Publications by authors named "Spero R Cataland"

58 Publications

Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management.

J Clin Med 2021 Feb 2;10(3). Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, severe thrombocytopenia, and ischemic end organ injury due to microvascular platelet-rich thrombi. TTP results from a severe deficiency of the specific von Willebrand factor (VWF)-cleaving protease, ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 repeats, member 13). ADAMTS13 deficiency is most commonly acquired due to anti-ADAMTS13 autoantibodies. It can also be inherited in the congenital form as a result of biallelic mutations in the gene. In adults, the condition is most often immune-mediated (iTTP) whereas congenital TTP (cTTP) is often detected in childhood or during pregnancy. iTTP occurs more often in women and is potentially lethal without prompt recognition and treatment. Front-line therapy includes daily plasma exchange with fresh frozen plasma replacement and immunosuppression with corticosteroids. Immunosuppression targeting ADAMTS13 autoantibodies with the humanized anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab is frequently added to the initial therapy. If available, anti-VWF therapy with caplacizumab is also added to the front-line setting. While it is hypothesized that refractory TTP will be less common in the era of caplacizumab, in relapsed or refractory cases cyclosporine A, -acetylcysteine, bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, or splenectomy can be considered. Novel agents, such as recombinant ADAMTS13, are also currently under investigation and show promise for the treatment of TTP. Long-term follow-up after the acute episode is critical to monitor for relapse and to diagnose and manage chronic sequelae of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7867179PMC
February 2021

Redefining outcomes in immune TTP: an international working group consensus report.

Blood 2021 Apr;137(14):1855-1861

Department of Haematology, University College London Hospital (UCLH), London, United Kingdom.

Immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP) is a potentially fatal thrombotic microangiopathy caused by autoantibody-mediated severe deficiency of ADAMTS13. Standardized definitions of response, exacerbation, remission, and relapse were initially proposed in 2003 and modified by the International Working Group for TTP in 2017. These definitions, which have been widely used in clinical practice and research, are based primarily on the platelet count and are benchmarked against the timing of discontinuation of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). They do not incorporate ADAMTS13 activity or the temporizing effects on the platelet count of caplacizumab, a novel anti-von Willebrand factor (VWF) nanobody. In light of these limitations, the IWG aimed to develop revised consensus outcome definitions that incorporate ADAMTS13 activity and the effects of anti-VWF therapy, by using an estimate-talk-estimate approach. The updated definitions distinguish clinical remission and clinical relapse (defined primarily by platelet count) from ADAMTS13 remission and ADAMTS13 relapse (defined by ADAMTS13 activity). The revised definitions of exacerbation and remission are benchmarked against not only the timing of discontinuation of TPE but also that of anti-VWF therapy. Retrospective validation of the revised definitions is described, although they have yet to be prospectively validated. Clinical implications of the updated outcome definitions are also discussed and an example of their application to clinical practice is provided to highlight their clinical relevance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020009150DOI Listing
April 2021

ISTH guidelines for the diagnosis of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

J Thromb Haemost 2020 10 11;18(10):2486-2495. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Angelo Bianchi Bonomi Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center and Fondazione Luigi Villa, Milan, Italy.

Background: Despite an increase in our understandings of pathogenesis of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), the approaches for initial diagnosis and management of TTP vary significantly.

Objective: The evidence-based guidelines of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) are intended to support patients, clinicians, and other health care professionals in their decisions about the initial diagnosis and management of acute TTP.

Methods: In June 2018, ISTH formed a multidisciplinary panel that included hematologists, an intensive care physician, nephrologist, clinical pathologist, biostatistician, and patient representatives, as well as a methodology team from McMaster University. The panel composition was designed to minimize the potential conflicts of interests. The panel used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach and the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome framework to develop and grade their recommendations. Public comments were sought and incorporated in the final document.

Results: The panel agreed on three recommendations covering the initial diagnosis with emphasis on the importance of ADAMTS13 testing (eg, activity, anti-ADAMTS13 IgG or inhibitor) and assessment of the pretest probability of TTP by clinical assessment and/or the risk assessment models like the PLASMIC or French score. The panel noted how availability and turnaround time of ADAMTS13 test results might affect early diagnosis and management, in particular the use of caplacizumab.

Conclusions: There is a lack of high-quality evidence to support strong recommendations for the initial diagnosis and management of a suspected TTP. The panel emphasized the importance of obtaining ADAMTS13 testing in a proper clinical context. Future research should focus on how to monitor and act on ADAMTS13 levels during remission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15006DOI Listing
October 2020

Good practice statements (GPS) for the clinical care of patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

J Thromb Haemost 2020 10 11;18(10):2503-2512. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Angelo Bianchi Bonomi Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center and Fondazione Luigi Villa, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Background: Despite advances in treatment options for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), there are still limited high quality data to inform clinicians regarding its management.

Methods: In June 2018, the ISTH formed a multidisciplinary guideline panel to issue recommendations about treatment of TTP. The panel discussed 12 treatment questions related to both immune-mediated TTP (iTTP) and hereditary/congenital TTP (cTTP). The panel used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, including evidence-to-decision frameworks, to appraise evidence and formulate recommendations.

Results: The panel agreed on eleven recommendations based on evidence ranging from very low to moderate certainty. For first episode and relapses of acute iTTP, the panel made a strong recommendation for the addition of corticosteroids to therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), and a conditional recommendation for addition of rituximab and caplacizumab. For asymptomatic iTTP with low ADAMTS13, the panel made a conditional recommendation for rituximab outside of pregnancy, and for prophylactic TPE during pregnancy. For asymptomatic cTTP, the panel made a strong recommendation for prophylactic plasma infusion during pregnancy, but a conditional recommendation for plasma infusion or a wait and watch approach outside of pregnancy.

Conclusions: The panel's recommendations are based on all the available evidence for the treatment effects of various approaches including suppressing inflammation, blocking platelet clumping, replacing the missing and/or inhibited ADAMTS13, and suppressing ADAMTS13 antibody production. There was insufficient evidence for further comparison of different treatment approaches, for which future high-quality studies in iTTP (e.g., rituximab, corticosteroids, recombinant ADAMTS13, and caplacizumab) and in cTTP (eg, recombinant ADAMTS13) are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7880820PMC
October 2020

ISTH guidelines for treatment of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

J Thromb Haemost 2020 10 11;18(10):2496-2502. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Angelo Bianchi Bonomi Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center and Fondazione Luigi Villa, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Background: Despite advances in treatment options for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), there are still limited high quality data to inform clinicians regarding its appropriate treatment.

Methods: In June 2018, the ISTH formed a multidisciplinary guideline panel to issue recommendations about treatment of TTP. The panel discussed 12 treatment questions related to immune-mediated TTP (iTTP) and hereditary or congenital TTP (cTTP). The panel used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach, including evidence-to-decision frameworks, to appraise evidence and formulate recommendations.

Results: The panel agreed on 11 recommendations based on evidence ranging from very low to moderate certainty. For first acute episode and relapses of iTTP, the panel made a strong recommendation for adding corticosteroids to therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) and a conditional recommendation for adding rituximab and caplacizumab. For asymptomatic iTTP with low plasma ADAMTS13 activity, the panel made a conditional recommendation for the use of rituximab outside of pregnancy, but prophylactic TPE during pregnancy. For asymptomatic cTTP, the panel made a strong recommendation for prophylactic plasma infusion during pregnancy, and a conditional recommendation for plasma infusion or a wait and watch approach outside of pregnancy.

Conclusions: The panel's recommendations are based on all the available evidence for the effects of an individual component of various treatment approaches, including suppressing inflammation, blocking platelet clumping, replacing the missing and/or inhibited ADAMTS13, and suppressing the formation of ADAMTS13 autoantibody. There was insufficient evidence for further comparing different treatment approaches (eg, TPE, corticosteroids, rituximab, and caplacizumab, etc.), for which high quality studies are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15010DOI Listing
October 2020

Atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome: a case report of a rare cause of reversible cardiomyopathy.

Eur Heart J Case Rep 2020 Apr 12;4(2):1-6. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Davis Heart & Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 473 W 12th Ave, Suite 200, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Background: Atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS) is a life-threatening, genetic disease of complement-mediated thrombotic microangiopathy that typically presents as anaemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure. Cardiomyopathy is seen in up to 10% of aHUS cases, but the aetiology is not well-understood.

Case Summary: A 63-year-old man recently was diagnosed with a thrombotic microangiopathy most consistent with aHUS by renal biopsy after presentation with acute renal failure requiring haemodialysis. He was started on therapy with complement inhibitor, eculizumab. Six weeks after diagnosis, he presented with progressive dyspnoea on exertion and chest pain. An echocardiogram demonstrated an acute drop in left ventricular ejection fraction to 20-25% with global hypokinesis. Left heart catheterization showed moderate, non-obstructive coronary artery disease. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated diffuse myocardial oedema. Endomyocardial biopsy revealed an arteriole with obliterative changes and a few possible fragmented red blood cells suggestive of thrombotic microangiopathy. There was no biopsy evidence of immune complex deposition or myocarditis. He was treated for heart failure and was maintained on eculizumab. On repeat echocardiogram 3 months later, the patient had complete recovery of his ejection fraction (60-65%).

Discussion: In this report, we describe complete recovery of aHUS-associated heart failure with eculizumab therapy and demonstrate for the first time that the aetiology of aHUS-associated heart failure is likely an acute thrombotic microangiopathy involving small intramyocardial arterioles, as demonstrated by cardiac biopsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjcr/ytaa050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7180527PMC
April 2020

Shared decision making, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, and caplacizumab.

Am J Hematol 2020 04 14;95(4):E76-E77. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25715DOI Listing
April 2020

Eculizumab Safety: Five-Year Experience From the Global Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Registry.

Kidney Int Rep 2019 Nov 2;4(11):1568-1576. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

Schneider Children's Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Petach Tikva, Israel.

Introduction: Eculizumab has transformed outcomes for patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). Its efficacy and safety profile was well characterized in the clinical trial program. The long-term safety profile was not previously assessed or compared against nontreated patients in an observational registry setting.

Methods: The Global aHUS Registry recruits patients with clinical diagnoses of aHUS. This analysis includes baseline characteristics and targeted safety events from adult and pediatric patients who were "ever treated" versus "never treated" with eculizumab in the first 5 years of the registry, through January 26, 2017.

Results: Overall, 1321 patients (adult, n = 842; pediatric, n = 479; ever treated, n = 865; never treated, n = 456) were enrolled. A higher proportion of ever-treated versus never-treated adult and pediatric patients had renal, cardiovascular, pulmonary, central nervous system, gastrointestinal symptoms, and hepatic impairment. No differences in safety event rates between ever-treated and never-treated patients were observed, except serious infections in pediatric patients (5.15 versus 1.12 events/100 patient-years for ever- and never-treated patients, respectively). Deaths were more frequent in adult (4.7% and 9.9% of ever- and never-treated patients) compared with pediatric patients (1.8% of ever-treated patients; no deaths in never-treated patients).Three meningococcal infections were reported in ever-treated patients; 1 infection led to a fatal outcome.

Conclusion: In this large observational dataset covering 5 years of registry enrollment, no new safety concerns were identified for adult or pediatric eculizumab-treated patients with aHUS, confirming a positive benefit-risk profile in a real-world setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2019.07.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6933459PMC
November 2019

Caplacizumab Therapy without Plasma Exchange for Acquired Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura.

N Engl J Med 2019 07;381(1):92-94

University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc1905426DOI Listing
July 2019

Caplacizumab Treatment for Acquired Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura.

N Engl J Med 2019 01 9;380(4):335-346. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

From the Department of Haematology, University College London Hospitals, Cardiometabolic Program, National Institute for Health Research UCLH-UCL Biomedical Research Center, London (M.S.); the Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus (S.R.C.); Fondazione Istituti di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Angelo Bianchi Bonomi Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center, and the Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Milan (F.P.); the Department of Hematology, Saint-Antoine University Hospital, Paris (P.C.); the Department of Medicine 1, Division of Hematology and Hemostasis, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (P.K.); the Department of Hematology and Central Hematology Laboratory, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland (J.A.K.H.); the Division of Hematology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (A.M.); the Hematology Department, Universidad Católica de Valencia Hospital Dr. Peset, Valencia, Spain (J.R.); the Departments of Medicine and Laboratory Medicine, St. Michael's Hospital and University of Toronto, Toronto (K.P.); and Clinical Development, Ablynx, Zwijnaarde, Belgium (F.C., D.B., H.D.W., R.K.Z.).

Background: In acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), an immune-mediated deficiency of the von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease ADAMTS13 allows unrestrained adhesion of von Willebrand factor multimers to platelets and microthrombosis, which result in thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, and tissue ischemia. Caplacizumab, an anti-von Willebrand factor humanized, bivalent variable-domain-only immunoglobulin fragment, inhibits interaction between von Willebrand factor multimers and platelets.

Methods: In this double-blind, controlled trial, we randomly assigned 145 patients with TTP to receive caplacizumab (10-mg intravenous loading bolus, followed by 10 mg daily subcutaneously) or placebo during plasma exchange and for 30 days thereafter. The primary outcome was the time to normalization of the platelet count, with discontinuation of daily plasma exchange within 5 days thereafter. Key secondary outcomes included a composite of TTP-related death, recurrence of TTP, or a thromboembolic event during the trial treatment period; recurrence of TTP at any time during the trial; refractory TTP; and normalization of organ-damage markers.

Results: The median time to normalization of the platelet count was shorter with caplacizumab than with placebo (2.69 days [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.89 to 2.83] vs. 2.88 days [95% CI, 2.68 to 3.56], P=0.01), and patients who received caplacizumab were 1.55 times as likely to have a normalization of the platelet count as those who received placebo. The percentage of patients with a composite outcome event was 74% lower with caplacizumab than with placebo (12% vs. 49%, P<0.001). The percentage of patients who had a recurrence of TTP at any time during the trial was 67% lower with caplacizumab than with placebo (12% vs. 38%, P<0.001). Refractory disease developed in no patients in the caplacizumab group and in three patients in the placebo group. Patients who received caplacizumab needed less plasma exchange and had a shorter hospitalization than those who received placebo. The most common adverse event was mucocutaneous bleeding, which was reported in 65% of the patients in the caplacizumab group and in 48% in the placebo group. During the trial treatment period, three patients in the placebo group died. One patient in the caplacizumab group died from cerebral ischemia after the end of the treatment period.

Conclusions: Among patients with TTP, treatment with caplacizumab was associated with faster normalization of the platelet count; a lower incidence of a composite of TTP-related death, recurrence of TTP, or a thromboembolic event during the treatment period; and a lower rate of recurrence of TTP during the trial than placebo. (Funded by Ablynx; HERCULES ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02553317 .).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1806311DOI Listing
January 2019

Novel therapies in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

Res Pract Thromb Haemost 2018 Jan 18;2(1):19-26. Epub 2017 Dec 18.

Department of Medicine Ohio State University Columbus OH USA.

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and a consumptive thrombocytopenia, as a result of severe deficiency of ADAMTS13. The standard of care of the acute episode is treatment with plasma exchange and immunosuppression. After the acute episode is resolved, patients face a significant risk of relapse and long-term complications associated with significant morbidity and even mortality. Novel treatments have been under development and will be discussed in this review. Caplacizumab, a nanobody that blocks the interaction between VWF and platelets, has shown promising results in decreasing the time to recover from the acute events that will hopefully translate into long-term clinical benefit for patients. In addition, identifying biomarkers to allow us to better predict the risk for relapse and the development of these long-term complications in patients with TTP are a few of the challenges that require our attention moving forward.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rth2.12066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6055500PMC
January 2018

The role of ADAMTS13 testing in the diagnosis and management of thrombotic microangiopathies and thrombosis.

Blood 2018 08 13;132(9):903-910. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Department of Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 13) is a metalloprotease responsible for cleavage of ultra-large von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers. Severely deficient activity of the protease can trigger an acute episode of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Our understanding of the pathophysiology of TTP has allowed us to grasp the important role of ADAMTS13 in other thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) and thrombotic disorders, such as ischemic stroke and coronary artery disease. Through its action on VWF, ADAMTS13 can have prothrombotic and proinflammatory properties, not only when its activity is severely deficient, but also when it is only moderately low. Here, we will discuss the biology of ADAMTS13 and the different assays developed to evaluate its function in the context of TTP, in the acute setting and during follow-up. We will also discuss the latest evidence regarding the role of ADAMTS13 in other TMAs, stroke, and cardiovascular disease. This information will be useful for clinicians not only when evaluating patients who present with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia, but also when making clinical decisions regarding the follow-up of patients with TTP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2018-02-791533DOI Listing
August 2018

Cyclosporine or steroids as an adjunct to plasma exchange in the treatment of immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

Blood Adv 2017 Oct 23;1(23):2075-2082. Epub 2017 Oct 23.

Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

Although steroids are routinely used as an adjunct to plasma exchange (PEX) therapy in the treatment of immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP), limited data regarding their efficacy or effect on ADAMTS13 biomarkers are available. We report the results of a prospective, randomized study that compared the effectiveness of prednisone or cyclosporine (CSA) as adjuncts to PEX in the treatment of iTTP. A total of 26 of the planned 72 subjects were enrolled and treated from November 2007 until February 2014 before the study was halted after a planned interim analysis. Fourteen patients were randomly assigned to the prednisone arm, and 12 to the CSA arm of the study. One patient died in each arm of the study, and 2 patients in the prednisone arm of the study failed to achieve a response and crossed over to the CSA arm, leaving 11 patients in each arm of the study evaluable for the primary end point of exacerbation. One of the 11 prednisone-treated subjects (9%) suffered an exacerbation, whereas 3 of the 11 (27%) patients in the CSA arm suffered an exacerbation. Although there was no significant difference in the exacerbation rate, suppression of the anti-ADAMTS13 antibodies and improvement in ADAMTS13 activity in the first month after stopping PEX were significantly better in the prednisone-treated subjects. Side effects were manageable and comparable in both arms of the study. These data demonstrate the superiority of prednisone over CSA as an adjunct to PEX in the suppression of the anti-ADAMTS13 antibodies and improvement in ADAMTS13 activity. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00713193.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2017009308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5728286PMC
October 2017

None of the above: thrombotic microangiopathy beyond TTP and HUS.

Blood 2017 05 17;129(21):2857-2863. Epub 2017 Apr 17.

Department of Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

Acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) are appropriately at the top of a clinician's differential when a patient presents with a clinical picture consistent with an acute thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). However, there are several additional diagnoses that should be considered in patients presenting with an acute TMA, especially in patients with nondeficient ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13) activity (>10%). An increased awareness of drug-induced TMA is also essential because the key to their diagnosis more often is an appropriately detailed medical history to inquire about potential exposures. Widespread inflammation and endothelial damage are central in the pathogenesis of the TMA, with the treatment directed at the underlying disease if possible. TMA presentations in the critically ill, drug-induced TMA, cancer-associated TMA, and hematopoietic transplant-associated TMA (TA-TMA) and their specific treatment, where applicable, will be discussed in this manuscript. A complete assessment of all the potential etiologies for the TMA findings including acquired TTP will allow for a more accurate diagnosis and prevent prolonged or inappropriate treatment with plasma exchange therapy when it is less likely to be successful.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2016-11-743104DOI Listing
May 2017

Gemcitabine-Associated Thrombotic Microangiopathy: Response to Complement Inhibition and Reinitiation of Gemcitabine.

Clin Colorectal Cancer 2016 Sep 20. Epub 2016 Sep 20.

Department of Pharmacy, The James Comprehensive Cancer Center at The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clcc.2016.09.004DOI Listing
September 2016

Terminal Complement Inhibitor Eculizumab in Adult Patients With Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: A Single-Arm, Open-Label Trial.

Am J Kidney Dis 2016 Jul 21;68(1):84-93. Epub 2016 Mar 21.

Adult Kidney Transplant Unit, Université Paris Descartes and Hôpital Necker, Paris, France.

Background: Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare genetic life-threatening disease of chronic uncontrolled complement activation leading to thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and severe end-organ damage. Eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor approved for aHUS treatment, was reported to improve hematologic and renal parameters in 2 prior prospective phase 2 studies. This is the largest prospective study of eculizumab in aHUS to date, conducted in an adult population.

Study Design: Open-label single-arm phase 2 trial.

Setting & Participants: Patients 18 years or older with aHUS (platelet count <150 × 10(3)/μL, hemoglobin ≤ lower limit of normal, lactate dehydrogenase ≥1.5 × upper limit of normal [ULN], and serum creatinine ≥ ULN) were included in this multicenter multinational study.

Intervention: Intravenous eculizumab (900mg/wk for 4 weeks, 1,200mg at week 5 and then every 2 weeks) for 26 weeks.

Outcomes & Measurements: Primary end point was complete TMA response within 26 weeks, defined as hematologic normalization (platelet count ≥150 × 10(3)/μL, LDH ≤ ULN), and preservation of kidney function (<25% serum creatinine increase from baseline), confirmed by 2 or more consecutive measurements obtained 4 or more weeks apart.

Results: 41 patients were treated; 38 (93%) completed 26 weeks of treatment. 30 (73%) were included during their first TMA manifestation. 30 (73%) had complete TMA response. Platelet counts and estimated glomerular filtration rates increased from baseline (P<0.001). All 35 patients on baseline plasma exchange/plasma infusion discontinued by week 26. Of 24 patients requiring baseline dialysis, 5 recovered kidney function before eculizumab initiation and 15 of the remaining 19 (79%) discontinued dialysis during eculizumab treatment. No patients lost existing transplants. Quality-of-life measures were significantly improved. Two patients developed meningococcal infections; both recovered, and 1 remained on eculizumab treatment.

Limitations: Single-arm open-label design.

Conclusions: Results highlight the benefits of eculizumab in adult patients with aHUS: improvement in hematologic, renal, and quality-of-life parameters; dialysis discontinuation; and transplant protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2015.12.034DOI Listing
July 2016

Acute Systolic Heart Failure Associated with Complement-Mediated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome.

Case Rep Hematol 2015 18;2015:327980. Epub 2015 Oct 18.

Division of Hematology, The Ohio State University, 320 W. 10th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Complement-mediated hemolytic uremic syndrome (otherwise known as atypical HUS) is a rare disorder of uncontrolled complement activation that may be associated with heart failure. We report the case of a 49-year-old female with no history of heart disease who presented with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury. Given her normal ADAMSTS13 activity, evidence of increased complement activation, and renal biopsy showing evidence of thrombotic microangiopathy, she was diagnosed with complement-mediated HUS. She subsequently developed acute hypoxemic respiratory failure secondary to pulmonary edema requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. A transthoracic echocardiogram showed evidence of a Takotsubo cardiomyopathy with an estimated left ventricular ejection fraction of 20%, though ischemic cardiomyopathy could not be ruled out. Treatment was initiated with eculizumab. After several failed attempts at extubation, she eventually underwent tracheotomy. She also required hemodialysis to improve her uremia and hypervolemia. After seven weeks of hospitalization and five doses of eculizumab, her renal function and respiratory status improved, and she was discharged in stable condition on room air and independent of hemodialysis. Our case illustrates a rare association between acute systolic heart failure and complement-mediated HUS and highlights the potential of eculizumab in stabilizing even the most critically-ill patients with complement-mediated disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/327980DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4628687PMC
November 2015

Effect of blood sampling, processing, and storage on the measurement of complement activation biomarkers.

Am J Clin Pathol 2015 Apr;143(4):558-65

From the Department of Pathology and Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, and

Objectives: Recent studies have shown that complement hyperactivation contributes to development of thrombotic microangiopathy. The evaluation of complement biomarkers is known to be influenced by inappropriate specimen handling. However, there has been no study fully addressing this topic.

Methods: Blood from each donor was subjected to 62 different handling conditions prior to complement assays.

Results: Complement biomarkers (C4d/C3a/factor Bb/C5a/C5b-9) are stable at room temperature (RT) for up to 4 hours in whole blood containing citrate or EDTA. However, under similar conditions, levels of C4d and C3a were significantly higher in serum than those in plasma. Thawing of the samples on ice or at RT had no significant effect on complement levels. In contrast, thawing at 37°C resulted in striking increases in levels of the complement system in serum and citrated plasma but not in EDTA plasma. Up to four freeze/thaw cycles on ice or RT did not substantially increase the levels of C3a, factor Bb, C5a, and C5b-9 but had a significant effect on C4d. Long-term storage of citrated plasma at -80°C for up to 6 years had no significant effect on levels of complement factors.

Conclusions: The results from this study thus provide crucial guidelines for future investigations using complement biomarkers to define the role of complement system in disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1309/AJCPXPD7ZQXNTIALDOI Listing
April 2015

Clinical utility of complement biomarkers in the diagnosis and treatment of acute thrombotic microangiopathies.

Br J Haematol 2014 Dec 8;167(5):697-8. Epub 2014 Jul 8.

Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.13025DOI Listing
December 2014

Diagnostic and prognostic values of ADAMTS13 activity measured during daily plasma exchange therapy in patients with acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

Transfusion 2015 Jan 23;55(1):18-24. Epub 2014 Jun 23.

Department of Pathology and Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Background: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) requires immediate treatment with plasma exchange (PE) to prevent disease mortality and/or morbidity. Frequently, PE is initiated before blood sample is collected to confirm ADAMTS13 deficiency. However, the effect of PE treatments on the evaluation of ADAMTS13 is uncertain. Moreover, the pertinence of ADAMTS13 activity during PE therapy to prediction of treatment outcomes is unclear. Thus, clarification of the diagnostic and prognostic values of ADAMTS13 activity obtained during PE treatment is an unmet clinical need.

Study Design And Methods: A total of 212 sequential samples were obtained during the course of daily PE treatment from 19 patients with acquired TTP. ADAMTS13 activity levels were determined in these longitudinal samples for analysis.

Results: After the initial three daily PE procedures, the sensitivities of ADAMTS13 activity in diagnosis of TTP (<10%) were 89, 83, and 78%, respectively. To determine prognostic value, patients with (n = 7) and without (n = 12) a recovery of ADAMTS13 activity to more than 10% within seven sessions of daily PE treatment were compared. Recovery of ADAMTS13 activity to more than 10% within 7 days is significantly associated with a timely achievement of clinical response (p < 0.01). In contrast, the patients without more than 10% ADAMTS13 within 1 week appear at risk for worse treatment outcomes manifested as TTP exacerbation, treatment refractoriness, or death.

Conclusion: The data suggest that ADAMTS13 activities measured during the initial period of PE therapy offer both diagnostic and prognostic values in acquired TTP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.12762DOI Listing
January 2015

Biomarkers of terminal complement activation confirm the diagnosis of aHUS and differentiate aHUS from TTP.

Blood 2014 Jun 2;123(24):3733-8. Epub 2014 Apr 2.

Department of Pathology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is characterized by dysregulated complement activity, the development of a thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), and widespread end organ injury. aHUS remains a clinical diagnosis without an objective laboratory test to confirm the diagnosis. We performed a retrospective analysis of 103 patients enrolled in the Ohio State University TTP/aHUS Registry presenting with an acute TMA. Nineteen patients were clinically categorized as aHUS based on the following criteria: (1) platelet count <100 × 10(9)/L, (2) serum creatinine >2.25 mg/dL, and (3) a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 13 (ADAMTS13) activity >10%. Sixteen of 19 patients were treated with plasma exchange (PEX) therapy, with 6/16 (38%) responding to PEX. Nine patients were treated with eculizumab with 7/9 (78%) responding to therapy. In contrast to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) patients, no aHUS patients demonstrated ultralarge von Willebrand factor multimers at presentation. Median markers of generalized complement activation (C3a), alternative pathway (Bb), classical/lectin pathway (C4d), and terminal complement activation (C5a and C5b-9) were increased in the plasma of these 19 patients. Compared with a cohort of ADAMTS13-deficient TTP patients (n = 38), C5a and C5-9 were significantly higher in the 19 patients clinically characterized as aHUS, suggesting that pretreatment measurements of complement biomarkers C5a and C5b-9 may confirm the diagnosis of aHUS and differentiate it from TTP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2013-12-547067DOI Listing
June 2014

How I treat: the clinical differentiation and initial treatment of adult patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Blood 2014 Apr 5;123(16):2478-84. Epub 2014 Mar 5.

Department of Medicine and.

Published data demonstrating the efficacy of complement inhibition therapy in patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) are remarkable in contrast to the historically poor long-term prognosis for aHUS patients treated with plasma-based therapy. Although both aHUS and acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) remain clinical diagnoses, an increased understanding of both conditions has improved our ability to differentiate aHUS from acquired TTP. These same data have also demonstrated the importance of a more rapid identification and diagnosis of aHUS as the recovery of end-organ injury present appears to be related to the time to initiate therapy with eculizumab. The diagnosis of acquired TTP can be confirmed by the finding of severely deficient ADAMTS13 activity (<10%) with evidence of an ADAMTS13 antibody inhibitor whereas merely deficient ADAMTS13 activity in the absence of an ADAMTS13 autoantibody is more consistent with congenital TTP. In the absence of an objective diagnostic test, clinicians must rely collectively on platelet count, serum creatinine, and ADAMTS13 activity in the context of the response to plasma exchange therapy to identify patients whose diagnosis is most consistent with aHUS, and thus be more likely to benefit from therapy with eculizumab.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2013-11-516237DOI Listing
April 2014

Diagnosis and management of complement mediated thrombotic microangiopathies.

Blood Rev 2014 Mar 31;28(2):67-74. Epub 2014 Jan 31.

Department of Pathology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

Historically, attempts were made to differentiate acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) from atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) based upon the age at presentation and the presence of neurologic or renal injury. Although these means of differentiating acquired TTP from aHUS have now been demonstrated to be inaccurate, there were no clinical consequences as the treatment for both disorders remained plasma exchange therapy (PEX). With the regulatory approval and remarkable efficacy of eculizumab (Soliris) for the treatment of aHUS, the accurate and timely differentiation of acquired TTP from aHUS now has real clinical consequences. In the following review we will address the emerging methods of clinically differentiating acquired TTP from aHUS using collectively their clinical presentation, laboratory data, and initial response to PEX therapy to differentiate patients more consistent with a diagnosis of aHUS, and therefore more likely to benefit from complement inhibition therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.blre.2014.01.003DOI Listing
March 2014

Eculizumab therapy.

Authors:
Spero R Cataland

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2014 Apr 15;20(4):438-9. Epub 2014 Feb 15.

Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.02.006DOI Listing
April 2014

Venous thromboembolic disease.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2013 Nov;11(11):1402-29

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains a common and life-threatening complication among patients with cancer. Thromboprophylaxis can be used to prevent the occurrence of VTE in patients with cancer who are considered at high risk for developing this complication. Therefore, it is critical to recognize the various risk factors for VTE in patients with cancer. Risk assessment tools are available to help identify patients for whom discussions regarding the potential benefits and risks of thromboprophylaxis would be appropriate. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for VTE provide recommendations on risk evaluation, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of VTE in patients with cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2013.0163DOI Listing
November 2013

Myeloid growth factors.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2013 Oct;11(10):1266-90

Febrile neutropenia, a common side effect of myelosuppressive chemotherapy in patients with cancer, can result in prolonged hospitalization and broad-spectrum antibiotic use, often prompting treatment delays or dose reductions of drug regimens. Prophylactic use of myeloid growth factors (mainly the colony-stimulating factors filgrastim and pegfilgrastim) in patients of heightened risk can reduce the severity and duration of febrile neutropenia. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Myeloid Growth Factors provide recommendations on the use of these agents mainly in the oncology setting based on clinical evidence and expert consensus. This version includes revisions surrounding the issue of timing of pegfilgrastim administration. It also includes new sections on tbo-filgrastim, a recently approved agent that is biologically similar to filgrastim, and the role of myeloid growth factors in the hematopoietic cell transplant setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2013.0148DOI Listing
October 2013

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura: clinically differentiating the thrombotic microangiopathies.

Eur J Intern Med 2013 Sep 2;24(6):486-91. Epub 2013 Jun 2.

Department of Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

The increased understanding of the pathophysiology of both atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) in recent years has led to significant therapeutic advances for both conditions. These advances have placed an increased emphasis on a more rapid differentiation of both disorders which remain clinical diagnoses. In particular, recent data demonstrating the effectiveness of complement inhibition in patients with aHUS have increased the need for a more rapid and accurate differentiation of aHUS and TTP. Previously utilized criteria have used the presence or absence of neurologic or renal injury and the pretreatment ADAMTS13 activity to differentiate aHUS from TTP. The use of presenting clinical symptoms and findings alone to differentiate these conditions is problematic given their overlapping clinical presentations. Similarly, the use of the pretreatment ADAMTS13 activity alone to differentiate aHUS from TTP is also problematic, and could lead to the inappropriate witholding of plasma exchange (PEX) therapy. However, when used collectively, the pretreatment clinical findings (symptoms and laboratory data) and ADAMTS13 activity in the context of the patient's response to PEX therapy can allow for a more effective differentiation of these two disorders in a timely fashion that will allow for the prompt initiation of the most appropriate therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2013.05.007DOI Listing
September 2013