Publications by authors named "Sophie Gourgou"

62 Publications

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with FOLFIRINOX and preoperative chemoradiotherapy for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (UNICANCER-PRODIGE 23): a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 05 13;22(5):702-715. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Hôpital Nord Franche-Comté, Montbéliard, France; University Hospital of Besançon, Besançon, France.

Background: Treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer with chemoradiotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy controls local disease, but distant metastases remain common. We aimed to assess whether administering neoadjuvant chemotherapy before preoperative chemoradiotherapy could reduce the risk of distant recurrences.

Methods: We did a phase 3, open-label, multicentre, randomised trial at 35 hospitals in France. Eligible patients were adults aged 18-75 years and had newly diagnosed, biopsy-proven, rectal adenocarcinoma staged cT3 or cT4 M0, with a WHO performance status of 0-1. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to either the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group or standard-of-care group, using an independent web-based system by minimisation method stratified by centre, extramural extension of the tumour into perirectal fat according to MRI, tumour location, and stage. Investigators and participants were not masked to treatment allocation. The neoadjuvant chemotherapy group received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with FOLFIRINOX (oxaliplatin 85 mg/m, irinotecan 180 mg/m, leucovorin 400 mg/m, and fluorouracil 2400 mg/m intravenously every 14 days for 6 cycles), chemoradiotherapy (50 Gy during 5 weeks and 800 mg/m concurrent oral capecitabine twice daily for 5 days per week), total mesorectal excision, and adjuvant chemotherapy (3 months of modified FOLFOX6 [intravenous oxaliplatin 85 mg/m and leucovorin 400 mg/m, followed by intravenous 400 mg/m fluorouracil bolus and then continuous infusion at a dose of 2400 mg/m over 46 h every 14 days for six cycles] or capecitabine [1250 mg/m orally twice daily on days 1-14 every 21 days]). The standard-of-care group received chemoradiotherapy, total mesorectal excision, and adjuvant chemotherapy (for 6 months). The primary endpoint was disease-free survival assessed in the intention-to-treat population at 3 years. Safety analyses were done on treated patients. This trial was registered with EudraCT (2011-004406-25) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01804790) and is now complete.

Findings: Between June 5, 2012, and June 26, 2017, 461 patients were randomly assigned to either the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group (n=231) or the standard-of-care group (n=230). At a median follow-up of 46·5 months (IQR 35·4-61·6), 3-year disease-free survival rates were 76% (95% CI 69-81) in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group and 69% (62-74) in the standard-of-care group (stratified hazard ratio 0·69, 95% CI 0·49-0·97; p=0·034). During neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (38 [17%] of 225 patients) and diarrhoea (25 [11%] of 226). During chemoradiotherapy, the most common grade 3-4 adverse event was lymphopenia (59 [28%] of 212 in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group vs 67 [30%] of 226 patients in the standard-of-care group). During adjuvant chemotherapy, the most common grade 3-4 adverse events were lymphopenia (18 [11%] of 161 in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group vs 42 [27%] of 155 in the standard-of-care group), neutropenia (nine [6%] of 161 vs 28 [18%] of 155), and peripheral sensory neuropathy (19 [12%] of 162 vs 32 [21%] of 155). Serious adverse events occurred in 63 (27%) of 231 participants in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group and 50 (22%) of 230 patients in the standard-of-care group (p=0·167), during the whole treatment period. During adjuvant therapy, serious adverse events occurred in 18 (11%) of 163 participants in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group and 36 (23%) of 158 patients in the standard-of-care group (p=0·0049). Treatment-related deaths occurred in one (<1%) of 226 patients in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group (sudden death) and two (1%) of 227 patients in the standard-of-care group (one sudden death and one myocardial infarction).

Interpretation: Intensification of chemotherapy using FOLFIRINOX before preoperative chemoradiotherapy significantly improved outcomes compared with preoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients with cT3 or cT4 M0 rectal cancer. The significantly improved disease-free survival in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group and the decreased neurotoxicity indicates that the perioperative approach is more efficient and better tolerated than adjuvant chemotherapy. Therefore, the PRODIGE 23 results might change clinical practice.

Funding: Institut National du Cancer, Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer, and R&D Unicancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00079-6DOI Listing
May 2021

OSIRIS: A Minimum Data Set for Data Sharing and Interoperability in Oncology.

JCO Clin Cancer Inform 2021 Mar;5:256-265

Department of Translational Research and Innovation, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France.

Purpose: Many institutions throughout the world have launched precision medicine initiatives in oncology, and a large amount of clinical and genomic data is being produced. Although there have been attempts at data sharing with the community, initiatives are still limited. In this context, a French task force composed of Integrated Cancer Research Sites (SIRICs), comprehensive cancer centers from the Unicancer network (one of Europe's largest cancer research organization), and university hospitals launched an initiative to improve and accelerate retrospective and prospective clinical and genomic data sharing in oncology.

Materials And Methods: For 5 years, the OSIRIS group has worked on structuring data and identifying technical solutions for collecting and sharing them. The group used a multidisciplinary approach that included weekly scientific and technical meetings over several months to foster a national consensus on a minimal data set.

Results: The resulting OSIRIS set and event-based data model, which is able to capture the disease course, was built with 67 clinical and 65 omics items. The group made it compatible with the HL7 Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) format to maximize interoperability. The OSIRIS set was reviewed, approved by a National Plan Strategic Committee, and freely released to the community. A proof-of-concept study was carried out to put the OSIRIS set and Common Data Model into practice using a cohort of 300 patients.

Conclusion: Using a national and bottom-up approach, the OSIRIS group has defined a model including a minimal set of clinical and genomic data that can be used to accelerate data sharing produced in oncology. The model relies on clear and formally defined terminologies and, as such, may also benefit the larger international community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/CCI.20.00094DOI Listing
March 2021

Management and outcome of male metastatic breast cancer in the national multicenter observational research program Epidemiological Strategy and Medical Economics (ESME).

Ther Adv Med Oncol 2020 23;12:1758835920980548. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Medical Oncology, ICO Institut de Cancerologie de l'Ouest - René Gauducheau, Saint-Herblain, France.

Background And Aims: Because of its low prevalence, metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in males is managed based on clinical experience with women. Using a real-life database, we aim to provide a comprehensive analysis of male MBC characteristics, management and outcome.

Methods: The Epidemiological Strategy and Medical Economics Data Platform collected data for all men and women ⩾18 years with MBC in 18 participating French Comprehensive Cancer Centers from January 2008 to November 2016. Demographic, clinical, and pathological characteristics were retrieved, as was treatment modality. Men were matched 1:1 to women with similar characteristics.

Results: Of 16,701 evaluable patients, 149 (0.89%) men were identified. These men were older (median age 69 years) and predominantly had hormone receptor HR+/HER2- disease (78.3%). Median overall survival (OS) was 41.8 months [95% confidence interval (CI: 26.9-49.7)] and similar to women. Median progression-free survival (PFS) with first-line therapy was 9.3 months [95% CI (7.4-11.5)]. In the HR+/HER2- subpopulation, endocrine therapy (ET) alone was the frontline treatment for 43% of patients, including antiestrogens ( = 19), aromatase inhibitors ( = 15) with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs ( = 3), and various sequential treatments. Median PFS achieved by frontline ET alone was similar in men [9.8 months, 95% CI (6.9-17.4)] and in women [13 months, 95% CI (8.4-30.9)] ( = 0.80). PFS was similar for HR+/HER2- men receiving upfront ET or chemotherapy: 9.8 months [95% CI (6.9-17.4)] 9.5 months [95% CI (7.4-11.7)] ( = 0.22), respectively.

Conclusion: MBC management in men and women leads to similar outcomes, especially in HR+/HER2- patients for whom ET should also be a cornerstone. Unsolved questions remain and successfully recruiting trials for men are still lacking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1758835920980548DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7768846PMC
December 2020

Sphincter-saving surgery for ultra-low rectal carcinoma initially indicated for abdominoperineal resection: Is it safe on a long-term follow-up?

J Surg Oncol 2021 Jan 24;123(1):299-310. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Department of Radiotherapy, Institut régional du Cancer de Montpellier (ICM) - Val d'Aurelle, Montpellier, France.

Background: Rate of abdominoperineal resection (APR) varies from countries and surgeons. Surgical impact of preoperative treatment for ultra-low rectal carcinoma (ULRC) initially indicated for APR is debated. We report the 10-year oncological results from a prospective controlled trial (GRECCAR 1) which evaluate the sphincter saving surgery (SSR).

Methods: ULRC indicated for APR were included (n = 207). Randomization was between high-dose radiation (HDR, 45 + 18 Gy) and radiochemotherapy (RCT, 45 Gy + 5FU infusion). Surgical decision was based on tumour volume regression at surgery. SSR technique was standardized as mucosectomy (M) or partial (PISR)/complete (CISR) intersphincteric resection.

Results: Overall SSR rate was 85% (72% ISR), postoperative morbidity 27%, with no mortality. There were no significant differences between the HDR and RCT groups: 10-year overall survival (OS10) 70.1% versus 69.4%, respectively, 10.2% local recurrence (9.2%/14.5%) and 27.6% metastases (32.4%/27.7%). OS and disease-free survival were significantly longer for SSR (72.2% and 60.1%, respectively) versus APR (54.7% and 38.3%). No difference in OS10 between surgical approaches (M 78.9%, PISR 75.5%, CISR 65.5%) or tumour location (low 64.8%, ultralow 76.7%).

Conclusion: GRECCAR 1 demonstrates the feasibility of safely changing an initial APR indication into an SSR procedure according to the preoperative treatment tumour response. Long-term oncologic follow-up validates this attitude.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.26249DOI Listing
January 2021

Brief Hospital Supervision of Exercise and Diet During Adjuvant Breast Cancer Therapy Is Not Enough to Relieve Fatigue: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.

Nutrients 2020 Oct 9;12(10). Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Oscar Lambret Center, 3 Rue Frédéric Combemale, 59000 Lille, France.

Supervised exercise dietary programs are recommended to relieve cancer-related fatigue and weight increase induced by adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer (EBC). As this recommendation lacks a high level of evidence, we designed a multicenter randomized trial to evaluate the impact of an Adapted Physical Activity Diet (APAD) education program on fatigue. We randomized 360 women with EBC who were receiving adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy to APAD or usual care at eight French cancer institutions. Data were collected at baseline, end of chemotherapy, end of radiotherapy, and 6 months post-treatment. The primary endpoint was the general cancer-related fatigue score using the MFI-20 questionnaire. Fatigue correlated with the level of precariousness, but we found no significant difference between the two groups in terms of general fatigue ( = 0.274). The APAD arm has a smaller proportion of patients with confirmed depression at the end of follow-up ( = 0.052). A transient modification in physical activity levels and dietary intake was reported in the experimental arm. However, a mixed hospital- and home-based APAD education program is not enough to improve fatigue caused by adjuvant treatment of EBC. Cancer care centers should consider integrating more proactive diet-exercise supportive care in this population, focusing on precarious patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12103081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7600233PMC
October 2020

Longitudinal analysis of health-related quality of life in cancer clinical trials: methods and interpretation of results.

Qual Life Res 2021 Jan 18;30(1):91-103. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

National Platform Quality of Life and Cancer, Montpellier, France.

Purpose: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is assessed by self-administered questionnaires throughout the care process. Classically, two longitudinal statistical approaches were mainly used to study HRQoL: linear mixed models (LMM) or time-to-event models for time to deterioration/time until definitive deterioration (TTD/TUDD). Recently, an alternative strategy based on generalized linear mixed models for categorical data has also been proposed: the longitudinal partial credit model (LPCM). The objective of this article is to evaluate these methods and to propose recommendations to standardize longitudinal analysis of HRQoL data in cancer clinical trials.

Methods: The three methods are first described and compared through statistical, methodological, and practical arguments, then applied on real HRQoL data from clinical cancer trials or published prospective databases. In total, seven French studies from a collaborating group were selected with longitudinal collection of QLQ-C30. Longitudinal analyses were performed with the three approaches using SAS, Stata and R software.

Results: We observed concordant results between LMM and LPCM. However, discordant results were observed when we considered the TTD/TUDD approach compared to the two previous methods. According to methodological and practical arguments discussed, the approaches seem to provide additional information and complementary interpretations. LMM and LPCM are the most powerful methods on simulated data, while the TTD/TUDD approach gives more clinically understandable results. Finally, for single-item scales, LPCM is more appropriate.

Conclusion: These results pledge for the recommendation to use of both the LMM and TTD/TUDD longitudinal methods, except for single-item scales, establishing them as the consensual methods for publications reporting HRQoL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-020-02605-3DOI Listing
January 2021

Prognostic Value of CXCR2 in Breast Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 27;12(8). Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), SYS2DIAG-ALCEDIAG, Cap delta, 1682 Rue de la Valsière, 34184 Montpellier, France.

The tumor microenvironment appears essential in cancer progression and chemokines are mediators of the communication between cancer cells and stromal cells. We have previously shown that the ligands of the chemokine receptor CXCR2 were expressed at higher levels in triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC). Our hypothesis was that CXCR2 expression could also be altered in breast cancer. Here, we have analyzed the potential role of CXCR2 in breast cancer in a retrospective cohort of 105 breast cancer patients. Expression of CXCR2, CD11b (a marker of granulocytes) and CD66b (a marker of neutrophils) was analyzed by immunohistochemistry on tumor samples. We demonstrated that CXCR2 stained mainly stromal cells and in particular neutrophils. CXCR2, CD11b and CD66b expression were correlated with high grade breast cancers. Moreover, TNBC displayed a higher expression of CXCR2, CD11b and CD66b than hormone receptor positive or Her2 positive tumors. High levels of CXCR2 and CD11b, but not CD66b, were associated with a higher infiltration of T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. We also observed a correlation between CXCR2 and AP-1 activity. In univariate analyses, CXCR2, but not CD11b or CD66b, was associated with a lower risk of relapse; CXCR2 remained significant in multivariate analysis. Our data suggest that CXCR2 is a stromal marker of TNBC. However, higher levels of CXCR2 predicted a lower risk of relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12082076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7465124PMC
July 2020

Efficacy and Safety of Bevacizumab Combined With First-Line Chemotherapy in Elderly (≥75 Years) Patients With Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: A Real-World Study.

Clin Colorectal Cancer 2020 09 13;19(3):e100-e109. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Soins de support en oncologie/onco-gériatrie, Institut Curie, Paris, France.

Background: Although elderly patients are the first concerned by colorectal cancer (CRC), they are underrepresented in clinical trials. The real-world CASSIOPEE study was thus conducted in elderly patients treated for metastatic CRC (mCRC).

Methods: This French prospective, multicenter, noninterventional study aimed to estimate 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), and describe treatments, patient autonomy (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living; Balducci scale), and safety over 24 months, in patients older than 75 with mCRC, starting first-line bevacizumab plus chemotherapy (NCT01555762).

Results: From 2012 to 2014, 402 patients were included (safety population: n = 383, efficacy population: n = 358). Patient characteristics were as follows: mean age, 81 ± 4 years (<80 years, 46%; 80-85 years, 44%; >85 years, 10%); men, 52%; colon primary tumor, 80%; main metastatic site, liver 66%; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance 0-1, 81%. Median PFS was 9.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.3-10.2). It was superior for patients ≤85 years (<80 years: 9.3 months; 80-85 years: 9.5 months) compared with patients >85 years (8.3 months). Median OS was 19.0 months (95% CI, 16.5-21.5) and decreased in the 2 oldest groups (20.6, 17.8, and 13.0 months). Autonomy assessments decreased over time leading to nonconclusive results. Twenty-six percent of patients experienced serious adverse events (SAEs): 7% bevacizumab-related SAEs, and 6% bevacizumab-targeted SAEs. Two fatal bevacizumab-related adverse events were reported (hemorrhagic stroke and intestinal ischemia).

Conclusions: This large French real-world study showed that medically fit older patients with mCRC could have a benefit/risk balance similar to that of younger patients when treated with first-line bevacizumab plus chemotherapy. Improvements in geriatric assessments are needed to better define this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clcc.2020.02.009DOI Listing
September 2020

A New Score to Predict the Resectability of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: The BACAP Score.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Mar 25;12(4). Epub 2020 Mar 25.

The Digestive Surgery and Liver Transplantation Department, Toulouse University Hospital, 31400 Toulouse, France.

Surgery remains the only curative treatment for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Therefore, a predictive score for resectability on diagnosis is needed. A total of 814 patients were included between 2014 and 2017 from 15 centers included in the BACAP (the national Anatomo-Clinical Database on Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma) prospective cohort. Three groups were defined: resectable (Res), locally advanced (LA), and metastatic (Met). Variables were analyzed and a predictive score was devised. Of the 814 patients included, 703 could be evaluated: 164 Res, 266 LA, and 273 Met. The median ages of the patients were 69, 71, and 69, respectively. The median survival times were 21, 15, and nine months, respectively. Six criteria were significantly associated with a lower probability of resectability in multivariate analysis: venous/arterial thrombosis ( = 0.017), performance status 1 ( = 0.032) or ≥ 2 ( = 0.010), pain ( = 0.003), weight loss ≥ 8% ( = 0.019), topography of the tumor (body/tail) ( = 0.005), and maximal tumor size 20-33 mm ( < 0.013) or >33 mm ( < 0.001). The BACAP score was devised using these criteria (http://jdlp.fr/resectability/) with an accuracy of 81.17% and an area under the receive operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78; 0.86). The presence of pejorative criteria or a BACAP score < 50% indicates that further investigations and even neoadjuvant treatment might be warranted. Trial registration: NCT02818829.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12040783DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226323PMC
March 2020

Guidelines for time-to-event end-point definitions in adjuvant randomised trials for patients with localised colon cancer: Results of the DATECAN initiative.

Eur J Cancer 2020 05 12;130:63-71. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Department of Oncology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: The variability of definitions for time-to-event (TTE) end-points impacts the conclusions of randomised clinical trials (RCTs). The Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event Endpoints in CANcer (DATECAN) initiative aims to provide consensus definitions for TTE end-points used in RCTs. Here, we formulate guidelines for adjuvant colon cancer RCTs.

Methods: We performed a literature review to identify TTE end-points and events included in their definition in RCT publications. Then, a consensus was reached among a panel of international experts, using a formal modified Delphi method, with 2 rounds of questionnaires and an in-person meeting.

Results: Twenty-four experts scored 72 events involved in 6 TTE end-points. Consensus was reached for 24%, 57% and 100% events after the first round, second round and in-person meeting. For RCTs not using overall survival as their primary end-point, the experts recommend using disease-free survival (DFS) rather than recurrence-free survival (RFS) or time to recurrence (TTR) as the primary end-point. The consensus definition of DFS includes all causes of death, second primary colorectal cancers (CRCs), anastomotic relapse and metastatic relapse as an event, but not second primary non-CRCs. Events included in the RFS definition are the same as for DFS with the exception of second primary CRCs. The consensus definition of TTR includes anastomotic or metastatic relapse, death with evidence of recurrence and death from CC cause.

Conclusion: Standardised definitions of TTE end-points ensure the reproducibility of the end-points between RCTs and facilitate cross-trial comparisons. These definitions should be integrated in standard practice for the design, reporting and interpretation of adjuvant CC RCTs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.02.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7409551PMC
May 2020

Prospective memory and brain metastases: a relevant target for rehabilitation in post-operative patients?

J Neurooncol 2020 Mar 30;147(1):185-194. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Supportive Care, Montpellier Cancer Institute (ICM) - University of Montpellier, 208 avenue des Apothicaires, 34298, Montpellier, France.

Purpose: The study investigated the prospective memory (PM) functioning among patients with brain metastases (BM), eligible for neurosurgy/radiosurgery, and its relationships with depression and quality of life (QoL).

Methods: This case-healthy-control, cross-sectional study, comprised 160 participants, including 49 patients with BM from various cancers treated with neurosurgery or radiosurgery. They were compared with 111 matched controls on a set of neuropsychological tests, including the MoCA global cognitive test and an experimental PM task 'PROMESSE'. Participants also completed a depression scale (BDI-II), a generic (SF-12) and a specific (QLQ-C30) QoL instrument for cancer patients. Multivariate analyses were conducted on various PM outcomes, in particular on event-based (EBPM) and time-based (TBPM) PM performances.

Results: After adjusting for age and socio-cultural level, patients with BM performed worse than the control on the PM task (p < .0001) [OR 1.05; 95%CI (1.01-1.08)], whatever the location of BM (frontal versus temporal lobe). Patients with infratentorial BM exhibited better TBPM performances than patients with supratentorial BM (p = .02). The global PM performance was positively correlated with the MoCA (r = .45) and the SF-12 global score (r = .34), and negatively with the BDI-II score (r = - .20), the number of BM (r = - .34) and the volumetric of the BM (r = - 29). The TBPM performance was linked to the global QoL (r = .40) in patients.

Conclusion: The study showed a significant PM deficit in patients with BM eligible for a neurosurgy/radiosurgery, which is linked to damaged QoL and which likely maintains some depressive affects. Prospective memory rehabilitation program should especially focus on TBPM for post-operative patients with BM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-020-03414-xDOI Listing
March 2020

Incidence of Venous Thromboembolism in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Pancreatic Cancer and Factors Associated With Outcomes.

Gastroenterology 2020 04 14;158(5):1346-1358.e4. Epub 2019 Dec 14.

Université de Paris, Institut Universitaire d'Hématologie, Paris, France; Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Saint-Louis Hospital, Internal Medicine, Autoimmune and Vascular Disease Unit, Paris, France; Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is associated with the highest incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) of any cancer type. However, little is known about risk factors for VTE or its outcomes in patients with PDAC.

Methods: We collected data from a prospective, observational study performed at multiple centers in France from May 2014 through November 2018 (the Base Clinico-Biologique de l'Adénocarcinome Pancréatique [BACAP] study) linked to a database of patients with a new diagnosis of PDAC of any stage. Data were collected from 731 patients at baseline and during clinical follow-up or in the event of symptoms. The primary endpoint was the onset of VTE during follow-up. The secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) times.

Results: During a median follow-up of 19.3 months, 152 patients (20.79%) developed a VTE. The median time from PDAC diagnosis to the onset of VTE was 4.49 months. Cumulative incidence values of VTE were 8.07% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.31-10.29) at 3 months and 19.21% (95% CI, 16.27-22.62) at 12 months. In multivariate analysis, PDAC primary tumor location (isthmus vs head: hazard ratio [HR], 2.06; 95% CI, 1.09-3.91; P = .027) and stage (locally advanced vs resectable or borderline: HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.10-2.51, P = .016; metastatic vs resectable or borderline: HR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.64-3.79; P < .001) were independent risk factors for the onset of VTE. Patients who developed VTE during follow-up had shorter times of PFS (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.19-2.54; P = .004) and OS (HR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.57-2.60; P < .001).

Conclusion: In an analysis of data from the BACAP study, we found that frequent and early onsets of VTE after diagnoses of PDAC are associated with significant decreases in times of PFS and OS. Studies are needed to determine whether primary prophylaxis of VTE in patients with PDAC will improve morbidity and mortality related to VTE. (ClinicalTrials.gov, Number: clinicaltrials.gov as number NCT02818829).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.12.009DOI Listing
April 2020

Long-term follow-up experience in anal canal cancer treated with Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy: Clinical outcomes, patterns of relapse and predictors of failure.

Radiother Oncol 2020 03 3;144:141-147. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University Federation of Radiation Oncology Montpellier-Nîmes, ICM, Montpellier Cancer Institute - University of Montpellier, France.

Background And Purpose: To assess the long-term outcomes of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCAC) treated with Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT).

Material And Methods: From 2007 to 2015, 193 patients were treated by IMRT for SCCAC. Radiotherapy delivered 45 Gy in 1.8 Gy daily-fractions to the primary tumor and elective nodal areas, immediately followed by a boost of 14.4-20 Gy to the primary tumor and involved nodes. Concurrent chemotherapy with 5-FU-mitomycin (MMC) or cisplatin was added for locally advanced tumors. Survivals were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method. Locoregional (LR) relapses were precisely assessed. Prognostic factors were evaluated by uni- and multivariate analyses. Late toxicity was scored according to the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0.

Results: Median follow-up was 70 months (range, 1-131). Forty-nine men (25%) and 144 women (75%) were analyzed. Median age was 62 years. Tumor stages were I, II, III and IV in 7%, 24%, 63% and 6% of cases, respectively. Chemotherapy was delivered in 167 patients (87%), mainly MMC (80%). Five-year OS, DFS, CFS and LR control rates were 74%, 68%, 66% and 85%, respectively. Forty-one patients (21%) had a relapse: 22 were LR, mostly in-field (68%). Predictors for LR failure were exclusive radiotherapy, chemotherapy lacking MMC and treatment breaks >3 days. Overall late toxicity ≥grade 2 occurred in 43% of patients, with 24% grade 3 and one case of grade 4 (hematuria).

Conclusion: CRT with IMRT assures excellent local control in locally advanced SCCAC with manageable long-term toxicity. Multicentric prospective trials are required to reinforce those results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2019.11.016DOI Listing
March 2020

MESOTIP: Phase II multicenter randomized trial evaluating the association of PIPAC and systemic chemotherapy vs. systemic chemotherapy alone as 1st-line treatment of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma.

Pleura Peritoneum 2019 Jun 27;4(2):20190010. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Surgical oncology Department, Montpellier Cancer Institute (ICM), University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Background: Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare tumoral disease characterized by the diffuse involvement of the peritoneal serosa. The standard frontline treatment of MPM is cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) unless the peritoneal disease is considered unresectable. For unresectable patients the standard frontline treatment is a combination of cisplatin and pemetrexed but the prognosis remains ominous with only 13 months of overall survival (OS).

Methods: The proposed study is a multicenter randomized non-comparative study evaluating the association of Pressurized Intra-Peritoneal Aerosol Chemotherapy (PIPAC) and systemic chemotherapy vs. systemic chemotherapy alone as first-line treatment of MPM. Patients will be randomized with a 2:1 ratio using a minimization technique. Sixty-six patients have to be enrolled. Stratification will be performed according to histology (epithelioid vs. sarcomatoid and biphasic), presence of extraperitoneal disease and center. Primary objective is OS and secondary objectives include progression-free survival (PFS), safety, compliance, feasibility, conversion to resectability, histological response to treatment and quality of life.

Conclusions: We expect to show that intensification of the first line treatment with PIPAC for initially unresectable MPM patients increases OS.

Trial Registration: Prospective study. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT03574493 EudraCT: 2019-001515-23.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/pp-2019-0010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6693480PMC
June 2019

Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals AK2 as potential biomarker for late normal tissue radiotoxicity.

Radiat Oncol 2019 Aug 9;14(1):142. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

IRCM, INSERM, University Montpellier, ICM, Montpellier, France.

Background: Biomarkers for predicting late normal tissue toxicity to radiotherapy are necessary to personalize treatments and to optimize clinical benefit. Many radiogenomic studies have been published on this topic. Conversely, proteomics approaches are not much developed, despite their advantages.

Methods: We used the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomic approach to analyze differences in protein expression levels in ex-vivo irradiated (8 Gy) T lymphocytes from patients with grade ≥ 2 radiation-induced breast fibrosis (grade ≥ 2 bf+) and patients with grade < 2 bf + after curative intent radiotherapy. Patients were selected from two prospective clinical trials (COHORT and PHRC 2005) and were used as discovery and confirmation cohorts.

Results: Among the 1979 quantified proteins, 23 fulfilled our stringent biological criteria. Immunoblotting analysis of four of these candidate proteins (adenylate kinase 2, AK2; annexin A1; heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein; and isocitrate dehydrogenase 2) confirmed AK2 overexpression in 8 Gy-irradiated T lymphocytes from patients with grade ≥ 2 bf + compared with patients with grade < 2 bf+. As these candidate proteins are involved in oxidative stress regulation, we also evaluated radiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with grade ≥ 2 bf + and grade < 2 bf+. Total ROS level, and especially superoxide anion level, increased upon ex-vivo 8 Gy-irradiation in all patients. Analysis of NADPH oxidases (NOXs), a major source of superoxide ion in the cell, showed a significant increase of NOX4 mRNA and protein levels after irradiation in both patient groups. Conversely, only NOX4 mRNA level was significantly different between groups (grade ≥ 2 bf + and grade < 2 bf+).

Conclusion: These findings identify AK2 as a potential radiosensitivity candidate biomarker. Overall, our proteomic approach highlights the important role of oxidative stress in late radiation-induced toxicity, and paves the way for additional studies on NOXs and superoxide ion metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13014-019-1351-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6688300PMC
August 2019

Short- and long-term impact of adapted physical activity and diet counseling during adjuvant breast cancer therapy: the "APAD1" randomized controlled trial.

BMC Cancer 2019 Jul 25;19(1):737. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

Val d'Aurelle Montpellier Cancer Institute (ICM), 208, Avenue des Apothicaires, Parc Euromédecine, 34298 Montpellier Cedex 5, France; Montpellier University, 34000, Montpellier, France.

Background: Patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy experience fatigue and other treatment side effects. Integrative therapies combining physical activity and dietary counseling are recommended; however to date no large randomized controlled trial has been conducted during adjuvant therapy. The Adapted Physical Activity and Diet (APAD) intervention was evaluated for its ability to decrease fatigue (primary outcome), anxiety, depression, body mass index (BMI), and fat mass, and enhance muscular and cognitive performances, and quality-of-life (QoL).

Methods: Women diagnosed with early breast cancer (N = 143, mean age = 52 ± 10 years) were randomized to APAD or usual care (UC). APAD included thrice-weekly moderate-intensity mixed aerobic and resistance exercise sessions and 9 dietetic consultations. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and anthropometric, muscular, and cognitive variables were measured at baseline, 18 weeks (end of chemotherapy), and 26 weeks (end of radiotherapy and intervention), and at 6- and 12-month post-intervention follow-ups. Multi-adjusted linear mixed-effects models were used to compare groups over time.

Results: Significant beneficial effects of the APAD intervention were observed on all PROs (i.e., fatigue, QoL, anxiety, depression) at 18 and 26 weeks. The significant effect on fatigue and QoL persisted up to 12-month follow-up. Significant decreases in BMI, fat mass, and increased muscle endurance and cognitive flexibility were observed at 26 weeks, but did not persist afterward. Leisure physical activity was enhanced in the APAD group vs UC group at 18 and 26 weeks. No significant effect of the intervention was found on major macronutrients intake.

Conclusions: A combined diet and exercise intervention during chemotherapy and radiotherapy in patients with early breast cancer led to positive changes in a range of psychological, physiological and behavioral outcomes at the end of intervention. A beneficial effect persisted on fatigue and QoL at long term, i.e., 1 year post-intervention. Diet-exercise supportive care should be integrated into the management of early breast cancer patients.

Trial Registration: The APAD study was prospectively registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01495650; date of registration: December 20, 2011).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-019-5896-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6659309PMC
July 2019

Infiltrating and peripheral immune cell analysis in advanced gastric cancer according to the Lauren classification and its prognostic significance.

Gastric Cancer 2020 01 2;23(1):73-81. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Université de Paris, PARCC, INSERM, 75015, Paris, France.

Background: The correlation between immune cells and the Lauren classification subtypes and their prognostic impact in advanced gastric cancer (AGC) are unknown.

Methods: Circulating natural killer (NK) cells, CD4 and CD8 T cells, regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were quantified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 67 patients with untreated AGC enrolled in the PRODIGE 17-ACCORD 20 trial. CD56 cells (NK), CD8, and FoxP3 (Treg) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) were assessed in tumor samples.

Results: Circulating NK and Treg proportions were significantly lower in patients with diffuse/mixed-type AGC (n = 27) than those with intestinal type (n = 40; median 6.3% vs 11.5%; p = 0.02 and median 3.3% vs 5.2%; p = 0.03, respectively). Proportions of circulating MDSC, CD4 and CD8 T cells were not associated with one pathological type. Among tumor-infiltrating cells, CD8 T cells, but not NK or FoxP3 cells, were significantly lower in diffuse/mixed-type AGC (median 21 vs 59 cells/field; p = 0.009). Patients with high circulating NK cell counts (> 17%) had a better overall survival than those with < 17% (HR 0.40; 95% CI [0.15-1.06]; p = 0.04). Patients with high CD8 TIL counts (> 31 cells/field) had significantly longer overall survival (HR 0.44; 95% CI [0.21-0.92]; p = 0.02). The prognostic value of CD8 TILs was maintained after adjustment for confounding factors, including the Lauren classification (HR = 0.42; 95% CI [0.18-0.96]; p = 0.039).

Conclusion: Diffuse/mixed-type AGC has lower rates of CD8 TILs and circulating NK cells and Tregs than the intestinal type. This "cold tumor" phenotype may be associated with a worse outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10120-019-00983-3DOI Listing
January 2020

FOLFOX alone or combined with rilotumumab or panitumumab as first-line treatment for patients with advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (PRODIGE 17-ACCORD 20-MEGA): a randomised, open-label, three-arm phase II trial.

Eur J Cancer 2019 07 23;115:97-106. Epub 2019 May 23.

Department of Hepatogastroenterology and Gastrointestinal Oncology, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris Descartes University, France.

Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) pathways, which promote tumour growth and proliferation, are often deregulated in advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas. We assessed whether adding panitumumab (an EGFR inhibitor) or rilotumumab (a HGF inhibitor) to first-line fluoropyrimidine-based and platinum-based chemotherapy (modified oxaliplatin, leucovorin and fluorouracil [mFOLFOX6]) benefits to patients with advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma.

Patients And Methods: This phase II, open-label, randomised, three-arm study enrolled patients ≥18 years, with advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1 and no known HER2 overexpression. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) mFOLFOX6 (oxaliplatin 85 mg/m, leucovorin 400 mg/m, 5-fluorouracil 400 mg/m bolus then 2400 mg/m over 46 h) alone or combined with panitumumab (6 mg/kg) or rilotumumab (10 mg/kg) every 2 weeks until limiting toxicity, patient's refusal or disease progression. The primary end-point was the 4-month progression-free survival (PFS) rate. Secondary end-points included overall survival (OS) and tolerance.

Results: The study enrolled 162 patients in 29 French centres. The median follow-up was 23.6 months (interquartile range = 16.4-29.0). The 4-month PFS rate was 71% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 57-82) with chemotherapy alone, 57% (95% CI = 42-71) combined with panitumumab and 61% (95% CI = 47-74) combined with rilotumumab. Median OS was 13.1 months (95% CI = 8.7-16.9) with chemotherapy alone, 8.3 months (95% CI = 6.2-13.2) combined with panitumumab and 11.5 months (95% CI = 7.9-17.1) combined with rilotumumab. Adverse events grade ≥III occurred less frequently with chemotherapy alone (62%) than with panitumumab (83%) and rilotumumab (89%).

Conclusions: We found no benefit in adding panitumumab or rilotumumab to mFOLFOX6 first-line chemotherapy to treat advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma patients.

Trial Registration: European Clinical Trials Database, number 2009-012797-12.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2019.04.020DOI Listing
July 2019

Impact of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA repair pathway genes on response to chemoradiotherapy in rectal cancer patients: Results from ACCORD-12/PRODIGE-2 phase III trial.

Int J Cancer 2019 12 31;145(11):3163-3172. Epub 2019 May 31.

Université Paris Descartes; Paris Sorbonne Cité INSERM UMR-S775, Paris, France.

We examined whether 66 germline single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 candidate genes would predict clinical outcome in 316 patients with resectable locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) enrolled in the ACCORD-12 phase III trial who were randomly treated with preoperative radiotherapy plus capecitabine (CAP45; n = 155) or dose-intensified radiotherapy plus capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX50; n = 161). The primary endpoint was tumor response according to the Dworak score. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted on treatment arm and T stage determined the SNPs prognostic and predictive values for tumor response. In univariate analysis, five SNPs in ERCC2, XPA, MTHFR and ERCC1 were associated with the Dworak score in the CAPOX50 arm. In the overall population, interaction with treatment arm was significant for ERCC2 rs1799787 (p = 0.05) and XPA rs3176683 (p = 0.008), suggesting a predictive effect for response to oxaliplatin-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT). All but XPA rs3176683 had a prognostic effect on tumor response. In a multivariate model, interaction remained significant for XPA rs3176683 ([OR 7.33, 95% CI 1.40-38.23], p = 0.018) and the prognostic effect significant for ERCC2 rs1799787 ([OR 0.55, 95%CI 0.32-0.93], p = 0.027) and ERCC1 rs10412761 ([OR 0.57, 95%CI 0.34-0.98], p = 0.042). Patients with the T/G haplotype of rs1799787 and rs10412761 had a 60% decrease in odds of response (p < 0.001). None of the five SNPs were associated with toxicity, overall and disease-free survival. These data suggest that genetic variation in DNA repair genes influences response to preoperative CRT in LARC and identify patients who benefit from the addition of oxaliplatin to CRT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32417DOI Listing
December 2019

Real-life activity of eribulin mesylate among metastatic breast cancer patients in the multicenter national observational ESME program.

Int J Cancer 2019 12 20;145(12):3359-3369. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Centre Oscar Lambret, Lille, France.

Eribulin mesylate (EM) was recently approved for metastatic breast cancer (MBC) chemotherapy (CT) in late lines by the FDA, with debated results in second line. We evaluated outcomes in breast cancer patients receiving EM as second, third and fourth line in a national real-life cohort of 16,703 consecutive MBC patients initiating their first metastatic therapeutic line between 2008 and 2014. Primary and secondary objectives were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). An imbalance was seen for HER2+ tumors and concomitant anti-HER2 targeted therapies use, we thus performed a subanalysis in HER2- patients. PFS and OS were significantly better in EM patients in third and fourth lines, compared to "Other chemotherapies" patients (PFS: 4.14 vs. 3.02 months, p = 0.0010; 3.61 vs. 2.53 months, p = 0.0102, third and fourth-line; OS: 11.27 vs. 7.65 months, p = 0.0001; 10.91 vs. 5.95 months, p < 0.0001, third and fourth-line). No significant difference was reported in second-line (PFS: 5.06 vs. 4.14 months, p = 0.1171; OS: 13.99 vs. 11.66 months, p = 0.151). Among HER2- patients, a significant difference was seen for all lines, including 2nd-line (PFS: 4.57 vs. 3.91 months, p = 0.0379; OS: 14.98 vs. 10.51 months, p = 0.0113). In this large real-world database, HER2-negative MBC patients receiving EM in second or later CT line presented significantly better PFS and OS. This difference disappeared in second line in the overall population, probably because of the imbalance in HER2-targeted treatments use. Our results mirror those of the published randomized trials. The effect of anti-HER2 therapies addition in this setting still needs to be defined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32402DOI Listing
December 2019

Prediction of docetaxel toxicity in older cancer patients: a Bayesian network approach.

Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2019 Dec 29;33(6):679-686. Epub 2019 May 29.

Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Pierre Garraud, 136 rue du commandant Charcot, 69005, Lyon, France.

Chemotherapy is an essential therapy in the fight against cancer. Polypathology and polymedication are often encountered in elderly patients, making this population especially at risk for adverse drug reactions, and particularly with cytotoxic drugs. The objective of this study was to build a model to predict high-grade toxicity in elderly patients treated with docetaxel. Data from the trial TAX-108 have been used to create the model. The variable to predict was the occurrence of grade 3 or 4 toxicity. The explanatory variables entered in the model were anthropometric and biological characteristics of patients at inclusion; fragility criteria (SMAF, CIRS-G, performance status); location of the primary tumor; chemotherapy history, radiotherapy or surgery; weekly dose of docetaxel, cumulative dose administered. A Bayesian network model was developed using a global search procedure and an Expectation-Maximization algorithm. A 10-fold cross-validation was performed. A toxicity of grade 3 or higher was observed in 54% of patients. The variables providing the most information were the primary site (19.4%), the dose per course (17.5%), and albuminemia (13.1%). The area under the curve of the model obtained after cross-validation was 74 ± 1.4%. The model built allows classifying correctly 71.21 ± 0.9% of patients in our sample in the cross-validation procedure. The sensitivity and specificity of the model were 75 and 67%, respectively, and the positive and negative predictive values were 73 and 69%. The encouraging results from this first study show that Bayesian networks could help assess the benefit-risk ratio of chemotherapy in elderly patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/fcp.12476DOI Listing
December 2019

The ongoing French metastatic breast cancer (MBC) cohort: the example-based methodology of the Epidemiological Strategy and Medical Economics (ESME).

BMJ Open 2019 02 21;9(2):e023568. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

R&D UNICANCER, Paris, France.

Purpose: The currently ongoing Epidemiological Strategy and Medical Economics (ESME) research programme aims at centralising real-life data on oncology care for epidemiological research purposes. We draw on results from the metastatic breast cancer (MBC) cohort to illustrate the methodology used for data collection in the ESME research programme.

Participants: All consecutive ≥18 years patients with MBC treatment initiated between 2008 and 2014 in one of the 18 French Comprehensive Cancer Centres were selected. Diagnostic, therapeutic and follow-up data (demographics, primary tumour, metastatic disease, treatment patterns and vital status) were collected through the course of the disease. Data collection is updated annually.

Finding To Date: With a recruitment target of 30 000 patients with MBC by 2019, we currently screened a total of 45 329 patients, and >16 700 patients with a metastatic disease treatment initiated after 2008 have been selected. 20.7% of patients had an hormone receptor (HR)-negative MBC, 73.7% had a HER2-negative MBC and 13.9% were classified as triple-negative BC (ie, HER2 and HR status both negative). Median follow-up duration from MBC diagnosis was 48.55 months for the whole cohort.

Future Plans: These real-world data will help standardise the management of MBC and improve patient care. A dozen of ancillary research projects have been conducted and some of them are already accepted for publication or ready to be issued. The ESME research programme is expanding to ovarian cancer and advanced/metastatic lung cancer. Our ultimate goal is to achieve a continuous link to the data of the cohort to the French national Health Data System for centralising data on healthcare reimbursement (drugs, medical procedures), inpatient/outpatient stays and visits in primary/secondary care settings.

Trial Registration Number: NCT03275311; Pre-results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023568DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6398702PMC
February 2019

FOLFIRINOX or Gemcitabine as Adjuvant Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer.

N Engl J Med 2018 12;379(25):2395-2406

From the Institut de Cancérologie de Lorraine and Université de Lorraine (T.C.) and Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (L.C.), Nancy, Hôpital Beaujon and University Paris VII, Clichy (P.H., A.S.), Hôpital Huriez, Lille (M.H.), Centre Paul Strauss, Strasbourg (M.B.A.), Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille (J.-L.R.), Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Nice (E.F.), Hôpital Jean-Mermoz, Lyon (P.A.), Hôpital Trousseau, Tours (T.L.), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Saint-Eloi (E.A.) and Institut du Cancer de Montpellier-Val d'Aurelle, Université de Montpellier (M.Y., S.G., F.C.), Montpellier, Centre Hospitalier Départemental Vendée, La Roche-sur-Yon (R.F.), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Robert Debré, Reims (J.V.), Hôpital Louis Pasteur, Colmar (G.B.), Normandie University, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen (F.D.F.), Hôpital Layné, Mont-de-Marsan (P.T.), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Côte de Nacre, Caen (K.B.-L.), Hôpital Saint-Jean, Perpignan (F.K.-A.), Centre Hospitalier Régional, Orléans (J.-L.L.), R&D Unicancer (B.J., C.J.-Z.) and Sorbonne Université, Hôpitaux Universitaires Pitié-Salpétrière, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (J.-B.B.), Paris, Gustave Roussy, Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif (D.M.), and Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Dijon (P.R.) - all in France; and the Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto (A.C.W.), Kingston General Hospital (J.J.B.) and the Canadian Cancer Trials Group, Queen's University (C.J.O.), Kingston, ON, the Ottawa Health Research Institute, Ottawa (C.C.), and Segal Cancer Centre, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal (P.K.) - all in Canada.

Background: Among patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer, combination chemotherapy with fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) leads to longer overall survival than gemcitabine therapy. We compared the efficacy and safety of a modified FOLFIRINOX regimen with gemcitabine as adjuvant therapy in patients with resected pancreatic cancer.

Methods: We randomly assigned 493 patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma to receive a modified FOLFIRINOX regimen (oxaliplatin [85 mg per square meter of body-surface area], irinotecan [180 mg per square meter, reduced to 150 mg per square meter after a protocol-specified safety analysis], leucovorin [400 mg per square meter], and fluorouracil [2400 mg per square meter] every 2 weeks) or gemcitabine (1000 mg per square meter on days 1, 8, and 15 every 4 weeks) for 24 weeks. The primary end point was disease-free survival. Secondary end points included overall survival and safety.

Results: At a median follow-up of 33.6 months, the median disease-free survival was 21.6 months in the modified-FOLFIRINOX group and 12.8 months in the gemcitabine group (stratified hazard ratio for cancer-related event, second cancer, or death, 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46 to 0.73; P<0.001). The disease-free survival rate at 3 years was 39.7% in the modified-FOLFIRINOX group and 21.4% in the gemcitabine group. The median overall survival was 54.4 months in the modified-FOLFIRINOX group and 35.0 months in the gemcitabine group (stratified hazard ratio for death, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.86; P=0.003). The overall survival rate at 3 years was 63.4% in the modified-FOLFIRINOX group and 48.6% in the gemcitabine group. Adverse events of grade 3 or 4 occurred in 75.9% of the patients in the modified-FOLFIRINOX group and in 52.9% of those in the gemcitabine group. One patient in the gemcitabine group died from toxic effects (interstitial pneumonitis).

Conclusions: Adjuvant therapy with a modified FOLFIRINOX regimen led to significantly longer survival than gemcitabine among patients with resected pancreatic cancer, at the expense of a higher incidence of toxic effects. (Funded by R&D Unicancer and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01526135 ; EudraCT number, 2011-002026-52 .).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1809775DOI Listing
December 2018

Surrogate endpoints in advanced sarcoma trials: a meta-analysis.

Oncotarget 2018 Oct 2;9(77):34617-34627. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Clinical and Epidemiological Research Unit, Institut Bergonié, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Bordeaux cedex 33076, France.

Background: Alternative endpoints to overall survival (OS) are frequently used to assess treatment efficacy in randomized controlled trials (RCT). Their properties in terms of surrogate outcomes for OS need to be assessed. We evaluated the surrogate properties of progression-free survival (PFS), time-to-progression (TTP) and time-to-treatment failure (TTF) in advanced soft tissue sarcomas (STS).

Results: A total of 21 trials originally met the selection criteria and 14 RCTs ( = 2846) were included in the analysis. Individual-level associations were moderate (highest for 12-month PFS: Spearman's rho = 0.66; 95% CI [0.63; 0.68]). Trial-level associations were ranked as low for the three endpoints as per the IQWiG criterion.

Materials And Methods: We performed a meta-analysis using individual-patient data (IPD). Phase II/III RCTs evaluating therapies for adults with advanced STS were eligible. We estimated the individual- and the trial-level associations between then candidate surrogates and OS. Statistical methods included weighted linear regression and the two-stage model introduced by Buyse and Burzykowski. The strength of the trial-level association was ranked according to the German Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) guidelines.

Conclusions: Our results do not support strong surrogate properties of PFS, TTP and TTF for OS in advanced STS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.26166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6195375PMC
October 2018

[Impacts of routine patient-reported-outcomes monitoring in oncology].

Bull Cancer 2018 Sep 20;105(9):847-848. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

CHU de Nîmes, service d'oncologie médicale, 4, rue du Professeur-Robert-Debré, 30029 Nîmes, France; Université de Montpellier, 163, rue Auguste-Broussonnet, 34090 Montpellier, France; Université de Montpellier, Institut de recherche en cancérologie de Montpellier, Inserm U1194, Montpellier, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2018.06.010DOI Listing
September 2018

In Regard to Pereira et al.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 06;101(2):490-491

Department of Radiation Oncology, Centre Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2018.02.021DOI Listing
June 2018

Personalizing Breast Cancer Irradiation Using Biology: From Bench to the Accelerator.

Front Oncol 2018 5;8:83. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Institut de Recherche en Cancérologie de Montpellier (IRCM), INSERM U1194, Montpellier, France.

While adjuvant treatments of early breast cancers (BCs) had significantly improved patients' overall survival, some of them will still develop locoregional relapses and/or severe late radio-induced toxicities. Here, we propose to review how to personalize locoregional treatment by identifying patients at high and low risk of locoregional relapse, patients at risk of late radio-induced side effects. We will, therefore, discuss how to enhance BC radiosensitivity. Finally, we will address how personalized radiotherapy could be implemented in prospective clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2018.00083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5895767PMC
April 2018

Impact of adjuvant hormonotherapy on radiation-induced breast fibrosis according to the individual radiosensitivity: results of a multicenter prospective French trial.

Oncotarget 2018 Mar 2;9(21):15757-15765. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

Institute de Recherche en Cancérologie de Montpellier, Inserm U1194, Université de Montpellier, Institut Régional du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Background: To evaluate risk of severe breast fibrosis occurrence in patients treated by breast-conserving surgery, adjuvant radiotherapy and hormonotherapy (HT) according to individual radiosensitivity (RILA assay).

Results: HT and RILA were the two independent factors associated with improved breast-fibrosis free survival (BFFS). BFFS rate at 36 months was lower in patients with RILA and HT than in patients with RILA and HT (75.8% and 100%, respectively; = 0.004, hazard ratio 5.84 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-19.1]). Conversely, BFFS at 36 months was comparable in patients with RILA and HT and in patients with RILA and HT (89.8% and 93.5%, respectively; = 0.39, hazard ratio 1.7 [95% CI 0.51-5.65]), showing that these two parameters influenced independently the occurrence of severe breast fibrosis. BFFS rate was not affected by the HT type (tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor) and timing (concomitant or sequential with radiotherapy).

Conclusions: HT and RILA score independently influenced BFFS rate at 36 months. Patients with RILA and HT presented an excellent BFFS at 36 months (100%).

Materials And Methods: Breast Fibrosis-Free Survival (BFFS) rate was assessed relative to RILA categories and to adjuvant HT use (HT and HT, respectively) in a prospective multicentre study (NCT00893035) which enrolled 502 breast cancer patients (456 evaluable patients). Breast fibrosis was recorded according to CTCAE v3.0 grading scale; RILA score was defined according to two categories (<12%: RILA; ≥12%: RILA).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.24606DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5884662PMC
March 2018

Longitudinal health-related quality of life analysis in oncology with time to event approaches, the STATA command qlqc30_TTD.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2018 May 17;158:153-159. Epub 2018 Feb 17.

Biometrics Unit-CTD INCa, Institut du Cancer Montpellier | Val d'Aurelle (ICM), University of Montpellier, 208, Avenue des Apothicaires, 34298 Montpellier Cedex 5, France; French National Quality of Life in oncology Platform, France.

Background And Objective: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has become one relevant and available alternative endpoint of clinical trials in cancer research to evaluate efficiency of care both for the patient and health system. HRQoL in oncology is mainly assessed using the 30-item European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life-Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30). The EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire is usually assessed at different times along the clinical trials in order to analyze the kinetics of HRQoL evolution and to fully assess the impact of the treatment on the patient's HRQoL level. In this perspective, the realization of a longitudinal HRQoL analysis is essential and the time to HRQoL score deterioration approach is a method which is more and more used in clinical trials.

Method: Using the Stata software, we developed a QLQ-C30 specific command, qlqc30_TTD, which implements longitudinal strategies based on the time to event methods by considering the time to HRQoL score deterioration. This user-written command providing automatic execution of the Time To Deterioration (TTD) and Time Until Definitive Deterioration (TUDD) methods.

Result: The program implements all published definitions and provides the Kaplan-Meier curves for each dimension (by group) and a table with the Hazard Ratio and Log-Rank test.

Conclusion: The longitudinal analysis of HRQoL data in cancer clinical trials remains complex with only few programs like ours computed. This program will be of great help and will allow a more systematic and quicker analysis of the HRQoL data in clinical trials in oncology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2018.02.010DOI Listing
May 2018

Meta-analyses evaluating surrogate endpoints for overall survival in cancer randomized trials: A critical review.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2018 Mar 23;123:21-41. Epub 2017 Nov 23.

Clinical and Epidemiological Research Unit, Institut Bergonié, Comprehensive Cancer Center, 229 Cours de l'Argonne, 33000 Bordeaux, France; INSERM CIC-EC 14.01 (Clinical Epidemiology), Bordeaux, France; INSERM, ISPED, Centre INSERM U1219 Bordeaux Population Health Center, Epicene Team, 146 Rue Léo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux, France; University of Bordeaux, ISPED, Centre INSERM U1219 Bordeaux Population Health, Epicene Team, 146 Rue Léo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux, France. Electronic address:

Background: In cancer randomized controlled trials (RCT), alternative endpoints are increasingly being used in place of overall survival (OS) to reduce sample size, duration and cost of trials. It is necessary to ensure that these endpoints are valid surrogates for OS. Our aim was to identify meta-analyses that evaluated surrogate endpoints for OS and assess the strength of evidence for each meta-analysis (MA).

Materials And Methods: We performed a systematic review to identify MA of cancer RCTs assessing surrogate endpoints for OS. We evaluated the strength of the association between the endpoints based on (i) the German Institute of Quality and Efficiency in Health Care guidelines and (ii) the Biomarker-Surrogate Evaluation Schema.

Results: Fifty-three publications reported on 164 MA, with heterogeneous statistical methods Disease-free survival (DFS) and progression-free survival (PFS) showed good surrogacy properties for OS in colorectal, lung and head and neck cancers. DFS was highly correlated to OS in gastric cancer.

Conclusion(s): The statistical methodology used to evaluate surrogate endpoints requires consistency in order to facilitate the accurate interpretation of the results. Despite the limited number of clinical settings with validated surrogate endpoints for OS, there is evidence of good surrogacy for DFS and PFS in tumor types that account for a large proportion of cancer cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2017.11.014DOI Listing
March 2018