Publications by authors named "Spyros Kolovos"

19 Publications

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Guided Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression: Implementation Cost-Effectiveness Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 May 11;23(5):e27410. Epub 2021 May 11.

Open Evidence Research Group, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Major depressive disorder is a chronic condition; its prevalence is expected to grow with the aging trend of high-income countries. Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy has proven efficacy in treating major depressive disorder.

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of implementing a community internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy intervention ([email protected], the Spanish program for the MasterMind project) for treating major depressive disorder.

Methods: The cost-effectiveness of the [email protected] program was assessed with the Monitoring and Assessment Framework for the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing tool, using a 3-state Markov model. Data from the cost and effectiveness of the intervention were prospectively collected from the implementation of the program by a health care provider in Badalona, Spain; the corresponding data for usual care were gathered from the literature. The health states, transition probabilities, and utilities were computed using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores.

Results: The analysis was performed using data from 229 participants using the [email protected] program. Results showed that the intervention was more costly than usual care; the discounted (3%) and nondiscounted incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were €29,367 and €26,484 per quality-adjusted life-year, respectively (approximately US $35,299 and $31,833, respectively). The intervention was cost-effective based on the €30,000 willingness-to-pay threshold typically applied in Spain (equivalent to approximately $36,060). According to the deterministic sensitivity analyses, the potential reduction of costs associated with intervention scale-up would reduce the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the intervention, although it remained more costly than usual care. A discount in the incremental effects up to 5% exceeded the willingness-to-pay threshold of €30,000.

Conclusions: The [email protected] program, an internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy intervention for treating major depressive disorder, cost more than treatment as usual. Nevertheless, its implementation in Spain would be cost-effective from health care and societal perspectives, given the willingness-to-pay threshold of €30,000 compared with treatment as usual.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/27410DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8150403PMC
May 2021

Guided Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depression: Implementation Cost-Effectiveness Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 May 11;23(5):e27410. Epub 2021 May 11.

Open Evidence Research Group, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Major depressive disorder is a chronic condition; its prevalence is expected to grow with the aging trend of high-income countries. Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy has proven efficacy in treating major depressive disorder.

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of implementing a community internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy intervention ([email protected], the Spanish program for the MasterMind project) for treating major depressive disorder.

Methods: The cost-effectiveness of the [email protected] program was assessed with the Monitoring and Assessment Framework for the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing tool, using a 3-state Markov model. Data from the cost and effectiveness of the intervention were prospectively collected from the implementation of the program by a health care provider in Badalona, Spain; the corresponding data for usual care were gathered from the literature. The health states, transition probabilities, and utilities were computed using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores.

Results: The analysis was performed using data from 229 participants using the [email protected] program. Results showed that the intervention was more costly than usual care; the discounted (3%) and nondiscounted incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were €29,367 and €26,484 per quality-adjusted life-year, respectively (approximately US $35,299 and $31,833, respectively). The intervention was cost-effective based on the €30,000 willingness-to-pay threshold typically applied in Spain (equivalent to approximately $36,060). According to the deterministic sensitivity analyses, the potential reduction of costs associated with intervention scale-up would reduce the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the intervention, although it remained more costly than usual care. A discount in the incremental effects up to 5% exceeded the willingness-to-pay threshold of €30,000.

Conclusions: The [email protected] program, an internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy intervention for treating major depressive disorder, cost more than treatment as usual. Nevertheless, its implementation in Spain would be cost-effective from health care and societal perspectives, given the willingness-to-pay threshold of €30,000 compared with treatment as usual.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/27410DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8150403PMC
May 2021

Infection and mortality of healthcare workers worldwide from COVID-19: a systematic review.

BMJ Glob Health 2020 12;5(12)

Oxford University Global Surgery Group, Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire, UK.

Objectives: To estimate COVID-19 infections and deaths in healthcare workers (HCWs) from a global perspective during the early phases of the pandemic.

Design: Systematic review.

Methods: Two parallel searches of academic bibliographic databases and grey literature were undertaken until 8 May 2020. Governments were also contacted for further information where possible. There were no restrictions on language, information sources used, publication status and types of sources of evidence. The AACODS checklist or the National Institutes of Health study quality assessment tools were used to appraise each source of evidence.

Outcome Measures: Publication characteristics, country-specific data points, COVID-19-specific data, demographics of affected HCWs and public health measures employed.

Results: A total of 152 888 infections and 1413 deaths were reported. Infections were mainly in women (71.6%, n=14 058) and nurses (38.6%, n=10 706), but deaths were mainly in men (70.8%, n=550) and doctors (51.4%, n=525). Limited data suggested that general practitioners and mental health nurses were the highest risk specialities for deaths. There were 37.2 deaths reported per 100 infections for HCWs aged over 70 years. Europe had the highest absolute numbers of reported infections (119 628) and deaths (712), but the Eastern Mediterranean region had the highest number of reported deaths per 100 infections (5.7).

Conclusions: COVID-19 infections and deaths among HCWs follow that of the general population around the world. The reasons for gender and specialty differences require further exploration, as do the low rates reported in Africa and India. Although physicians working in certain specialities may be considered high risk due to exposure to oronasal secretions, the risk to other specialities must not be underestimated. Elderly HCWs may require assigning to less risky settings such as telemedicine or administrative positions. Our pragmatic approach provides general trends, and highlights the need for universal guidelines for testing and reporting of infections in HCWs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2020-003097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7722361PMC
December 2020

Deep phenotyping of 34,128 adult patients hospitalised with COVID-19 in an international network study.

Nat Commun 2020 10 6;11(1):5009. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Zealand University Hospital, Køge, Denmark.

Comorbid conditions appear to be common among individuals hospitalised with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) but estimates of prevalence vary and little is known about the prior medication use of patients. Here, we describe the characteristics of adults hospitalised with COVID-19 and compare them with influenza patients. We include 34,128 (US: 8362, South Korea: 7341, Spain: 18,425) COVID-19 patients, summarising between 4811 and 11,643 unique aggregate characteristics. COVID-19 patients have been majority male in the US and Spain, but predominantly female in South Korea. Age profiles vary across data sources. Compared to 84,585 individuals hospitalised with influenza in 2014-19, COVID-19 patients have more typically been male, younger, and with fewer comorbidities and lower medication use. While protecting groups vulnerable to influenza is likely a useful starting point in the response to COVID-19, strategies will likely need to be broadened to reflect the particular characteristics of individuals being hospitalised with COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18849-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7538555PMC
October 2020

Risk of hydroxychloroquine alone and in combination with azithromycin in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a multinational, retrospective study.

Lancet Rheumatol 2020 Nov 21;2(11):e698-e711. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Janssen Research and Development, Titusville, NJ, USA.

Background: Hydroxychloroquine, a drug commonly used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, has received much negative publicity for adverse events associated with its authorisation for emergency use to treat patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. We studied the safety of hydroxychloroquine, alone and in combination with azithromycin, to determine the risk associated with its use in routine care in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Methods: In this multinational, retrospective study, new user cohort studies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis aged 18 years or older and initiating hydroxychloroquine were compared with those initiating sulfasalazine and followed up over 30 days, with 16 severe adverse events studied. Self-controlled case series were done to further establish safety in wider populations, and included all users of hydroxychloroquine regardless of rheumatoid arthritis status or indication. Separately, severe adverse events associated with hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin (compared with hydroxychloroquine plus amoxicillin) were studied. Data comprised 14 sources of claims data or electronic medical records from Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Spain, the UK, and the USA. Propensity score stratification and calibration using negative control outcomes were used to address confounding. Cox models were fitted to estimate calibrated hazard ratios (HRs) according to drug use. Estimates were pooled where the value was less than 0·4.

Findings: The study included 956 374 users of hydroxychloroquine, 310 350 users of sulfasalazine, 323 122 users of hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin, and 351 956 users of hydroxychloroquine plus amoxicillin. No excess risk of severe adverse events was identified when 30-day hydroxychloroquine and sulfasalazine use were compared. Self-controlled case series confirmed these findings. However, long-term use of hydroxychloroquine appeared to be associated with increased cardiovascular mortality (calibrated HR 1·65 [95% CI 1·12-2·44]). Addition of azithromycin appeared to be associated with an increased risk of 30-day cardiovascular mortality (calibrated HR 2·19 [95% CI 1·22-3·95]), chest pain or angina (1·15 [1·05-1·26]), and heart failure (1·22 [1·02-1·45]).

Interpretation: Hydroxychloroquine treatment appears to have no increased risk in the short term among patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but in the long term it appears to be associated with excess cardiovascular mortality. The addition of azithromycin increases the risk of heart failure and cardiovascular mortality even in the short term. We call for careful consideration of the benefit-risk trade-off when counselling those on hydroxychloroquine treatment.

Funding: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, NIHR Senior Research Fellowship programme, US National Institutes of Health, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Janssen Research and Development, IQVIA, Korea Health Industry Development Institute through the Ministry of Health and Welfare Republic of Korea, Versus Arthritis, UK Medical Research Council Doctoral Training Partnership, Foundation Alfonso Martin Escudero, Innovation Fund Denmark, Novo Nordisk Foundation, Singapore Ministry of Health's National Medical Research Council Open Fund Large Collaborative Grant, VINCI, Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 Joint Undertaking, EU's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, and European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2665-9913(20)30276-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7442425PMC
November 2020

An international characterisation of patients hospitalised with COVID-19 and a comparison with those previously hospitalised with influenza.

medRxiv 2020 Apr 25. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Science Policy and Research, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, UK.

Background: To better understand the profile of individuals with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we characterised individuals hospitalised with COVID-19 and compared them to individuals previously hospitalised with influenza.

Methods: We report the characteristics (demographics, prior conditions and medication use) of patients hospitalised with COVID-19 between December 2019 and April 2020 in the US (Columbia University Irving Medical Center [CUIMC], STAnford Medicine Research data Repository [STARR-OMOP], and the Department of Veterans Affairs [VA OMOP]) and Health Insurance Review & Assessment [HIRA] of South Korea. Patients hospitalised with COVID-19 were compared with patients previously hospitalised with influenza in 2014-19.

Results: 6,806 (US: 1,634, South Korea: 5,172) individuals hospitalised with COVID-19 were included. Patients in the US were majority male (VA OMOP: 94%, STARR-OMOP: 57%, CUIMC: 52%), but were majority female in HIRA (56%). Age profiles varied across data sources. Prevalence of asthma ranged from 7% to 14%, diabetes from 18% to 43%, and hypertensive disorder from 22% to 70% across data sources, while between 9% and 39% were taking drugs acting on the renin-angiotensin system in the 30 days prior to their hospitalisation. Compared to 52,422 individuals hospitalised with influenza, patients admitted with COVID-19 were more likely male, younger, and, in the US, had fewer comorbidities and lower medication use.

Conclusions: Rates of comorbidities and medication use are high among individuals hospitalised with COVID-19. However, COVID-19 patients are more likely to be male and appear to be younger and, in the US, generally healthier than those typically admitted with influenza.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.22.20074336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7239064PMC
April 2020

Five-year cost-effectiveness analysis of the European Fans in Training (EuroFIT) physical activity intervention for men versus no intervention.

Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2020 03 4;17(1):30. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Science, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: Increasing physical activity reduces the risk of chronic illness including Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer. Lifestyle interventions can increase physical activity but few successfully engage men. This study aims to investigate the 5 year cost-effectiveness of EuroFIT, a program to improve physical activity tailored specifically for male football (soccer) fans compared to a no intervention comparison group.

Methods: We developed a Markov cohort model in which the impact of improving physical activity on five chronic health conditions (colorectal cancer, Type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke and depression) and mortality was modelled. We estimated costs from a societal perspective and expressed benefits as quality adjusted life years (QALYs). We obtained data from a 4-country (England, Netherlands, Portugal and Norway) pragmatic randomised controlled trial evaluating EuroFIT, epidemiological and cohort studies, and meta-analyses. We performed deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of uncertainty in the model's parameter values on the cost-effectiveness results. We used Monte Carlo simulations to estimate uncertainty and presented this using cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEACs). We tested the robustness of the base case analysis using five scenario analyses.

Results: Average costs over 5 years per person receiving EuroFIT were €14,663 and per person receiving no intervention €14,598. Mean QALYs over 5 years were 4.05 per person for EuroFIT and 4.04 for no intervention. Thus, the average incremental cost per person receiving EuroFIT was €65 compared to no intervention, while the average QALY gain was 0.01. This resulted in an ICER of €5206 per QALY gained. CEACs show that the probability of EuroFIT being cost-effective compared to no intervention is 0.53, 0.56 and 0.58 at thresholds of €10,000, €22,000 and €34,000 per QALY gained, respectively. When using a time horizon of 10 years, the results suggest that EuroFIT is more effective and less expensive compared to (i.e. dominant over) no intervention with a probability of cost-effectiveness of 0.63 at a threshold of €22,000 per QALY gained.

Conclusions: We conclude the EuroFIT intervention is not cost-effective compared to no intervention over a period of 5 years from a societal perspective, but is more effective and less expensive (i.e. dominant) after 10 years. We thus suggest that EuroFIT can potentially improve public health in a cost-effective manner in the long term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12966-020-00934-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7055048PMC
March 2020

Association of sleep, screen time and physical activity with overweight and obesity in Mexico.

Eat Weight Disord 2021 Feb 31;26(1):169-179. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Department of Health Sciences, York University, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD, UK.

Purpose: Approximately 70% of adults in Mexico are overweight or obese. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors are also prevalent. We examined the association of three lifestyle behaviors with body mass index (BMI) categories in adults from Mexico.

Methods: We used publicly available data from the ENSANUT 2016 survey (n = 6419). BMI was used to categorize participants. Differences in sleep duration, suffering from symptoms of insomnia, TV watching time, time in front of any screen, vigorous physical activity (yes vs no), moderate physical activity (> 30 min/day-yes vs. no) and walking (> 60 min/day-yes vs. no) were compared across BMI groups using adjusted linear and logistic regression analyses.

Results: Thirty-nine percent of participants were overweight and 37% obese. Time in front of TV, in front of any screen, sleep duration and physical activity were significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Compared to normal weight participants, participants in the obese II category spend on average 0.60 h/day (95% CI 0.36-0.84, p = 0.001) and participants in the obese III category 0.54 h/day (95% CI 0.19-0.89, p < 0.001) more in front of any screen; participants in the obese II category reported 0.55 h/day less sleep (95% CI - 0.67 to - 0.43, p < 0.001); participants in the obese III category were less likely to engage in vigorous activity (OR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.43-0.84, p ≤ 0.003), or walking (OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.49-0.88, p = 0.005).

Conclusion: Screen time, sleeping hours, and physical activity were associated with overweight and obesity. However, these associations were not consistent across all BMI categories. Assuming established causal connections, overweight individuals and individuals with obesity would benefit from reduced screen time and engaging in moderate/vigorous physical activity.

Level Of Evidence: Level III: observational case-control analytic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40519-019-00841-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7895770PMC
February 2021

Unplanned admissions for patients with myeloma in the UK: Low frequency but high costs.

J Bone Oncol 2019 Aug 7;17:100243. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University of Oxford, Old Rd, Oxford OX3 7LD, UK.

Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) is associated with high healthcare resource utilisation and increasing hospitalisation rates. The aim of this study was to characterise the hospital use by patients with MM in the English National Health Service (NHS).

Methods: Routinely-collected aggregate data about all NHS-funded hospital admissions of patients with MM were analysed. Data were obtained from the English Hospital Episodes Statistics on admissions between 1 April 2014 and 31 March 2018.

Results: A total of 754,345 admissions were reported over four years, equivalent to a mean of 188,586 admissions per year. Of the 41,845 patients admitted during this period, 42% were women and 58% men. From the total admissions, 90% were elective and 10% unplanned. Mean annual estimated costs over the period were £46 million for elective and £56 million for unplanned admissions. The number of elective admissions increased by 4.5% with costs increasing 1.5% per year; for unplanned admissions, these figures were 4.1% and 9.0%, respectively.

Conclusions: MM is associated with a significant number of hospital admissions and NHS costs. The majority of the hospital admissions are elective, but the highest burden in terms of costs relates to unplanned admissions, with numbers increasing over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbo.2019.100243DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6579752PMC
August 2019

The effect of a programme to improve men's sedentary time and physical activity: The European Fans in Training (EuroFIT) randomised controlled trial.

PLoS Med 2019 02 5;16(2):e1002736. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Health Services Research Unit, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.

Background: Reducing sitting time as well as increasing physical activity in inactive people is beneficial for their health. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the European Fans in Training (EuroFIT) programme to improve physical activity and sedentary time in male football fans, delivered through the professional football setting.

Methods And Findings: A total of 1,113 men aged 30-65 with self-reported body mass index (BMI) ≥27 kg/m2 took part in a randomised controlled trial in 15 professional football clubs in England, the Netherlands, Norway, and Portugal. Recruitment was between September 19, 2015, and February 2, 2016. Participants consented to study procedures and provided usable activity monitor baseline data. They were randomised, stratified by club, to either the EuroFIT intervention or a 12-month waiting list comparison group. Follow-up measurement was post-programme and 12 months after baseline. EuroFIT is a 12-week, group-based programme delivered by coaches in football club stadia in 12 weekly 90-minute sessions. Weekly sessions aimed to improve physical activity, sedentary time, and diet and maintain changes long term. A pocket-worn device (SitFIT) allowed self-monitoring of sedentary time and daily steps, and a game-based app (MatchFIT) encouraged between-session social support. Primary outcome (objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity) measurements were obtained for 83% and 85% of intervention and comparison participants. Intention-to-treat analyses showed a baseline-adjusted mean difference in sedentary time at 12 months of -1.6 minutes/day (97.5% confidence interval [CI], -14.3-11.0; p = 0.77) and in step counts of 678 steps/day (97.5% CI, 309-1.048; p < 0.001) in favor of the intervention. There were significant improvements in diet, weight, well-being, self-esteem, vitality, and biomarkers of cardiometabolic health in favor of the intervention group, but not in quality of life. There was a 0.95 probability of EuroFIT being cost-effective compared with the comparison group if society is willing to pay £1.50 per extra step/day, a maximum probability of 0.61 if society is willing to pay £1,800 per minute less sedentary time/day, and 0.13 probability if society is willing to pay £30,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). It was not possible to blind participants to group allocation. Men attracted to the programme already had quite high levels of physical activity at baseline (8,372 steps/day), which may have limited room for improvement. Although participants came from across the socioeconomic spectrum, a majority were well educated and in paid work. There was an increase in recent injuries and in upper and lower joint pain scores post-programme. In addition, although the five-level EuroQoL questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) is now the preferred measure for cost-effectiveness analyses across Europe, baseline scores were high (0.93), suggesting a ceiling effect for QALYs.

Conclusion: Participation in EuroFIT led to improvements in physical activity, diet, body weight, and biomarkers of cardiometabolic health, but not in sedentary time at 12 months. Within-trial analysis suggests it is not cost-effective in the short term for QALYs due to a ceiling effect in quality of life. Nevertheless, decision-makers may consider the incremental cost for increase in steps worth the investment.

Trial Registration: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials, ISRCTN-81935608.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002736DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6363143PMC
February 2019

Predicting Therapy Success and Costs for Personalized Treatment Recommendations Using Baseline Characteristics: Data-Driven Analysis.

J Med Internet Res 2018 08 21;20(8):e10275. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Department of Clinical, Neuro- & Developmental Psychology, Vrije University, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Background: Different treatment alternatives exist for psychological disorders. Both clinical and cost effectiveness of treatment are crucial aspects for policy makers, therapists, and patients and thus play major roles for healthcare decision-making. At the start of an intervention, it is often not clear which specific individuals benefit most from a particular intervention alternative or how costs will be distributed on an individual patient level.

Objective: This study aimed at predicting the individual outcome and costs for patients before the start of an internet-based intervention. Based on these predictions, individualized treatment recommendations can be provided. Thus, we expand the discussion of personalized treatment recommendation.

Methods: Outcomes and costs were predicted based on baseline data of 350 patients from a two-arm randomized controlled trial that compared treatment as usual and blended therapy for depressive disorders. For this purpose, we evaluated various machine learning techniques, compared the predictive accuracy of these techniques, and revealed features that contributed most to the prediction performance. We then combined these predictions and utilized an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in order to derive individual treatment recommendations before the start of treatment.

Results: Predicting clinical outcomes and costs is a challenging task that comes with high uncertainty when only utilizing baseline information. However, we were able to generate predictions that were more accurate than a predefined reference measure in the shape of mean outcome and cost values. Questionnaires that include anxiety or depression items and questions regarding the mobility of individuals and their energy levels contributed to the prediction performance. We then described how patients can be individually allocated to the most appropriate treatment type. For an incremental cost-effectiveness threshold of 25,000 €/quality-adjusted life year, we demonstrated that our recommendations would have led to slightly worse outcomes (1.98%), but with decreased cost (5.42%).

Conclusions: Our results indicate that it was feasible to provide personalized treatment recommendations at baseline and thus allocate patients to the most beneficial treatment type. This could potentially lead to improved decision-making, better outcomes for individuals, and reduced health care costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/10275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6123535PMC
August 2018

Association between obesity and depressive symptoms in Mexican population.

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2018 Jun 19;53(6):639-646. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

School of Natural Sciences, Autonomous University of Queretaro, Avenida de las Ciencias s/n, 76230, Querétaro, México.

Purpose: Obesity and depression are among the leading causes of disability in Mexico, but their association has not been explored yet. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between obesity and depression in Mexican population.

Methods: We used data from the health and nutrition survey (ENSANUT 2012), which is representative of the Mexican population. Obesity was determined using the body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity by measuring waist circumference. Depressive symptoms were reported using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale Short-Form (CES-D-SF, scale 0-21). Regression analyses were performed between obesity and depression, adjusting for gender, age, living with a partner, education, and diabetes history.

Results: Obese women had 1.28 (95% CI 1.07-1.53) times the odds of having depression in comparison with normal-weight women, whereas no association was found for men (OR 0.94; 95% CI 0.74-1.19). A significant association between BMI and depressive symptoms score (β = 0.05, 95% CI 0.02-0.07) was present in women, but no association was found for men (β = - 0.02, 95% CI - 0.05 to 0.00). There was a statistically significant association between waist circumference and depression scores again for women (β = 0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.04) but not for men (β = 0.00, 95% CI - 0.01 to 0.01). No associations were found between abdominal obesity and depression for both genders. No association was found between different obesity severity levels and depression for both genders.

Conclusion: Obesity was associated with depression in Mexican women, whereas no association was found between obesity and depression in men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-018-1517-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5959989PMC
June 2018

Model-Based Economic Evaluation of Treatments for Depression: A Systematic Literature Review.

Pharmacoecon Open 2017 Sep;1(3):149-165

Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: An increasing number of model-based studies that evaluate the cost effectiveness of treatments for depression are being published. These studies have different characteristics and use different simulation methods.

Objective: We aimed to systematically review model-based studies evaluating the cost effectiveness of treatments for depression and examine which modelling technique is most appropriate for simulating the natural course of depression.

Methods: The literature search was conducted in the databases PubMed, EMBASE and PsycInfo between 1 January 2002 and 1 October 2016. Studies were eligible if they used a health economic model with quality-adjusted life-years or disability-adjusted life-years as an outcome measure. Data related to various methodological characteristics were extracted from the included studies. The available modelling techniques were evaluated based on 11 predefined criteria.

Results: This methodological review included 41 model-based studies, of which 21 used decision trees (DTs), 15 used cohort-based state-transition Markov models (CMMs), two used individual-based state-transition models (ISMs), and three used discrete-event simulation (DES) models. Just over half of the studies (54%) evaluated antidepressants compared with a control condition. The data sources, time horizons, cycle lengths, perspectives adopted and number of health states/events all varied widely between the included studies. DTs scored positively in four of the 11 criteria, CMMs in five, ISMs in six, and DES models in seven.

Conclusion: There were substantial methodological differences between the studies. Since the individual history of each patient is important for the prognosis of depression, DES and ISM simulation methods may be more appropriate than the others for a pragmatic representation of the course of depression. However, direct comparisons between the available modelling techniques are necessary to yield firm conclusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s41669-017-0014-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5691837PMC
September 2017

Cost effectiveness of guided Internet-based interventions for depression in comparison with control conditions: An individual-participant data meta-analysis.

Depress Anxiety 2018 03 12;35(3):209-219. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: There is limited evidence on the cost effectiveness of Internet-based treatments for depression. The aim was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of guided Internet-based interventions for depression compared to controls.

Methods: Individual-participant data from five randomized controlled trials (RCT), including 1,426 participants, were combined. Cost-effectiveness analyses were conducted at 8 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months follow-up.

Results: The guided Internet-based interventions were more costly than the controls, but not statistically significant (12 months mean difference = €406, 95% CI: - 611 to 1,444). The mean differences in clinical effects were not statistically significant (12 months mean difference = 1.75, 95% CI: - .09 to 3.60 in Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D] score, .06, 95% CI: - .02 to .13 in response rate, and .00, 95% CI: - .03 to .03 in quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]). Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves indicated that high investments are needed to reach an acceptable probability that the intervention is cost effective compared to control for CES-D and response to treatment (e.g., at 12-month follow-up the probability of being cost effective was .95 at a ceiling ratio of 2,000 €/point of improvement in CES-D score). For QALYs, the intervention's probability of being cost effective compared to control was low at the commonly accepted willingness-to-pay threshold (e.g., at 12-month follow-up the probability was .29 and. 31 at a ceiling ratio of 24,000 and 35,000 €/QALY, respectively).

Conclusions: Based on the present findings, guided Internet-based interventions for depression are not considered cost effective compared to controls. However, only a minority of RCTs investigating the clinical effectiveness of guided Internet-based interventions also assessed cost effectiveness and were included in this individual-participant data meta-analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/da.22714DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5888145PMC
March 2018

Utility scores for different health states related to depression: individual participant data analysis.

Qual Life Res 2017 07 4;26(7):1649-1658. Epub 2017 Mar 4.

Department of Health Sciences, and the EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: Depression is associated with considerable impairments in health-related quality-of-life. However, the relationship between different health states related to depression severity and utility scores is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether utility scores are different for various health states related to depression severity.

Methods: We gathered individual participant data from ten randomized controlled trials evaluating depression treatments. The UK EQ-5D and SF-6D tariffs were used to generate utility scores. We defined five health states that were proposed from American Psychiatric Association and National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidelines: remission, minor depression, mild depression, moderate depression, and severe depression. We performed multilevel linear regression analysis.

Results: We included 1629 participants in the analyses. The average EQ-5D utility scores for the five health states were 0.70 (95% CI 0.67-0.73) for remission, 0.62 (95% CI 0.58-0.65) for minor depression, 0.57 (95% CI 0.54-0.61) for mild depression, 0.52 (95%CI 0.49-0.56) for moderate depression, and 0.39 (95% CI 0.35-0.43) for severe depression. In comparison with the EQ-5D, the utility scores based on the SF-6D were similar for remission (EQ-5D = 0.70 vs. SF-6D = 0.69), but higher for severe depression (EQ-5D = 0.39 vs. SF-6D = 0.55).

Conclusions: We observed statistically significant differences in utility scores between depression health states. Individuals with less severe depressive symptoms had on average statistically significant higher utility scores than individuals suffering from more severe depressive symptomatology. In the present study, EQ-5D had a larger range of values as compared to SF-6D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-017-1536-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5486895PMC
July 2017

The effect of treatment as usual on major depressive disorder: A meta-analysis.

J Affect Disord 2017 Mar 18;210:72-81. Epub 2016 Dec 18.

Department of Health Sciences and the EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care Research, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Health-economic models are used to evaluate the long-term cost-effectiveness of an intervention and typically include treatment as usual (TAU) as comparator. Part of the data used for these models are acquired from the literature and thus valid information is needed on the effects of TAU on depression. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to examine positive and negative outcomes of major depression for patients receiving TAU.

Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials including a TAU group for depression. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the criteria described in the "Risk of bias assessment tool". Four separate meta-analyses were performed to estimate remission, response, reliable change and deterioration rates at short-term (≤6 months from baseline).

Results: Thirty-eight studies including 2099 patients in the TAU were identified. Nine studies (24%) met five or six quality criteria, 17 studies (44%) met three or four quality criteria and 12 studies (32%) met one or two quality criteria. After adjusting for publication bias, the first meta-analysis (n=33) showed that 33% of the patients remitted from depression. The second meta-analysis (n=13) demonstrated that 27% of the patients responded to treatment, meaning that their depressive symptom decreased at least 50% from baseline to follow-up measurement. The third meta-analysis (n=7) indicated that 31% of the patients showed a reliable change, meaning that their depressive symptoms improved more than expected by random variation alone. Finally, 12% of the patients deteriorated, meaning that their depressive symptoms became more severe.

Limitations: Statistical heterogeneity was substantial in most analyses and was not fully explained by subgroup analyses. The quality of the included studies was moderate. This may result in overestimation of the true effects.

Conclusions: The treatments labelled as TAU for depression were clinically and statistically heterogeneous. We demonstrated that a few patients benefited from TAU and a small number of patients suffered from worsened depressive symptoms at the short term. The results can be included in health-economic models that compare depression treatments to TAU.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2016.12.013DOI Listing
March 2017

Effect of psychotherapy for depression on quality of life: meta-analysis.

Br J Psychiatry 2016 12 18;209(6):460-468. Epub 2016 Aug 18.

Spyros Kolovos, MSc, Department of Health Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Annet Kleiboer, PhD, Department of Clinical Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University, Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, Utrecht University, The Netherlands; Pim Cuijpers, PhD, Department of Clinical Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University and VU University Medical Centre Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and Leuphana University, Lunebrug, Germany.

Background: Several meta-analyses have shown that psychotherapy is effective for reducing depressive symptom severity. However, the impact on quality of life (QoL) is as yet unknown.

Aims: To investigate the effectiveness of psychotherapy for depression on global QoL and on the mental health and physical health components of QoL.

Method: We conducted a meta-analysis of 44 randomised clinical trials comparing psychotherapy for adults experiencing clinical depression or elevated depressive symptoms with a control group. We used subgroup analyses to explore the influence of various study characteristics on the effectiveness of treatment.

Results: We detected a small to moderate effect size (Hedges' g = 0.33, 95% CI 0.24-0.42) for global QoL, a moderate effect size for the mental health component (g = 0.42, 95% CI 0.33-0.51) and, after removing an outlier, a small but statistically significant effect size for the physical health component (g = 0.16, 95% CI 0.05-0.27). Multivariate meta-regression analyses showed that the effect size of depressive symptoms was significantly related to the effect size of the mental health component of QoL. The effect size of depressive symptoms was not related to global QoL or the physical health component.

Conclusions: Psychotherapy for depression has a positive impact on the QoL of patients with depression. Improvements in QoL are not fully explained by improvements in depressive symptom severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.115.175059DOI Listing
December 2016

Economic evaluation of Internet-based problem-solving guided self-help treatment in comparison with enhanced usual care for depressed outpatients waiting for face-to-face treatment: A randomized controlled trial.

J Affect Disord 2016 Aug 27;200:284-92. Epub 2016 Apr 27.

Department of Clinical Psychology and the EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Previous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions for depression in comparison with usual care. However, evidence on the cost-effectiveness of these interventions when delivered in outpatient clinics is lacking. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of an Internet-based problem-solving guided self-help intervention in comparison with enhanced usual care for outpatients on a waiting list for face-to-face treatment for major depression. After the waiting list period, participants from both groups received the same treatment at outpatient clinics.

Methods: An economic evaluation was performed alongside a randomized controlled trial with 12 months follow-up. Outcomes were improvement in depressive symptom severity (measured by CES-D), response to treatment and Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs). Statistical uncertainty around cost differences and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were estimated using bootstrapping.

Results: Mean societal costs for the intervention group were €1579 higher than in usual care, but this was not statistically significant (95% CI - 1395 to 4382). Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves showed that the maximum probability of the intervention being cost-effective in comparison with usual care was 0.57 at a ceiling ratio of €15,000/additional point of improvement in CES-D, and 0.25 and 0.30 for an additional response to treatment and an extra QALY respectively, at a ceiling ratio of €30,000. Sensitivity analysis showed that from a mental healthcare provider perspective the probability of the intervention being cost-effective was 0.68 for a ceiling ratio of 0 €/additional unit of effect for the CES-D score, response to treatment and QALYs. As the ceiling ratio increased this probability decreased, because the mean costs in the intervention group were lower than the mean costs in the usual care group.

Limitations: The patients in the intervention group showed low adherence to the Internet-based treatment. It is possible that greater adherence would have led to larger clinical effects.

Conclusions: Offering an Internet-based intervention to depressed outpatients on waiting list for face-to-face treatment was not considered cost-effective in comparison with enhanced usual care from a societal perspective. There was a high probability of the intervention being cost-effective in comparison with enhanced usual care from the perspective of the mental healthcare provider.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2016.04.025DOI Listing
August 2016