/ml, 1 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml, and also activated lymphocyte proliferation at concentration of 1 ng/ml, 10 ng/ml, 100 ng/ml, 1 μg/ml, 5 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml. However, Dioscorealide B had no significant effect at lower concentrations (0-1 μg/ml and 0-0.1 μg/ml, respectively) on NK cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation. In fact higher concentrations (>10 μg/ml and >0.5 μg/ml) of Dioscorealide B cause a significant decrease in NK cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation.

Conclusions: D. membranacea Pierre stimulated NK cells activity and lymphocyte proliferation, but Dioscorealide B either had no effect, and at higher concentrations decreased NK cell activity and lymphocyte proliferation. Our results suggest that both extracts of D. membranacea Pierre significantly increases immune function, but the underlining mechanism is not clearly understood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-14-403DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4213479PMC
October 2014

Isolation and characterization of a new cytotoxic dihydrophenanthrene from Dioscorea membranacea rhizomes and its activity against five human cancer cell lines.

J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Oct 20;156:130-4. Epub 2014 Aug 20.

Department of Applied Thai Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Klongluang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand; Center of Excellence on Applied Thai Traditional Medicine Research (CEATMR), Thammasat University, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The rhizomes of Dioscorea membranacea Pierre (DM) have been used as ingredients in anticancer herbal formulations in Thai traditional medicine (TTM). Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the active constituents of DM for cytotoxic activity in order to support its TTM use.

Materials And Methods: A bioassay-guided isolation procedure was used to separate the cytotoxic constituents from ethanolic extract of Dioscorea membranacea rhizomes by testing against five human cancer cell lines, i.e. large cell lung carcinoma, COR-L23; liver cancer cells, HepG2; prostate cancer cells, PC3; breast cancer cells MCF-7; cervical cancer cells, Hela; and one normal human lung cell line (MRC 5) using the SRB assay.

Results: Two known dihydrophenanthrene compounds [2,4 dimethoxy-5,6-dihydroxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (1) and 5-hydroxy-2,4,6-trimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (2)], and a new dihydrophenanthrene compound, 5,6,2 -trihydroxy 3,4-methoxy, 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (3) were isolated and fully characterized. 1 showed the highest cytotoxic activity against COR-L23, MCF-7 and PC3 cell lines (IC₅₀=14.89, 17.49 and 19.04 µM, respectively), and 2 showed selective cytotoxic activity against PC3 (IC₅₀=23.54 µM). The new compound 3 showed selective cytotoxic activity against only MCF-7 cells (IC₅₀=31.41 µM). Interestingly the crude extract of DM was much less toxic to the normal cell line (MRC-5) (IC₅₀>50 µg/ml) compared to the five cancer cell lines, (IC50 value ranged between 6 and 29 µg/ml).

Conclusion: The phytochemicals isolated from DM may serve as lead compounds for the design of new anti-cancer agents with better selective cytotoxic indices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.08.009DOI Listing
October 2014

An in vitro inhibitory effect on RAW 264.7 cells by anti-inflammatory compounds from Smilax corbularia Kunth.

Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 2012 Dec;30(4):268-74

Department of Applied Thai Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, 12121, Thailand.

Background: Smilax corbularia is a Thai medicinal plant locally known as 'Hua-Khao-Yen Neua', which is used for treating inflammatory conditions.

Objective: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of S. corbularia extracts and its isolated compounds by determination of inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated PGE2 release, and TNF-alpha and NO production from RAW 264.7 cells.

Methods: The inhibitory effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of this plant were determined on LPS-induced NO production, TNF-alpha and PGE2 release in RAW 264.7 cells, as an in vitro indication of possible anti-inflammatory activity. The compounds from active extract were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation.

Results: Only the ethanolic extract of this plant inhibited TNF-alpha and NO production, with IC50 values of 61.97, and 83.90 microg/ml respectively. Three flavonols, engeletin, astilbin and quercetin were isolated from the ethanolic extract. quercetin possessed the highest inhibitory effect on NO production with IC50 11.2 microg/ml (37.1 microM), whereas engeletin and astilbin had no activity (IC50 >100 microg/ml). All three flavonols possessed potent inhibition of PGE2 release with IC50 values of 14.4, 19.6 and 19.9 microg/ml (33.2, 43.5 and 65.8 microM) respectively. Quercetin also exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on TNF-alpha production (IC50 = 1.25 microg/ml or 4.14 microM), but engeletin and astilbin had no activity.

Conclusion: This is the first report of isolated compounds from S. corbularia with potential anti-inflammatory effects, and the results support the use of this plant by Thai traditional doctors for treatment of inflammatory diseases.
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December 2012

Free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation of Thai medicinal plants used for diabetic treatment.

J Med Assoc Thai 2011 Dec;94 Suppl 7:S178-82

Graduate School, Thammasat University, Klongluang, Pathumthani, Thailand.

Objective: To investigate antioxidant activities of some selected plants used to treat diabetic patients by Thai folk doctors.

Material And Method: Ten Thai plants were selected, macerated and extracted with 95% ethanol. DPPH scavenging and lipid peroxidation assays were used to test the antioxidant activities of the extracts.

Results: Mammea siamensis (Saaraphee), Tacca chantrieri (Narapusri) and Albizia myriophylla (Cha Em Thai) showed the highest antioxidant activity on DPPH radical assay (EC50 = 10.17, 10.24 and 14.45 microg/ml, respectively). Mimussops elengi (Pikun), M. siamensis (Saaraphee) and A. myriophylla (Cha Em Thai) exhibited the highest antioxidant activity by lipid peroxidation assay (IC50 0.39, 0.43 and 0.70 microg/ml, respectively). Six often plant extracts showed antioxidant activity on both assays (IC50 < 20 microg/ml).

Conclusion: These plant extracts containing in Thai folklore antidiabetic medicine, which showed high antioxidant activity, may be used effectively for the treatment of diabetic patients.
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December 2011

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of extracts from Musa sapientum peel.

J Med Assoc Thai 2012 Jan;95 Suppl 1:S142-6

Department of Applied Thai Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, Thailand.

Background: Many parts of Musa sapientum Linn. (Musaceae) are used in Thai traditional medicine as drugs, food supplements and cosmetics. The banana peel is used as an astringent in foot care, the unripe fruit is used to treat diarrhea and, the ripe fruit is used as tonic.

Objective: To evaluate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of banana peel extracts obtained from different extraction methods and to determine their total phenolic content.

Material And Method: Four extraction methods were used to extract unripe and ripe peels. Nitric oxide inhibitory and DPPH scavenging assays were used to evaluate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, respectively. Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent was used to determine total phenolic content.

Results: The water extract of fresh ripe peel exhibited the most potent NO inhibitory activity (IC50 = 6.68 +/- 0.34 microg/ml), but apparently exhibited no antioxidant activity. The decoction extract of fresh unripe peel exhibited strong antioxidant activity as well as had the highest total phenolic compound. The antioxidant activity exhibited a correlation with the total phenolic content.

Conclusion: This study supports the use of Musa sapientum peel in Thai Traditional Medicine for treatment of inflammatory-related diseases.
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January 2012

In vitro cytotoxic activity of Benjakul herbal preparation and its active compounds against human lung, cervical and liver cancer cells.

J Med Assoc Thai 2012 Jan;95 Suppl 1:S127-34

Department of Applied Thai Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathumthani, Thailand.

Background: Benjakul [BEN], a Thai Traditional medicine preparation, is composed of five plants: Piper chaba fruit [PC], Piper sarmentosum root [PS], Piper interruptum stem [PI], Plumbago indica root [PL] and Zingiber officinale rhizome [ZO]. From selective interviews of folk doctors in Southern Thailand, it was found that Benjakul has been used for cancer patients.

Objective: To investigate cytotoxicity activity of Benjakul preparation [BEN] and its ingredients against three human cancer cell lines, large lung carcinoma cell line (COR-L23), cervical cancer cell line (Hela) liver cancer cell line (HepG2) as compared with normal lungfibroblast cell (MRC-5) by using SRB assay.

Material And Method: The extraction as imitated the method used by folk doctors was done by maceration in ethanol and boiling in water Bioassay guided isolation was used isolated cytotoxic compound.

Results: The ethanolic extracts of PL, ZO, PC, PS, BEN and PS showed specific activity against lung cancer cell (IC50 = 3.4, 7.9, 15.8, 18.4, 19.8 and 32.91 microg/ml) but all the water extracts had no cytotoxic activity. Three active ingredients [6-gingerol, plumbagin and piperine as 0.54, 4.18 and 7.48% w/w yield of crude extract respectively] were isolated from the ethanolic extract of BEN and they also showed cytotoxic activity with plumbagin showing the highest cytotoxic activity against COR-L23, HepG2, Hela and MRC-5 (IC50 = 2.55, 2.61, 4.16 and 11.54 microM respectively).

Conclusion: These data results may support the Thai traditional doctors who are using Benjakul to treat cancer patients and three of its constituents (6-gingerol, plumbagin and piperine) are suggested to be used as biomarkers for standardization of this preparation.
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January 2012