Publications by authors named "Sophie Gourgou-Bourgade"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A prospective clinical and biological database for pancreatic adenocarcinoma: the BACAP cohort.

BMC Cancer 2018 Oct 16;18(1):986. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

The Department of Gastroenterology and Pancreatology, CHU - Rangueil and the University of Toulouse, 1 avenue Jean Poulhès, TSA 50032, 31059, Toulouse Cedex 9, France.

Background: The prognosis for pancreatic cancer remains poor despite diagnostic advances and treatments with new chemotherapeutic regimens. The five year survival rate remains below 3%. Consequently, there is an urgent need for new treatments to significantly improve the prognosis. In addition, there is a big gap in terms of the screening, early diagnosis and prevention of pancreatic cancer the incidence of which is increasing dramatically.

Methods: Design: the BACAP cohort is a prospective multicenter pancreatic cancer cohort (pancreatic ductal carcinoma) with clinical and multiple biological samples; Participating centers: 15 French academic and private hospitals; Study Population: any cytologically and/or histologically proven pancreatic carcinoma regardless of the stage (resectable, borderline, locally advanced or metastatic) or treatment (surgery, palliative chemotherapy, best supportive care). At least 1500 patients will be included. Clinical data collected include: disease presentation, epidemiological and social factors, baseline biology, radiology, endoscopic ultrasound, staging, pathology, treatments, follow-up (including biological and radiological), and survival. All these data are collected and stored through an e-observation system at a centralized data center. Biological samples and derived products (i.e. before any treatment): blood, saliva, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration materials from the primary tumor, fine needle biopsy of metastases and surgically resected tissue. DNA and RNA are extracted from fine needle aspiration materials and are quantified and characterized for quality. Whole blood, plasma and serum are isolated from blood samples. Frozen tissues were specifically allocated to the cohort. All derived products and saliva are stored at - 80 °C. Main end-points: i) to centralize clinical data together with multiple biological samples that are harmonized in terms of sampling, the post sampling process and storage; ii) to identify new molecular markers for the diagnosis, prognosis and possibly the predictive response to pancreatic cancer surgery and or chemotherapy.

Discussion: The BACAP cohort is a unique prospective biological clinical database that provides the opportunity to identify correlations between the presence/expression of a broad panel of biomarkers (DNA, RNA, miRNA, proteins, etc.), epidemiological and social data, various clinical situations, various stages and the differentiation of the tumor, treatments and survival.

Trial Registration: Identifier: NCT02818829 . Registration date: June 30, 2016.
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October 2018

Response to FOLFIRINOX by gender in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer: Results from the PRODIGE 4/ ACCORD 11 randomized trial.

PLoS One 2017 20;12(9):e0183288. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

Department of medical oncology, Institut de Cancérologie de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France.

Background: Hohla et al. suggested that female gender could positively predict response to FOLFIRINOX in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. In this study, we explored the response to the FOLFIRINOX regimen by gender within the trial PRODIGE4/ACCORD 11.

Patients And Methods: Data were described by gender, both in FOLFIRINOX group and in the intention-to-treat population of the trial. The relative effect of gender (females in comparison to males) on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival was estimated by using a Cox proportional hazard model and was presented with the Hazard Ratio and their 95% confidence interval. The analysis of prognostic factors of OS included also: age (older than 65 years), ECOG performance status, primary tumor location, synchronous metastases, number of metastatic sites, hepatic metastasis, pulmonary metastases, lymph node metastases, level of Albumin and level of serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and three domains from the EORTC Quality of Life QLQC-30 questionnaire.

Results: The FOLFIRINOX group (N = 171 patients) included 106 women (62%) and 65 men. No significant differences were observed between genders regarding demographic and clinical parameters, excepted for lymph nodes metastasis (17% and 35% in women and men respectively; p = 0.012). Median OS was longer for females as compared to males in FOLFIRINOX group (13.1 versus 10.3 months respectively; HR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.51-1.06). Similarly, median PFS was superior (7.2 versus 5.9 months; HR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.57-1.10). Nevertheless, in both cases, the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.10 et p = 0.169, respectively).

Conclusions: In this study, the overall survival and progression-free survival rates were not significantly higher for females than for males in FOLFIRINOX group (HR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.51-1.06 and HR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.57-1.10 respectively). Even if the percentage of patients with lymph node metastasis is higher for males than for females, the interaction between gender and lymph node metastasis was non-significant. Our exploratory analysis did not permit to definitively conclude about a possible effect of gender on the prognosis of patients under FOLFIRINOX. This subject deserves further evaluation.

Trial Registration: number: NCT00112658.

Key Message: Our analysis suggests that FOLFIRINOX, as first-line option for patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer who are younger than 76 years and who have a good performance status (ECOG 0 or 1), no cardiac ischemia and normal or nearly normal bilirubin levels, is beneficial, but not particularly in female patients.
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October 2017

An assessment of the benefit-risk balance of FOLFIRINOX in metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Oncotarget 2016 Dec;7(50):82953-82960

International Drug Development Institute (IDDI), San Francisco, CA 94109, USA.

Background: We sought to assess the benefit-risk balance of FOLFIRINOX versus gemcitabine in patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Methods: We used generalized pairwise comparisons. This statistical method permits the simultaneous analysis of several prioritized outcome measures. The first priority outcome was survival time (OS). Differences in OS that exceeded two months were considered clinically relevant. The second priority outcome was toxicity. The overall treatment effect was quantified using the net chance of a better outcome, which can be interpreted as the net probability for a random patient treated in the FOLFIRINOX group to have a better overall outcome than a random patient in the gemcitabine group.

Results: In this trial 342 patients received either FOLFIRINOX or gemcitabine. The net chance of a better outcome favored strongly and significantly the FOLFIRINOX group (24.7; P<.001), suggesting a favorable benefit-risk balance of FOLFIRINOX versus gemcitabine. The positive benefit-risk balance of FOLFIRINOX was observed throughout all sensitivity analyses.

Conclusions: Generalized pairwise comparisons are useful to perform a quantitative assessment of the benefit-risk balance of new treatments. It provides a clinically intuitive way of comparing patients with respect to all important efficacy and toxicity outcomes. Overall the benefit-risk balance of FOLFIRINOX was strongly positive.
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December 2016

Applying the Longitudinal Model from Item Response Theory to Assess Health-Related Quality of Life in the PRODIGE 4/ACCORD 11 Randomized Trial.

Med Decis Making 2016 07 18;36(5):615-28. Epub 2015 Dec 18.

Biometrics Unit-CTD INCa, Institut régional du Cancer Montpellier (ICM) - Val d'Aurelle, Montpellier, France (AB, SG-B, CB-M)

Introduction: A new longitudinal statistical approach was compared to the classical methods currently used to analyze health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) data. The comparison was made using data in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer.

Methods: Three hundred forty-two patients from the PRODIGE4/ACCORD 11 study were randomly assigned to FOLFIRINOX versus gemcitabine regimens. HRQoL was evaluated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30. The classical analysis uses a linear mixed model (LMM), considering an HRQoL score as a good representation of the true value of the HRQoL, following EORTC recommendations. In contrast, built on the item response theory (IRT), our approach considered HRQoL as a latent variable directly estimated from the raw data. For polytomous items, we extended the partial credit model to a longitudinal analysis (longitudinal partial credit model [LPCM]), thereby modeling the latent trait as a function of time and other covariates.

Results: Both models gave the same conclusions on 11 of 15 HRQoL dimensions. HRQoL evolution was similar between the 2 treatment arms, except for the symptoms of pain. Indeed, regarding the LPCM, pain perception was significantly less important in the FOLFIRINOX arm than in the gemcitabine arm. For most of the scales, HRQoL changes over time, and no difference was found between treatments in terms of HRQoL.

Discussion: The use of LMM to study the HRQoL score does not seem appropriate. It is an easy-to-use model, but the basic statistical assumptions do not check. Our IRT model may be more complex but shows the same qualities and gives similar results. It has the additional advantage of being more precise and suitable because of its direct use of raw data.
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July 2016

Clinical complete response (cCR) after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and conservative treatment in rectal cancer. Findings from the ACCORD 12/PRODIGE 2 randomized trial.

Radiother Oncol 2015 May 24;115(2):246-52. Epub 2015 Apr 24.

Unicancer, Paris, France.

Background: During the ACCORD 12 randomized trial, an evaluation of the clinical tumor response was prospectively performed after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. The correlations between clinical complete response and patient characteristics and treatment outcomes are reported.

Material And Methods: Between 2005 and 2008 the Accord 12 trial accrued 598 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer and compared two different neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapies (Capox 50: capecitabine+oxaliplatin+50Gy vs Cap 45: capecitabine+45Gy). An evaluation of the clinical tumor response with rectoscopy and digital rectal examination was planned before surgery. A score to classify tumor response was used adapted from the RECIST definition: complete response: no visible or palpable tumor; partial response, stable and progressive disease.

Results: The clinical tumor response was evaluable in 201 patients. Score was: complete response: 8% (16 patients); partial response: 68% (137 patients); stable: 21%; progression: 3%. There was a trend toward more complete response in the Capox 50 group (9.3% vs 6.7% with Cap 45). In the whole cohort of 201 pts complete response was significantly more frequent in T2 tumors (28%; p=0.025); tumors <4cm in diameter (14%; p=0.017), less than half rectal circumference and with a normal CEA level. Clinical complete response observed in 16 patients was associated with more conservative treatment (p=0.008): 2 patients required an abdomino-perineal resection, 11 an anterior resection and 3 patients benefited from organ preservation (2 local excision, 1 "watch and wait". A complete response was associated with more ypT0 (73%; p<0.001); ypNO (92%); R0 circumferential margin (100%).

Conclusion: These data support the hypothesis that a clinical complete response assessed using rectoscopy and digital rectal examination after neoadjuvant therapy may increase the chance of a sphincter or organ preservation in selected rectal cancers.
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May 2015

Comparison of three longitudinal analysis models for the health-related quality of life in oncology: a simulation study.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2014 Dec 31;12:192. Epub 2014 Dec 31.

Biostatistic unit, Institut régional du Cancer de Montpellier (ICM) - Val d'Aurelle, Montpellier, France.

Background: Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is an important endpoint in oncology clinical trials aiming to investigate the clinical benefit of new therapeutic strategies for the patient. However, the longitudinal analysis of HRQoL remains complex and unstandardized. There is clearly a need to propose accessible statistical methods and meaningful results for clinicians. The objective of this study was to compare three strategies for longitudinal analyses of HRQoL data in oncology clinical trials through a simulation study.

Methods: The methods proposed were: the score and mixed model (SM); a survival analysis approach based on the time to HRQoL score deterioration (TTD); and the longitudinal partial credit model (LPCM). Simulations compared the methods in terms of type I error and statistical power of the test of an interaction effect between treatment arm and time. Several simulation scenarios were explored based on the EORTC HRQoL questionnaires and varying the number of patients (100, 200 or 300), items (1, 2 or 4) and response categories per item (4 or 7). Five or 10 measurement times were considered, with correlations ranging from low to high between each measure. The impact of informative missing data on these methods was also studied to reflect the reality of most clinical trials.

Results: With complete data, the type I error rate was close to the expected value (5%) for all methods, while the SM method was the most powerful method, followed by LPCM. The power of TTD is low for single-item dimensions, because only four possible values exist for the score. When the number of items increases, the power of the SM approach remained stable, those of the TTD method increases while the power of LPCM remained stable. With 10 measurement times, the LPCM was less efficient. With informative missing data, the statistical power of SM and TTD tended to decrease, while that of LPCM tended to increase.

Conclusions: To conclude, the SM model was the most powerful model, irrespective of the scenario considered, and the presence or not of missing data. The TTD method should be avoided for single-item dimensions of the EORTC questionnaire. While the LPCM model was more adapted to this kind of data, it was less efficient than the SM model. These results warrant validation through comparisons on real data.
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December 2014

Guidelines for time-to-event end-point definitions in trials for pancreatic cancer. Results of the DATECAN initiative (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event End-points in CANcer trials).

Eur J Cancer 2014 Nov 22;50(17):2983-93. Epub 2014 Sep 22.

Department of Gastroenterology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

Background: Using potential surrogate end-points for overall survival (OS) such as Disease-Free- (DFS) or Progression-Free Survival (PFS) is increasingly common in randomised controlled trials (RCTs). However, end-points are too often imprecisely defined which largely contributes to a lack of homogeneity across trials, hampering comparison between them. The aim of the DATECAN (Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event End-points in CANcer trials)-Pancreas project is to provide guidelines for standardised definition of time-to-event end-points in RCTs for pancreatic cancer.

Methods: Time-to-event end-points currently used were identified from a literature review of pancreatic RCT trials (2006-2009). Academic research groups were contacted for participation in order to select clinicians and methodologists to participate in the pilot and scoring groups (>30 experts). A consensus was built after 2 rounds of the modified Delphi formal consensus approach with the Rand scoring methodology (range: 1-9).

Results: For pancreatic cancer, 14 time to event end-points and 25 distinct event types applied to two settings (detectable disease and/or no detectable disease) were considered relevant and included in the questionnaire sent to 52 selected experts. Thirty experts answered both scoring rounds. A total of 204 events distributed over the 14 end-points were scored. After the first round, consensus was reached for 25 items; after the second consensus was reached for 156 items; and after the face-to-face meeting for 203 items.

Conclusion: The formal consensus approach reached the elaboration of guidelines for standardised definitions of time-to-event end-points allowing cross-comparison of RCTs in pancreatic cancer.
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November 2014

Definitive chemoradiotherapy with FOLFOX versus fluorouracil and cisplatin in patients with oesophageal cancer (PRODIGE5/ACCORD17): final results of a randomised, phase 2/3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2014 Mar 18;15(3):305-14. Epub 2014 Feb 18.

Département de Cancérologie Digestive et Urologique, Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille, France.

Background: Definitive chemoradiotherapy is a curative treatment option for oesophageal carcinoma, especially in patients unsuitable for surgery. The PRODIGE5/ACCORD17 trial aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of the FOLFOX treatment regimen (fluorouracil plus leucovorin and oxaliplatin) versus fluorouracil and cisplatin as part of chemoradiotherapy in patients with localised oesophageal cancer.

Methods: We did a multicentre, randomised, open-label, parallel-group, phase 2/3 trial of patients aged 18 years or older enrolled from 24 centres in France between Oct 15, 2004, and Aug 25, 2011. Eligible participants had confirmed stage I-IVA oesophageal carcinoma (adenocarcinoma, squamous-cell, or adenosquamous), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status 0-2, sufficient caloric intake, adequate haematological, renal, and hepatic function, and had been selected to receive definitive chemoradiotherapy. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either six cycles (three concomitant to radiotherapy) of oxaliplatin 85 mg/m(2), leucovorin 200 mg/m(2), bolus fluorouracil 400 mg/m(2), and infusional fluorouracil 1600 mg/m(2) (FOLFOX) over 46 h, or four cycles (two concomitant to radiotherapy) of fluorouracil 1000 mg/m(2) per day for 4 days and cisplatin 75 mg/m(2) on day 1. Both groups also received 50 Gy radiotherapy in 25 fractions (five fractions per week). Random allocation to treatment groups was done by a central computerised randomisation procedure by minimisation, stratified by centre, histology, weight loss, and ECOG status, and was achieved independently from the study investigators. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. Data analysis was primarily done by intention to treat. This study is registered with, number NCT00861094.

Findings: 134 participants were randomly allocated to the FOLFOX group and 133 to the fluorouracil and cisplatin group (intention-to-treat population), and 131 patients in the FOLFOX group and 128 in the fluorouracil and cisplatin group actually received the study drugs (safety population). Median follow-up was 25·3 months (IQR 15·9-36·4). Median progression-free survival was 9·7 months (95% CI 8·1-14·5) in the FOLFOX group and 9·4 months (8·1-10·6) in the fluorouracil and cisplatin group (HR 0·93, 95% CI 0·70-1·24; p=0·64). One toxic death occurred in the FOLFOX group and six in the fluorouracil-cisplatin group (p=0·066). No significant differences were recorded in the rates of most frequent grade 3 or 4 adverse events between the treatment groups. Of all-grade adverse events that occurred in 5% or more of patients, paraesthesia (61 [47%] events in 131 patients in the FOLFOX group vs three [2%] in 128 patients in the cisplatin-fluorouracil group, p<0·0001), sensory neuropathy (24 [18%] vs one [1%], p<0·0001), increases in aspartate aminotransferase concentrations (14 [11%] vs two [2%], p=0·002), and increases in alanine aminotransferase concentrations (11 [8%] vs two [2%], p=0·012) were more common in the FOLFOX group, whereas serum creatinine increases (four [3%] vs 15 [12%], p=0·007), mucositis (35 [27%] vs 41 [32%], p=0·011), and alopecia (two [2%] vs 12 [9%], p=0·005) were more common in the fluorouracil and cisplatin group.

Interpretation: Although chemoradiotherapy with FOLFOX did not increase progression-free survival compared with chemoradiotherapy with fluorouracil and cisplatin, FOLFOX might be a more convenient option for patients with localised oesophageal cancer unsuitable for surgery.

Funding: UNICANCER, French Health Ministry, Sanofi-Aventis, and National League Against Cancer.
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March 2014

Results in the elderly with locally advanced rectal cancer from the ACCOR12/PRODIGE 2 phase III trial: tolerance and efficacy.

Radiother Oncol 2014 Jan 10;110(1):144-9. Epub 2014 Jan 10.

Department of Radiotherapy, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice, France.

Background: Rectal cancer predominantly affects the elderly. Unfortunately, this age category is under-represented in clinical trials because clinicians are loath to include patients with a high risk of comorbidity.

Patients And Methods: An exploratory analysis of the ACCORD12/PRODIGE 2 phase III trial was carried out to retrospectively compare the benefit of neoadjuvant chemotherapy between the elderly (≥70 years; n=142) and younger patients (<70 years; n=442), this analysis was not preplanned in the study protocol. Patients with histologically confirmed resectable stage T3 or T4 rectal adenocarcinoma were eligible with an age limit of 80 years.

Results: Overall, the two age categories did not statistically differ in terms of patient's clinical and tumor baseline characteristics. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy leads to more severe grade 3/4 toxicities (25.6% vs. 15.8%, p=0.01) and more permanent stomas (33.3% vs. 22.8%, p=0.014) in elderly patients who were less often operated on than younger patients (95.8% vs. 99.0%, p=0.008). The relative number of interventions per surgery type (p=0.18), treatment efficacy in terms of R0 resection rate (88.6% vs. 90.6%; p=0.54) and complete pathological response (14.7% vs. 16.9%; p=0.55) were nearly identical between the two categories.

Conclusion: Altogether these results warrant the development of specific optimal therapeutic strategies for the elderly.
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January 2014

Adapted physical activity and diet (APAD) during adjuvant breast cancer therapy: design and implementation of a prospective randomized controlled trial.

Contemp Clin Trials 2013 Nov 4;36(2):531-43. Epub 2013 Oct 4.

Laboratory Epsylon, EA 4556 Dynamics of Human Abilities & Health Behaviors, University of Montpellier, 4 boulevard Henri IV, F-34000 Montpellier, France; INSERM UMR 1027, Paul Sabatier University, 37 allées Jules Guesde, F-31000 Toulouse, France. Electronic address:

Exercise practice and appropriate nutrition have been advanced as non pharmacological supportive care to reduce side effects related to cancer and its treatment, but large sample-sized randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm such results. The Adapted Physical Activity and Diet counseling (APAD) study is a prospective randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a 26-week hospital- and home-based lifestyle intervention on cancer-related fatigue in women receiving breast cancer adjuvant treatment (chemotherapy and radiotherapy). The aim of this paper is to describe the APAD study protocol. Study recruitment goal is 264 adult breast cancer women with newly, histologically proven, incident and non metastatic breast cancer scheduled for 6 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. Patients are randomized either in the experimental arm with tailored exercise training and diet counseling program or in the control arm without any lifestyle intervention (usual care). Outcome measures are collected at baseline, and at 15 weeks (i.e., mid-intervention), 26 weeks (i.e., immediately post-intervention), and at 12-month and 18-month of follow-up. Intervention effect is assessed on fatigue (emotional, cognitive, physical), quality-of-life, anxiety, depression, body weight and composition. In addition, levels of physical activity, dietary intakes and adjuvant therapy observance are measured and a cost-utility analysis will be performed. If improvements in fatigue, quality-of-life and a better weight control are observed, the APAD study could demonstrate the feasibility and the effectiveness of such exercise and nutrition supportive care with limited additional cost in patients receiving adjuvant breast cancer therapy.
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November 2013

Electrons for intraoperative radiotherapy in selected breast-cancer patients: late results of the Montpellier phase II trial.

Radiat Oncol 2013 Aug 1;8:191. Epub 2013 Aug 1.

Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, I,C,M, - Institut regional du Cancer Montpellier, INSERM U896, Montpellier cedex 5, F-34298, France.

Background: The Montpellier cancer institute phase II trial started in 2004 and evaluated the feasibility of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) technique given as a sole radiation treatment for patients with an excellent prognostic and very low recurrence risk.

Methods: Forty-two patients were included between 2004 and 2007. Inclusion criteria were patients ≥ 65 years old, T0-T1, N0, ductal invasive unifocal carcinoma, free-margin > 2 mm. IORT was delivered using dedicated linear accelerator. One fraction of 21 Gy was prescribed and specified at the 90% isodose using electrons. In vivo dosimetry was performed for all patients. Primary end-point was the quality index. Secondary endpoints were quality of life, local recurrences, cosmetic results, specific and overall survival.

Results: At inclusion, median age was 72 years (range, 66-80). Median tumor diameter was 10 mm. All patients received the total prescribed dose. No acute grade 3 toxicities were observed. Late cosmetic results were good at 5 years despite the poor agreement of accuracy assessment between patients and physicians. Four patients (9.5%) experienced a local failure and underwent salvage mastectomy. The 5 year-disease free survival is 92.7% (range 79.1-97.6). All patients are still alive with a median follow-up of 72 months (range 66-74).

Conclusion: Our results confirm with a long-term follow-up that exclusive partial breast IORT is feasible for early-breast cancer in selected patients. IORT provides good late cosmetics results and should be considered as a safe and very comfortable "one-step" treatment procedure. Nevertheless, patient assessments are essential for long-term quality results.
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August 2013

GERICO-03 phase II trial of accelerated and partial breast irradiation in elderly women: feasibility, reproducibility, and impact on functional status.

Brachytherapy 2013 Jul-Aug;12(4):285-92. Epub 2013 Feb 12.

Department of Radiotherapy, Antoine Lacassagne Center, Nice, France; University of Nice-Sophia, Italy.

Purpose: To analyze the feasibility, reproducibility, and impact on functional status of postoperative accelerated and partial breast irradiation (APBI) using interstitial high-dose rate-brachytherapy in women older than 70 years.

Methods And Materials: From July 2004 to April 2008, 46 patients were screened for enrollment in a nationwide prospective Phase II trial. A total of 40 patients were eligible according to the inclusion criteria (aged >70 years, T1-2 <30mm, and pN0). The total delivered dose was 34Gy of 10 fractions for 5 days. Feasibility and reproducibility were evaluated using a Quality Index (QI) defined as (V100%-clinical target volume)/V100%. Skin toxicity was reported using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. ABPI impact on functional dependence was evaluated using the Activity of Daily Living and Instrumental Activity of Daily Living scales. Reproducibility and feasibility were assessed with the optimal two-stage design of Simon.

Results: Median age was 74 years (70-87 years). All patients were treated according to the protocol. Median Quality Index calculated for the 40 eligible patients was 13.3% (1-70%). It was considered acceptable, partially acceptable, and nonacceptable in 10, 28, and 2 patients, respectively. Within 12 months after APBI, overall rates of toxicity were 59%, 28%, and 2% for Grade 1, 2, and 3 events, respectively. Twelve months after APBI, 35 patients (87%) achieved excellent/good cosmetic result. Compared with baseline values, Activity of Daily Living and Instrumental Activity of Daily Living scores remained unchanged 6 and 12 months after APBI.

Conclusions: APBI by means of high-dose rate-brachytherapy is a feasible/reproducible technique without significant impact on functional dependence in the treatment of elderly women with early breast cancer.
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November 2013

Impact of FOLFIRINOX compared with gemcitabine on quality of life in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer: results from the PRODIGE 4/ACCORD 11 randomized trial.

J Clin Oncol 2013 Jan 3;31(1):23-9. Epub 2012 Dec 3.

Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France.

Purpose: To compare the quality of life (QoL) of patients receiving oxaliplatin, irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin (FOLFIRINOX) or gemcitabine as first-line chemotherapy and to assess whether pretreatment QoL predicts survival in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer.

Patients And Methods: Three hundred forty-two patients with performance status 0 or 1 were randomly assigned to receive FOLFIRINOX (oxaliplatin, 85 mg/m(2); irinotecan, 180 mg/m(2); leucovorin, 400 mg/m(2); and fluorouracil, 400 mg/m(2) bolus followed by 2,400 mg/m(2) 46-hour continuous infusion, once every 2 weeks) or gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m(2) weekly for 7 of 8 weeks and then weekly for 3 of 4 weeks. QoL was assessed using European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 every 2 weeks.

Results: Improvement in global health status (GHS; P < .001) was observed in the FOLFIRINOX arm and improvement in emotional functioning (P < .001) was observed in both arms, along with a decrease in pain, insomnia, anorexia, and constipation in both arms. A significant increase in diarrhea was observed in the FOLFIRINOX arm during the first 2 months of chemotherapy. Time until definitive deterioration ≥ 20 points was significantly longer for FOLFIRINOX compared with gemcitabine for GHS, physical, role, cognitive, and social functioning, and six symptom domains (fatigue, nausea/vomiting, pain, dyspnea, anorexia, and constipation). Physical functioning, constipation, and dyspnea were independent significant prognostic factors for survival with treatment arm, age older than 65 years, and low serum albumin.

Conclusion: FOLFIRINOX significantly reduces QoL impairment compared with gemcitabine in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, baseline QoL scores improved estimation of survival probability when added to baseline clinical and demographic variables.
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January 2013

Clinical outcome of the ACCORD 12/0405 PRODIGE 2 randomized trial in rectal cancer.

J Clin Oncol 2012 Dec 29;30(36):4558-65. Epub 2012 Oct 29.

Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice, France.

Purpose: The ACCORD 12 trial investigated the value of two different preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CT-RT) regimens in T3-4 Nx M0 resectable rectal cancer. Clinical results are reported after follow-up of 3 years.

Patients And Methods: Between November 2005 and July 2008, a total of 598 patients were randomly assigned to preoperative CT-RT with CAP45 (45-Gy RT for 5 weeks with concurrent capecitabine) or CAPOX50 (50-Gy RT for 5 weeks with concurrent capecitabine and oxaliplatin). Total mesorectal excision was planned 6 weeks after CT-RT. The primary end point was sterilization of the operative specimen, which was achieved in 13.9% versus 19.2% of patients, respectively (P = .09). Clinical results were analyzed for all randomly assigned patients according to the intention-to-treat principle.

Results: At 3 years, there was no significant difference between CAP45 and CAPOX50 (cumulative incidence of local recurrence, 6.1% v 4.4%; overall survival, 87.6% v 88.3%; disease-free survival, 67.9% v 72.7%). Grade 3 to 4 toxicity was reported in four patients in the CAP45 group and in two patients in the CAPOX50 group. Bowel continence, erectile dysfunction, and social life disturbance were not different between groups. In multivariate analysis, the sterilization rate (Dworak score) of the operative specimen was the main significant prognostic factor (hazard ratio, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.50).

Conclusion: At 3 years, no significant difference in clinical outcome was achieved with the intensified CAPOX regimen. When compared with other recent randomized trials, these results indicate that concurrent administration of oxaliplatin and RT is not recommended.
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December 2012

Predictive factors of positive circumferential resection margin after radiochemotherapy for rectal cancer: the French randomised trial ACCORD12/0405 PRODIGE 2.

Eur J Cancer 2013 Jan 18;49(1):82-9. Epub 2012 Aug 18.

CHU Bordeaux, Université Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Bordeaux, France.

Circumferential resection margin (CRM) appears as a new powerful prognostic factor of survival after surgery for rectal cancer. We aimed to evaluate predictive factors of positive CRM following preoperative radiochemotherapy in a French trial. Patients with rectal cancer were randomised in long course preoperative radiotherapy 45 Gy plus capecitabine versus 50 Gy plus capecitabine and oxaliplatin. Mesorectal excision was performed 6 weeks after treatment. Impact of clinical, pathological and surgical variables on positive CRM (≤1 mm) were analysed by multivariate analysis. Of 565 randomised patients, CRM was recorded in 390 cases and was positive in 8% (30/390). Patients with 50 Gy plus capecitabine and oxaliplatin had a 6% rate of positive CRM while those treated by 45 Gy plus capecitabine had a 10% rate (p=0.128). Three independent predictive factors of positive CRM were identified: abdominoperineal resection (APR) (odds ratio OR=3.24; p=0.004), vascular tumour invasion (OR=2.78; p=0.026) and poor histological response (modified Dworak 0-2) (OR=9.01; p=0.003). Significant predictive factors of positive CRM are related to type of surgery, especially APR, and poor histological prognostic factors. Intensification of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy does not seem to have a major role in this study.
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January 2013

FOLFIRINOX versus gemcitabine for metastatic pancreatic cancer.

N Engl J Med 2011 May;364(19):1817-25

Nancy University and Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Alexis Vautrin, Nancy, France.

Background: Data are lacking on the efficacy and safety of a combination chemotherapy regimen consisting of oxaliplatin, irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin (FOLFIRINOX) as compared with gemcitabine as first-line therapy in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer.

Methods: We randomly assigned 342 patients with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0 or 1 (on a scale of 0 to 5, with higher scores indicating a greater severity of illness) to receive FOLFIRINOX (oxaliplatin, 85 mg per square meter of body-surface area; irinotecan, 180 mg per square meter; leucovorin, 400 mg per square meter; and fluorouracil, 400 mg per square meter given as a bolus followed by 2400 mg per square meter given as a 46-hour continuous infusion, every 2 weeks) or gemcitabine at a dose of 1000 mg per square meter weekly for 7 of 8 weeks and then weekly for 3 of 4 weeks. Six months of chemotherapy were recommended in both groups in patients who had a response. The primary end point was overall survival.

Results: The median overall survival was 11.1 months in the FOLFIRINOX group as compared with 6.8 months in the gemcitabine group (hazard ratio for death, 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45 to 0.73; P<0.001). Median progression-free survival was 6.4 months in the FOLFIRINOX group and 3.3 months in the gemcitabine group (hazard ratio for disease progression, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.59; P<0.001). The objective response rate was 31.6% in the FOLFIRINOX group versus 9.4% in the gemcitabine group (P<0.001). More adverse events were noted in the FOLFIRINOX group; 5.4% of patients in this group had febrile neutropenia. At 6 months, 31% of the patients in the FOLFIRINOX group had a definitive degradation of the quality of life versus 66% in the gemcitabine group (hazard ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.70; P<0.001).

Conclusions: As compared with gemcitabine, FOLFIRINOX was associated with a survival advantage and had increased toxicity. FOLFIRINOX is an option for the treatment of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer and good performance status. (Funded by the French government and others; number, NCT00112658.).
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May 2011

Comparison of two neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy regimens for locally advanced rectal cancer: results of the phase III trial ACCORD 12/0405-Prodige 2.

J Clin Oncol 2010 Apr 1;28(10):1638-44. Epub 2010 Mar 1.

Centre Antoine Lacassagne, 06189 Nice cedex 2, France.

Purpose: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is considered a standard approach for T3-4 M0 rectal cancer. In this situation, we compared neoadjuvant radiotherapy plus capecitabine with dose-intensified radiotherapy plus capecitabine and oxaliplatin.

Patients And Methods: We randomly assigned patients to receive 5 weeks of treatment with radiotherapy 45 Gy/25 fractions with concurrent capecitabine 800 mg/m(2) twice daily 5 days per week (Cap 45) or radiotherapy 50 Gy/25 fractions with capecitabine 800 mg/m(2) twice daily 5 days per week and oxaliplatin 50 mg/m(2) once weekly (Capox 50). The primary end point was complete sterilization of the operative specimen (ypCR).

Results: Five hundred ninety-eight patients were randomly assigned to receive Cap 45 (n = 299) or Capox 50 (n = 299). More preoperative grade 3 to 4 toxicity occurred in the Capox 50 group (25 v 1%; P < .001). Surgery was performed in 98% of patients in both groups. There were no differences between groups in the rate of conservative surgery (75%) or postoperative deaths at 60 days (0.3%). The ypCR rate was 13.9% with Cap 45 and 19.2% with Capox 50 (P = .09). When ypCR was combined with yp few residual cells, the rate was respectively 28.9% with Cap 45 and 39.4% with Capox 50 (P = .008). The rate of positive circumferential rectal margins (between 0 and 2 mm) was 19.3% with Cap 45 and 9.9% with Capox 50 (P = .02).

Conclusion: The benefit of oxaliplatin was not demonstrated and this drug should not be used with concurrent irradiation. Cap 50 merits investigation for T3-4 rectal cancers.
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April 2010

Phase II trial of dose dense docetaxel followed by FEC100 as neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with operable breast cancer.

Am J Clin Oncol 2010 Dec;33(6):544-9

CRLC Val d'Aurelle, Montpellier, France.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of 4 dose-dense cycles of docetaxel followed by 3 cycles of FEC100 neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with operable advanced breast cancer.

Methods: Women were treated by 4 cycles of 100 mg/m² docetaxel every 2 weeks, followed by 3 cycles of FEC100 given every 3 weeks. The primary end point was pathologic complete response.

Results: Forty-five patients were treated. Ninety-three percent of the patients completed the planned 7 chemotherapy courses. The median relative dose intensity for docetaxel, 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide were 0.98, 0.97, 0.96, and 0.97, respectively. There were no therapy-related deaths. Two patients stopped chemotherapy because of cutaneous toxicity. During the docetaxel sequence, the most common grade 3-4 toxicities were (% pts): neutropenia (13.3), grade 3: cutaneous (24.4), myalgia and arthralgia (6.7). No clinical cardiac toxicity was observed. The pathologic complete response rate was 21.4% and 26.2% using Sataloff and Chevallier classifications, respectively. The conservative surgery rate was 62.2%. The median follow-up was 38.5 months. Two and 3-year disease-free survival rates were 79% and 64%, respectively. Two- and 3-year overall survival rate were 93% and 88%, respectively.

Conclusions: This trial confirms the feasibility and efficacy of this dose dense docetaxel neoadjuvant regimen.
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December 2010

Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in esophageal cancer: is it still the question?

J Clin Oncol 2008 Nov 6;26(31):5133-4; author reply 5134. Epub 2008 Oct 6.

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November 2008

Survival end point reporting in randomized cancer clinical trials: a review of major journals.

J Clin Oncol 2008 Aug;26(22):3721-6

Clinical Research Department, Institut Bergonié, Regional Comprehensive Cancer Center, Bordeaux, France.

Purpose: Several publications showed that the standards for reporting randomized clinical trials (RCTs) might not be entirely suitable. Our aim was to evaluate the reporting of survival end points in cancer RCTs.

Methods: A search in MEDLINE databases identified 274 cancer RCTs published in 2004 in four general medical journals and four clinical oncology journals. Eligible articles were those that reported primary analyses of RCT with survival end points. Methodologists reviewed and scored the articles according to seven key points: prevalence of complete definition of survival end points (time of origin, survival events, censoring events) and relevant information about their analyses (estimation or effect size, precision, number of events, patients at risk). Concordance of key points was evaluated from a random subsample.

Results: After screening, 125 articles were selected; 104 trials were phase III (83%) and 98 publications (78%) were obtained from oncology journals. Among these RCTs, a total of 267 survival end points were recorded, and overall survival (OS) was the most frequent outcome (118 terms, 44%). Survival terms were totally defined for 113 end points (42%) in 65 articles (52%). Accurate information about analysis was retrieved for 73 end points (27%) in 40 articles (32%). The less well-defined information was the number of patients at risk (55%). The reliability was good (kappa = 0.72). Finally, according to the key points, optimal reporting was found in 33 end points (12%) or 10 publications.

Conclusion: A majority of articles failed to provide a complete reporting of survival end points, thus adding another source of uncontrolled variability.
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August 2008

Oestrogen receptor negative breast cancers exhibit high cytokine content.

Breast Cancer Res 2007 ;9(1):R15

INSERM, U844, Site Saint Eloi, Bâtiment INM, University of Montpellier I, rue Augustin Fliche, Montpellier, F-34091, France.

Introduction: An emerging hypothesis suggests that cytokines could play an important role in cancer as potential modulators of angiogenesis and leucocyte infiltration.

Methods: A novel multiplexed flow cytometry technology was used to measure the expression of 17 cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 [p70], IL-13, IL-17, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [CSF], granulocyte-macrophage CSF, IFN-gamma, monocyte chemoattractant protein [MCP]-1, macrophage inflammatory protein [MIP]-1beta, tumour necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha) at the protein level in 105 breast carcinoma. B lymphocyte, T lymphocyte and macrophage levels were determined by immunohistochemistry.

Results: Fourteen of the 17 cytokines were expressed in breast carcinoma, whereas only nine cytokines could be detected in normal breast. Most cytokines were more abundant in breast carcinoma than in normal breast, with IL-6, IL-8, granulocyte CSF, IFN-gamma, MCP-1 and MIP-1beta being very abundant. IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-gamma, MCP-1, MIP-1beta and TNF-alpha, and to a lesser extent IL-1beta and IL-13 exhibited levels of expression that were inversely correlated to oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status. Most cytokines were not correlated with age at cancer diagnosis, tumour size, histological type, or lymph node status. However, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, MCP-1 and MIP-1beta were more abundant in high-grade tumours than in low-grade tumours. In addition, IL-8 and MIP-1beta were expressed to a greater degree in HER2-positive than in HER2-negative patients. The expression of most of the studied cytokines was correlated to levels of activator protein-1, which is known to regulate numerous cytokines. Overexpression of MCP-1 and MIP-1beta were linked to B lymphocyte, T lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration, whereas high levels of IL-8 were correlated with high macrophage content in tumour. Moreover, IL-8 positive tumours exhibited increased vascularization.

Conclusion: We found that multiple cytokines were overexpressed in oestrogen receptor negative breast carcinoma, and that the three major cytokines--MCP-1, MIP-1beta and IL-8--were correlated with inflammatory cell component, which could account for the aggressiveness of these tumours.
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May 2007

Gemcitabine and cisplatin after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer in an adjuvant setting: feasibility study from the Genito-Urinary Group of the French Federation of Cancer Centers.

Anticancer Drugs 2006 Jul;17(6):705-8

Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France.

The impact of adjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced bladder cancer is still not fully established. Between January 2000 and November 2001, 30 patients entered the trial to receive four cycles of a combination of gemcitabine 1,250 mg/m on day 1 and day 8 and cisplatin 70 mg/m on day 1, repeated every 3 weeks. Histologic diagnoses included pT2-pT3-pT4 tumors and/or pN1-pN2. Combination treatment with gemcitabine and cisplatin was considered feasible if 70% of the patients received a relative dose intensity of each drug of more than 90%. Twenty-seven patients received four cycles of combination treatment. The relative dose intensity of cisplatine and gemcitabine was 96 and 88%, respectively. No toxic death occurred. We conclude that giving four cycles of the gemcitabine-cisplatin regimen in the adjuvant setting after cystectomy is feasible with a manageable toxicity and a high relative dose intensity. Whether this approach may increase survival is currently assessed in a randomized trial.
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July 2006

Assessment of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in primary colorectal carcinomas and their related metastases on tissue sections and tissue microarray.

Virchows Arch 2006 Sep 25;449(3):281-7. Epub 2006 Jul 25.

Department of Pathology, Centre Régional de Lutte Contre le Cancer Val d'Aurelle, 34298, Montpellier, Cedex 5, France.

Metastatic colorectal carcinomas (CRC) resistant to chemotherapy may benefit from targeting monoclonal therapy cetuximab when they express the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Because of its clinical implications, we studied EGFR expression by immunohistochemistry on tissue sections of primary CRC (n=32) and their related metastases (n=53). A tissue microarray (TMA) was generated from the same paraffin blocks to determine whether this technique could be used for EGFR screening in CRC. On tissue sections, 84% of the primary CRC and 94% of the metastases were EGFR-positive. When matched, they showed a concordant EGFR-positive status in 78% of the cases. Moreover, staining intensity and extent of EGFR-positive cells in the primary CRC correlated with those observed in the synchronous metastases. On TMA, 65% of the primary CRC, 66% of the metastases, and 43% of the matched primary CRC metastases were EGFR-positive. There was no concordant EGFR status between the primary and the metastatic sites. A strong discrepancy of EGFR status was noted between TMA and tissue sections. In conclusion, EGFR expression measured in tissue sections from primary CRC and their related metastases was found to be similar and frequent, but it was significantly underestimated by the TMA technique.
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September 2006