Publications by authors named "Souleymane Brah"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

[Epidemiological, clinical and evolutionary profile of patients with tuberculosis at the Regional Hospital of Maradi, Republic of the Niger].

Pan Afr Med J 2019 17;33:120. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Service de Médecine Interne, Hôpital Général de Référence Niamey, Faculté des Sciences de la Santé de l'UAM de Niamey, Niamey, Niger.

Introduction: This study aimed to describe the epidemiological, clinical and evolutionary profile of patients treated for tuberculosis at the Regional Hospital of Maradi.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive and analytical study of data from the medical records of patients treated for tuberculosis from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2017.

Results: A total of 595 patients were followed (406 men, 68.24%, and 189 women, 31.76%) with a prevalence of 27,71%. The average age of patients was 42.3 ranging from 13 months to 85 years; 70.5% of these patients were from urban areas. Merchants represented 36.9% of the cases. Bacterial test was positive in 64.7% of cases. Functional signs included: coughing (99.5%), fever (79.5%), and chest pain. Pulmonary tuberculosis represented 78.7% of cases. Therapy was effective in 81.28% of cases. HIV prevalence was 13.6%, lethality 10.42% (40.4% of patients died from TB/HIV co-infection).

Conclusion: Tuberculosis is a scourge in low-income countries, with 10.42% of deaths. HIV/AIDS infection has negatively contributed to these deaths during the study period. The search for comorbidities in any patient with tuberculosis should be systematic in order to improve their global management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2019.33.120.17715DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6711699PMC
September 2019

Gut Microbiota Alteration is Characterized by a Proteobacteria and Fusobacteria Bloom in Kwashiorkor and a Bacteroidetes Paucity in Marasmus.

Sci Rep 2019 06 24;9(1):9084. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Aix-Marseille Univ, IRD, APHM, MEPHI, IHU-Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France.

Kwashiorkor and marasmus are considered to be two different clinical diseases resulting from severe malnutrition, but this distinction has been questioned. In a previous study comparing children with kwashiorkor and healthy children from Niger and Senegal, we found a dramatic gut microbiota alteration with a predominant depletion of anaerobes and enrichment in Proteobacteria and Fusobacteria in kwashiorkor. However, it remained unknown whether this association was related to malnutrition or was a specific feature of kwashiorkor. In this continuation study, we added 7 new marasmus subjects and 71,162 new colonies from the same countries. Our results showed that, compared to marasmus, the kwashiorkor gut microbiota was characterized by an increased proportion of Proteobacteria (culturomics, Marasmus 5.0%, Kwashiorkor 16.7%, p < 0.0001; metagenomics, Marasmus 14.7%, Kwashiorkor 22.0%, p = 0.001), but there was a decreased proportion of Bacteroidetes in marasmus (culturomics, Marasmus 0.8%, Kwashiorkor 6.5%, p = 0.001; metagenomics, Marasmus 5.4%, Kwashiorkor 7.0%, p = 0.03). Fusobacterium was more frequently cultured from kwashiorkor. All detected potential pathogenic species were enriched in the kwashiorkor gut microbiota. These results provide a biological basis to support the usage of an antibiotic therapy more effective in suppressing the overgrowth of bacterial communities resistant to penicillin, combined with antioxidants and probiotics for nutritional recovery therapies, particularly for kwashiorkor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-45611-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6591176PMC
June 2019

Bacillus kwashiorkori sp. nov., a new bacterial species isolated from a malnourished child using culturomics.

Microbiologyopen 2018 02 27;7(1). Epub 2017 Oct 27.

Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS 7278, AP-HM, IRD 198, INSERM 1095, URMITE, IHU Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France.

Strain SIT6 was isolated from the fecal flora of a severely malnourished child as part of a broad "culturomics" study aiming to maximize the culture conditions for the in-depth exploration of the human microbiota. An analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain SIT6 shared 94.1% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Bacillus thermoamylovorans DKP (NR_029151), the phylogenetically closest type species. Colonies are creamy white, circular, 4-5 mm in diameter after cultivation at 37°C for 24 hr on 5% sheep blood-enriched Colombia agar. Growth occurs at temperatures in the range of 25-56°C (optimally at 37°C). Strain SIT6 is a gram-positive, facultative anaerobic rod and motile by means of peritrichous flagella and sporulating; it is catalase and oxidase positive. The 2,784,637-bp-long genome, composed of 16 contigs, has a G+C content of 35.19%. Of the 2,646 predicted genes, 2,572 were protein-coding genes and 74 were RNAs. The major fatty acids are saturated species (15:0 iso, 16:0 and 17:0 anteiso). Of the 14 detected fatty acids, 11 are saturated, either linear or branched (iso and anteiso). Digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) estimation and average genomic identity of orthologous gene sequences (AGIOS) of the strain SIT6 against genomes of the type strains of related species ranged between 18.6% and 38.3% and between 54.77% and 65.50%, respectively. According to our taxonogenomics results, we propose the creation of Bacillus kwashiorkori sp. nov. that contains the type strain SIT6 (=CSUR P2452 , =DSM 29059 ).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mbo3.535DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5822343PMC
February 2018

Gut Bacteria Missing in Severe Acute Malnutrition, Can We Identify Potential Probiotics by Culturomics?

Front Microbiol 2017 23;8:899. Epub 2017 May 23.

URMITE, Aix Marseille Université, UM63, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 7278, IRD 198, Institut National de la Santé Et de la Recherche Médicale 1095, IHU-Méditerranée InfectionMarseille, France.

Severe acute malnutrition is the world-leading cause of children under-five's death. Recent metagenomics studies have established a link between gut microbiota and severe acute malnutrition, describing an immaturity with a striking depletion in oxygen-sensitive prokaryotes. Amoxicillin and therapeutic diet cure most of the children with severe acute malnutrition but an irreversible disruption of the gut microbiota is suspected in the refractory and most severe cases. In these cases, therapeutic diet may be unable to reverse the microbiota alteration leading to persistent impaired development or death. In addition, as enteric sepsis is a major cause of death in this context, identification of missing gut microbes to be tested as probiotics (live bacteria that confer a benefit to the host) to restore rapidly the healthy gut microbiota and prevent the gut pathogenic invasion is of foremost importance. In this study, stool samples of malnourished patients with kwashiorkor and healthy children were collected from Niger and Senegal and analyzed by culturomics and metagenomics. We found a globally decreased diversity, a decrease in the hitherto unknown diversity (new species isolation), a depletion in oxygen-sensitive prokaryotes including and an enrichment in potentially pathogenic and . A complex of 12 species identified only in healthy children using culturomics and metagenomics were identified as probiotics candidates, providing a possible, defined, reproducible, safe, and convenient alternative to fecal transplantation to restore a healthy gut microbiota in malnourished children. Microbiotherapy based on selected strains has the potential to improve the current treatment of severe acute malnutrition and prevent relapse and death by reestablishing a healthy gut microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00899DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5440526PMC
May 2017

[Acute intestinal obstruction revealing enteropathy associated t-cell lymphoma, about a case].

Pan Afr Med J 2016 19;23:48. Epub 2016 Feb 19.

Service de Chirurgie Générale et Digestive B, Hôpital National de Zinder, Niger.

Enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) is a rare complication of celiac disease (CD). We report a case of EATL associated with CD revealed by acute intestinal obstruction. A North African woman of 38 years old with a history of infertility and chronic abdominal pain was admitted in emergency with acute intestinal obstruction. During the surgery, we found a tumor on the small intestine with mesenteric lymphadenopathy. Histology and immunohistochemistry of the specimen objectified a digestive T lymphoma CD3+ and immunological assessment of celiac disease was positive. The diagnosis of EATL was thus retained. Chemotherapy (CHOEP protocol) was established as well as gluten-free diet with a complete response to treatment. The EATL is a rare complication of CD that can be revealed by intestinal obstruction. The prognosis can be improved by early treatment involving surgery and chemotherapy. Its prevention requires early diagnosis of celiac and gluten-free diets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2016.23.48.8909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4862778PMC
January 2017

Increased Gut Redox and Depletion of Anaerobic and Methanogenic Prokaryotes in Severe Acute Malnutrition.

Sci Rep 2016 05 17;6:26051. Epub 2016 May 17.

Aix-Marseille Université, Unité de Recherche sur les Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Emergentes, UM63, CNRS 7278, IRD 198, INSERM 1095, Marseille, France.

Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with inadequate diet, low levels of plasma antioxidants and gut microbiota alterations. The link between gut redox and microbial alterations, however, remains unexplored. By sequencing the gut microbiomes of 79 children of varying nutritional status from three centers in Senegal and Niger, we found a dramatic depletion of obligate anaerobes in malnutrition. This was confirmed in an individual patient data meta-analysis including 107 cases and 77 controls from 5 different African and Asian countries. Specifically, several species of the Bacteroidaceae, Eubacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococceae families were consistently depleted while Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were consistently enriched. Further analyses on our samples revealed increased fecal redox potential, decreased total bacterial number and dramatic Methanobrevibacter smithii depletion. Indeed, M. smithii was detected in more than half of the controls but in none of the cases. No causality was demonstrated but, based on our results, we propose a unifying theory linking microbiota specificity, lacking anaerobes and archaea, to low antioxidant nutrients, and lower food conversion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep26051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4869025PMC
May 2016

Molecular characterization of hepatitis B virus from chronically-infected patients in Niamey, Niger.

Int J Infect Dis 2016 Apr 16;45:18-23. Epub 2016 Feb 16.

Aix-Marseille University, URMITE UM 63 CNRS 7278 IRD 198 INSERM U1905, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille CEDEX 05, France; IHU Méditerranée Infection, Pôle des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales Clinique et Biologique, Fédération de Bactériologie-Hygiène-Virologie, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire Timone, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille, 264 rue Saint-Pierre 13385, Marseille CEDEX 05, France. Electronic address:

Objectives: In Niger, 65% of hepatocarcinoma and 75% of cirrhosis cases were due to hepatitis B virus (HBV). We studied the genotypic characteristics of HBsAg in chronically HBV-infected patients in Niamey.

Methods: We studied prospectively HBV genotypic patterns among hospitalized patients with HBV infection in the National Hospital of Niamey, Niger. Patients were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV genotyping was performed on the HBsAg-positive patients.

Results: In this study, we have confirmed the predominance of the HBV genotype E (HBV-E) in Niger and have identified 2 recombinant forms including HBV-E/D and HBV-A3/E reported previously among blood donors in Niger and Ghana, respectively. Amino acid substitutions found in HBV sequences obtained here included P120T, S143L, G145A and A194T. These substitutions were characterized as being associated with modified antigenicity and, notably, with impaired serological detection of HBsAg, while the A194T variant was found to have a controversial role in reduced susceptibility to tenofovir.

Conclusions: We have identified two recombinant HBV forms and rare genotypic patterns in Niger that may affect hepatitis B surface antigen antigenicity, and improve current knowledge of epidemiological, clinical and virological patterns of hepatitis B in this country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2016.02.009DOI Listing
April 2016

[First documented cases of systemic lupus erythematosus in Niger].

Tunis Med 2015 Jul;93(7):470-3

Objective: We describe in this first series of lupus documented in Niger, the epidemiological, diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic aspects.

Method: This is a prospective study in internal medicine at the National Hospital of Niamey during 10 years. ACR criteria were used as diagnostic criteria.

Results: We identified only 9 cases with a frequency of 0.05 % (7 women, 2 men) with a mean age of 36.7 years [range, (26, 48)]. Frequent manifestations were prolonged fever (8 cases), malar rash (6 cases), arthritis (6 cases), alopecia (5 cases), discoid lupus (3 cases), haematological disorders (7 cases), serositis (4 cases) and renal failure (4 cases). All patients had at least 4 ACR criteria with an average of 6.11 criteria. ANA were positive in 8 patients with an average of 1/568, 68 [extremes (1/1280-1/160)]. The most commonly molecules used were Prednisone, Azathioprine and Hydroxychloroquine. The Mycofénolate Mofétil, Cyclophosphamide and Rituximab were used in a single patient. The outcome was favorable in 8 patients and we deplore the death of one patient.

Conclusion: Under diagnosis would be the basis of the low prevalence of lupus in Niger. Diagnostic means are necessary for epidemiological studies in order to have more representative data.
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July 2015

Epidemiological, clinical, virological features of hepatitis B newly diagnosed in 2011 in Marseille University hospitals, southeastern France.

J Med Virol 2016 May 15;88(5):828-36. Epub 2015 Oct 15.

Aix-Marseille University, URMITE UM63 CNRS 7278 IRD 198 INSERM U1905, Marseille, France.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a public health problem. In France, 0.68% of adults are chronically infected. We aimed to describe the epidemiological, virological and clinical characteristics of HBV infections newly diagnosed in 2011 in University hospitals of Marseille, the second largest French city. HBV serology was performed for 18,130 sera from 15,744 patients. A total of 167 patients were newly-diagnosed with HBV based upon the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis B core antibodies. Clinico-epidemiological features were analyzed for 78 patients. Patients included a majority of men (59%), women being significantly younger with a mean age of 36 ± 17 versus 43.5 ± 16.2 years (P = 0.009). Country of birth was available for 52 patients and 35% of them originated from sub-Saharan Africa. Levels of the liver biological parameters were significantly lower in women compared to men, in whom mean alanine aminotransferase and gammaglutamyl transferase levels were 24 ± 39 versus 37 ± 36 IU/l (P = 0.0001) and 20 ± 20 versus 51 ± 53 IU/l (P = 0.0001), respectively. Co-infections with hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency viruses were found in 5% and 6% of the patients, respectively. HBV DNA was detectable in 90% of the HBeAg-negative patients. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the HBsAg titer and the HBV DNA level (P = 0.001). Genotype D was the most common HBV genotype and was found in 53% of the patients tested, followed by genotype E (21%). HBV remains a major concern with a slightly greater number of new diagnoses than in 2004. HBV genetic diversity was substantial in the present cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.24398DOI Listing
May 2016

Efficacy of rituximab in immune thrombocytopenic purpura: a retrospective survey.

Ann Hematol 2012 Feb 28;91(2):279-85. Epub 2011 Jun 28.

Service de Médecine Interne, Hôpital Universitaire de la Conception, Centre de Compétence des Cytopénies Auto-immunes PACA Ouest, 147 Bd Baille, 13005, Marseille, France.

We conducted a retrospective survey to assess prescription practice, response rates to rituximab, and the predictive indicators for a response to rituximab therapy in patients with primary or secondary immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). Data were collected retrospectively from 40 consecutive patients with ITP attending our hospital: 29 (72.5%) had primary ITP and 11 (27.5%) had secondary ITP. Rituximab was given either as four weekly injections (375 mg/m(2)) or two injections of 1,000 mg given 2 weeks apart in 30 and 10 patients, respectively. The primary objective was to evaluate overall (OR) and complete response (CR) to rituximab therapy for ITP. OR was excellent and rapid and similar when secondary ITP was excluded from the analysis: OR was achieved in 28 (71.8%) patients and CR in 22 (56.4%). But, at >6 months, of the 28 responders, only 10 of 22 of the evaluable responses (45.5%) were sustained. In addition, except for the nonsignificant occurrence of antinuclear antibodies, no clinical or biological factors were predictive for OR or CR after the rituximab therapy. Twelve patients received a second course of rituximab. Overall, rituximab therapy achieved a response in two thirds of the patients, but the responders exhibited a high rate of early relapses, with no obvious difference according to the regimen of administration or rituximab dose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-011-1283-3DOI Listing
February 2012

Campylobacter fetus Bacteremia Revealed by Cellulitis without Gastrointestinal Symptoms in the Context of Acquired Hypogammaglobulinemia: A Report of Three Cases.

Case Rep Gastrointest Med 2011 9;2011:628902. Epub 2011 Jul 9.

Service de Médecine Interne, Hôpital de la Conception, 147 Bd Baille, 13005 Marseille, France.

Campylobacter fetus bacteremia is rare and occurs mainly in patients with immunosuppression. This infection, which often involves secondary localizations has already been reported in some primary humoral immune deficiencies. We describe three cases of severe infection due to C. fetus with cellulitis at presentation, but without any gastrointestinal symptoms, occurring in patients with acquired hypogammaglobulinemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/628902DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3350303PMC
August 2012
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