Publications by authors named "Sophie Cholet"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Normal transferrin patterns in congenital disorders of glycosylation with Golgi homeostasis disruption: apolipoprotein C-III at the rescue!

Clin Chim Acta 2021 Aug 20;519:285-290. Epub 2021 May 20.

AP-HP, Biochimie Métabolique et Cellulaire, Hôpital Bichat-Claude Bernard, Paris, France; INSERM UMR1193, Mécanismes cellulaires et moléculaires de l'adaptation au stress et cancérogenèse, Université Paris-Sud, Châtenay-Malabry, France. Electronic address:

We identified three cases of congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) with Golgi homeostasis disruption, one ATP6V0A2-CDG and two COG4-CDG, with normal transferrin screening analyses. Patient 1 (P1) presented at birth with cutis laxa. Patient 2 (P2) and patient 3 (P3) are adult siblings and presented with severe symptoms evocative of inborn errors of metabolism. Targeted gene sequencing in P1 revealed pathogenic ATP6V0A2 variants, shared by her affected older brother. In P2 and P3, whole exome sequencing revealed a homozygous COG4 variant of unknown significance. In all affected individuals, transferrin analysis was normal. Mass-spectrometry based serum N-glycome analysis and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) of haptoglobin and of mucin core 1 O-glycosylated apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) were performed. All results of second-line N-glycosylation analyses were initially normal. However, apoC-III 2-DE revealed characteristic "apoC-III" pattern in P1 and specific "apoC-III" patterns in P2 and P3. In P2 and P3, this allowed reclassifying the variant as likely pathogenic according to ACMG guidelines. These cases highlight the existence of normal transferrin patterns in CDG with Golgi homeostasis disruption, putting the clinicians at risk of misdiagnosing patients. Furthermore, they show the potential of apoC-III 2-DE in diagnosing this type of CDG, with highly specific patterns in COG-CDG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2021.05.016DOI Listing
August 2021

A mutation in SLC37A4 causes a dominantly inherited congenital disorder of glycosylation characterized by liver dysfunction.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 Jun 7;108(6):1040-1052. Epub 2021 May 7.

Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.

SLC37A4 encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized multitransmembrane protein required for transporting glucose-6-phosphate (Glc-6P) into the ER. Once transported into the ER, Glc-6P is subsequently hydrolyzed by tissue-specific phosphatases to glucose and inorganic phosphate during times of glucose depletion. Pathogenic variants in SLC37A4 cause an established recessive disorder known as glycogen storage disorder 1b characterized by liver and kidney dysfunction with neutropenia. We report seven individuals who presented with liver dysfunction multifactorial coagulation deficiency and cardiac issues and were heterozygous for the same variant, c.1267C>T (p.Arg423), in SLC37A4; the affected individuals were from four unrelated families. Serum samples from affected individuals showed profound accumulation of both high mannose and hybrid type N-glycans, while N-glycans in fibroblasts and undifferentiated iPSC were normal. Due to the liver-specific nature of this disorder, we generated a CRISPR base-edited hepatoma cell line harboring the c.1267C>T (p.Arg423) variant. These cells replicated the secreted abnormalities seen in serum N-glycosylation, and a portion of the mutant protein appears to relocate to a distinct, non-Golgi compartment, possibly ER exit sites. These cells also show a gene dosage-dependent alteration in the Golgi morphology and reduced intraluminal pH that may account for the altered glycosylation. In summary, we identify a recurrent mutation in SLC37A4 that causes a dominantly inherited congenital disorder of glycosylation characterized by coagulopathy and liver dysfunction with abnormal serum N-glycans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.04.013DOI Listing
June 2021

Evaluation of erythropoietin biosimilars Epotin™, Hemax® and Jimaixin™ by electrophoretic methods used for doping control analysis and specific N-glycan analysis revealed structural differences from original epoetin alfa drug Eprex®.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Feb 5;194:113750. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Analyses Department, Agence Française de Lutte contre le Dopage (AFLD), Châtenay-Malabry, France. Electronic address:

Recombinant human erythropoietin (rEPO) biosimilars are copies of epoetin drugs developed after the first patents ended. However differences in the process of production can result in small structural differences when compared to the reference product. Differences in N-glycosylation profiles are of particular importance for rEPOs, because they can drastically impact the half-life in circulation and activity. Changes of structure can also impact electrophoretic profiles that are used to reveal the presence of a rEPO in a doping control sample. In this study three not well characterized biosimilars were evaluated (Jimaixin™ authorized in China, and Hemax® and Epotin™ authorized in Algeria). As these products could be used for doping, first their EPO profiles were determined using the antidoping methods (electrophoretic separation by the charge (isolectric focusing, IEF-PAGE) or the molecular weight (SDS-PAGE) and specific EPO immunodetection). Compared to the original epoetin alfa Eprex®, it revealed more basic isoforms for Epotin™ and Jimaixin™ after IEF-PAGE and a slightly lower molecular weight after SDS-PAGE in particular for Hemax®. To better understand the reason for these differences, EPO specific N-glycans were evaluated using two complementary approaches: MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) with fluorescence detection. All three biosimilars presented a significant decrease in the major glycan forms of Eprex® along with an increase in less complex forms. Jimaixin™ and Epotin™ presented also a lower amount of fully sialylated forms. HILIC method also showed that O-acetylation level of sialic acid residues might vary from one rEPO to the other.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2020.113750DOI Listing
February 2021

CDG biochemical screening: Where do we stand?

Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj 2020 10 5;1864(10):129652. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Université Paris-Saclay, CEA, INRAE, Département Médicaments et Technologies pour la Santé (DMTS), MetaboHUB, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette, France. Electronic address:

Background: Glycosylation is one of the most complex post-translational modifications of proteins and lipids, notably requiring many glycosyltransferases, glycosidases and sugar transporters encoded by about 1-2% of all human genes. Deleterious variants in any of them may result in improper protein or lipid glycosylation, thus yielding the so-called 'congenital disorders of glycosylation' or CDG.

Scope Of Review: We first review the current state of knowledge on the common blood and cellular glycoproteins used in the biochemical screening of CDG, as well as the emerging ones for an improved diagnosis. We then provide an overview of the current state-of-the-art methodologies ranging from gel electrophoresis to mass spectrometry to measure improper glycosylation. Finally, we discuss how additional tools such as metabolomics and microfluidics can be added to the current toolbox to better diagnose and delineate CDG.

Major Conclusions: Combining several biochemical indicators and related methods is often required to cope with the large clinical heterogeneity of CDG and establish a definitive diagnosis.

General Significance: This review aims to critically present current available CDG biochemical biomarkers and dedicated methods in the context of highly diverse glycosylation pathways and related inherited diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2020.129652DOI Listing
October 2020

Correction: Alexandre-Gouabau et al. "Comprehensive Preterm Breast Milk Metabotype Associated with Optimal Infant Early Growth Pattern", , 2019, , 528.

Nutrients 2020 01 7;12(1). Epub 2020 Jan 7.

INRA, UMR1280, Physiopathologie des Adaptations Nutritionnelles, Institut des maladies de l'appareil digestif (IMAD), Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine Ouest (CRNH), F-44093 Nantes, France.

The authors wish to make a correction to Section 2 [...].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12010162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7019614PMC
January 2020

Blood metabolomics uncovers inflammation-associated mitochondrial dysfunction as a potential mechanism underlying ACLF.

J Hepatol 2020 04 25;72(4):688-701. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Service de Pharmacologie et Immuno-Analyse (SPI), Laboratoire d'Etude du Métabolisme des Médicaments, CEA, INRA, Université Paris Saclay, MetaboHUB, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Background & Aims: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), which develops in patients with cirrhosis, is characterized by intense systemic inflammation and organ failure(s). Because systemic inflammation is energetically expensive, its metabolic costs may result in organ dysfunction/failure. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the blood metabolome in patients with cirrhosis, with and without ACLF.

Methods: We performed untargeted metabolomics using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry in serum from 650 patients with AD (acute decompensation of cirrhosis, without ACLF), 181 with ACLF, 43 with compensated cirrhosis, and 29 healthy individuals.

Results: Of the 137 annotated metabolites identified, 100 were increased in patients with ACLF of any grade, relative to those with AD, and 38 comprised a distinctive blood metabolite fingerprint for ACLF. Among patients with ACLF, the intensity of the fingerprint increased across ACLF grades, and was similar in patients with kidney failure and in those without, indicating that the fingerprint reflected not only decreased kidney excretion but also altered cell metabolism. The higher the ACLF-associated fingerprint intensity, the higher the plasma levels of inflammatory markers, tumor necrosis factor α, soluble CD206, and soluble CD163. ACLF was characterized by intense proteolysis and lipolysis; amino acid catabolism; extra-mitochondrial glucose metabolism through glycolysis, pentose phosphate, and D-glucuronate pathways; depressed mitochondrial ATP-producing fatty acid β-oxidation; and extra-mitochondrial amino acid metabolism giving rise to metabotoxins.

Conclusions: In ACLF, intense systemic inflammation is associated with blood metabolite accumulation and profound alterations in major metabolic pathways, in particular inhibition of mitochondrial energy production, which may contribute to the development of organ failures.

Lay Summary: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), which develops in patients with cirrhosis, is characterized by intense systemic inflammation and organ failure(s). Because systemic inflammation is energetically expensive, its metabolic costs may result in organ dysfunction/failure. We identified a 38-metabolite blood fingerprint specific for ACLF that revealed mitochondrial dysfunction in peripheral organs. This may contribute to organ failures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2019.11.009DOI Listing
April 2020

New fluorine-18 pretargeting PET imaging by bioorthogonal chlorosydnone-cycloalkyne click reaction.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2019 Aug;55(70):10400-10403

UMR 1023 IMIV, Service Hospitalier Frédéric Joliot (SHFJ), CEA, Inserm, Université Paris Sud, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, Orsay, France.

We report the first pretargeting in vivo study using the Strain-Promoted Sydnone-Alkyne Cycloaadition (SPSAC) reaction. The injection of a fluorine-18 labeled cyclooctyne three days after cetuximab bearing chlorosydnone moieties allowed a significant detection of the tumor by PET imaging suggesting an efficient click reaction inside the tumoral site. With a kinetic constant superior to 300 M-1 s-1, the SPSAC reaction might be an interesting tool, in addition to tetrazine-cyclooctene ligation, for in vivo chemistry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cc05486cDOI Listing
August 2019

Comprehensive Preterm Breast Milk Metabotype Associated with Optimal Infant Early Growth Pattern.

Nutrients 2019 Feb 28;11(3). Epub 2019 Feb 28.

INRA, UMR1280, Physiopathologie des Adaptations Nutritionnelles, Institut des maladies de l'appareil digestif (IMAD), Centre de Recherche en Nutrition Humaine Ouest (CRNH), Nantes F-44093, France.

Early nutrition impacts preterm infant early growth rate and brain development but can have long lasting effects as well. Although human milk is the gold standard for feeding new born full-term and preterm infants, little is known about the effects of its bioactive compounds on breastfed preterm infants' growth outcomes. This study aims to determine whether breast milk metabolome, glycome, lipidome, and free-amino acids profiles analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry had any impact on the early growth pattern of preterm infants. The study population consisted of the top tercile- score change in their weight between birth and hospital discharge ("faster grow", = 11) and lowest tercile ("slower grow", = 15) from a cohort of 138 premature infants (27⁻34 weeks gestation). This holistic approach combined with stringent clustering or classification statistical methods aims to discriminate groups of milks phenotype and identify specific metabolites associated with early growth of preterm infants. Their predictive reliability as biomarkers of infant growth was assessed using multiple linear regression and taking into account confounding clinical factors. Breast-milk associated with fast growth contained more branched-chain and insulino-trophic amino acid, lacto-N-fucopentaose, choline, and hydroxybutyrate, pointing to the critical role of energy utilization, protein synthesis, oxidative status, and gut epithelial cell maturity in prematurity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11030528DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6470768PMC
February 2019

Efficient Access to Deuterated and Tritiated Nucleobase Pharmaceuticals and Oligonucleotides using Hydrogen-Isotope Exchange.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2019 04 6;58(15):4891-4895. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

SCBM, CEA, Université Paris Saclay, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

A general approach for the efficient hydrogen-isotope exchange of nucleobase derivatives is described. Catalyzed by ruthenium nanoparticles, using mild reaction conditions, and involving either D or T as isotopic sources, this reaction possesses a wide substrate scope and a high solvent tolerability. This novel method facilitates the access to essential diagnostic tools in drug discovery and development: tritiated pharmaceuticals with high specific activities and deuterated oligonucleotides suitable for use as internal standards during LC-MS quantification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201813946DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6593778PMC
April 2019

Complementarity of electrophoretic, mass spectrometric, and gene sequencing techniques for the diagnosis and characterization of congenital disorders of glycosylation.

Electrophoresis 2018 12 3;39(24):3123-3132. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

Service de Pharmacologie et d'Immunoanalyse, Laboratoire d'Etude du Métabolisme des Médicaments, CEA, INRA, Université Paris Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are rare autosomal genetic diseases affecting the glycosylation of proteins and lipids. Since CDG-related clinical symptoms are classically extremely variable and nonspecific, a combination of electrophoretic, mass spectrometric, and gene sequencing techniques is often mandatory for obtaining a definitive CDG diagnosis, as well as identifying causative gene mutations and deciphering the underlying biochemical mechanisms. Here, we illustrate the potential of integrating data from capillary electrophoresis of transferrin, two-dimensional electrophoresis of N- and O-glycoproteins, mass spectrometry analyses of total serum N-linked glycans and mucin core1 O-glycosylated apolipoprotein C-III for the determination of various culprit CDG gene mutations. "Step-by-step" diagnosis pathways of four particular and new CDG cases, including MGAT2-CDG, ATP6V0A2-CDG, SLC35A2-CDG, and SLC35A3-CDG, are described as illustrative examples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.201800021DOI Listing
December 2018

CCDC115-CDG: A new rare and misleading inherited cause of liver disease.

Mol Genet Metab 2018 07 9;124(3):228-235. Epub 2018 May 9.

AP-HP, Bichat University Hospital, Biochemistry, Paris, France; INSERM UMR-1193 "Mécanismes cellulaires et moléculaires de l'adaptation au stress et cancérogenèse", Université Paris-Sud, Châtenay-Malabry, France. Electronic address:

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) linked to defects in Golgi apparatus homeostasis constitute an increasing part of these rare inherited diseases. Among them, COG-CDG, ATP6V0A2-CDG, TMEM199-CDG and CCDC115-CDG have been shown to disturb Golgi vesicular trafficking and/or lumen pH acidification. Here, we report 3 new unrelated cases of CCDC115-CDG with emphasis on diagnosis difficulties related to strong phenotypic similarities with mitochondriopathies, Niemann-Pick disease C and Wilson Disease. Indeed, while two individuals clinically presented with early and severe liver fibrosis and cirrhosis associated with neurological symptoms, the other one "only" showed isolated and late severe liver involvement. Biological results were similar to previously described patients, including hypercholesterolemia, elevated alkaline phosphatases and defects in copper metabolism. CDG screening and glycosylation study finally led to the molecular diagnosis of CCDC115-CDG. Besides pointing to the importance of CDG screening in patients with unexplained and severe liver disease, these reports expand the clinical and molecular phenotypes of CCDC115-CDG. The hepatic involvement is particularly addressed. Furthermore, hypothesis concerning the pathogenesis of the liver disease and of major biological abnormalities are proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2018.05.002DOI Listing
July 2018

Comparative analysis of native and permethylated human milk oligosaccharides by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2017 Dec 27;1071:49-57. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

CEA, IBITECS, Service de Pharmacologie et d'Immunoanalyse, UMR 0496, Laboratoire d'Etude du Métabolisme des Médicaments, MetaboHUB-Paris, Université Paris Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex, France. Electronic address:

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) represent the third most abundant components of milk after lactose and lipids. HMOs are indigestible by the suckling infant but can act as prebiotics and have significant biological functions regarding the organism defense against pathogens (such as bacteria or viruses) by preventing interactions with their receptors. Although constituted of only five distinct monosaccharide building blocks, HMOs are highly structurally diverse compounds with many co-existing structural isomers. Here we report the development and comparison of two distinct glycomic platforms based on liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for analyzing HMOs. We have implemented and thoroughly compared the LC-MS of permethylated and native HMOs on reversed phase (RP) and porous graphitic carbon (PGC) columns for their ability to resolve the natural heterogeneity of milk oligosaccharides at the highest sensitivity. Our data essentially underlines the usefulness of analyzing HMOs as permethylated derivatives especially for getting more precise structural information at high sensitivity. For instance, permethylation annihilates gas-phase fucose migration during MS/MS experiments, thus facilitating spectra interpretation and giving access to relevant information regarding oligosaccharide branching and isomer distinction. At the opposite, LC-MS profiling of native HMOs (using PGC) in milk performed best in terms of detected species, while also being much faster in terms of sample preparation. Although less efficient than PGC chromatography, RPLC proved successful for separating pairs of permethylated isomeric HMOs. A key advantage of RP over PGC liquid chromatography is that retention times can be correlated to molecular weights, which can greatly facilitate further HMO identification using retention time prediction. Altogether these data lead us to think that LC-MS analysis of native HMOs (using PGC) can be used as first-line profiling approach while permethylation can be performed afterwards for facilitating structural characterization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2017.03.028DOI Listing
December 2017

Evaluation of a combined glycomics and glycoproteomics approach for studying the major glycoproteins present in biofluids: Application to cerebrospinal fluid.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2015 Mar;29(6):461-73

CEA, iBiTec-S, Service de Pharmacologie et d'Immunoanalyse, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Rationale: Glycosylation is one of the most complex types of post-translational modifications of proteins. The alteration of glycans bound to proteins from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in relation to disorders of the central nervous system is a highly relevant subject, but only few studies have focused on the glycosylation of CSF proteins.

Methods: Reproducible profiles of CSF N-glycans were first obtained by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry after permethylation. Tryptic glycopeptides from CSF proteins were also enriched by hydrophilic interaction, and the resulting extracts divided into two equal aliquots. A first aliquot was enzymatically deglycosylated and analyzed by nano-liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry while the second one, containing intact enriched glycopeptides, was directly analyzed. Site-specific data were obtained by combining the data from these three experiments.

Results: We describe the development of a versatile approach for obtaining site-specific information on the N-glycosylation of CSF glycoproteins. Under these conditions, 124 N-glycopeptides representing 55 N-glycosites from 36 glycoproteins were tentatively identified. Special emphasis was placed on the analysis of glycoproteins/glycopeptides bearing 'brain-type' N-glycans, representing potential biologically relevant structures in the field of neurodegenerative disorders. Using our workflow, only a few proteins were shown to carry such particular glycan motifs.

Conclusions: We developed an approach combining N-glycomics and N-glycoproteomics and underline its usefulness to study the site-specific glycosylation of major human CSF proteins. The final rather long-term objective is to combine these data with those from other omics approaches to delve deeper into the understanding of particular neurological disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.7125DOI Listing
March 2015

Mass spectrometric quantification of AcSDKP-NH2 in human plasma and urine and comparison with an immunoassay.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2012 Jan;26(2):163-72

CEA, iBiTec-S, Service de Pharmacologie et d'Immunoanalyse, laboratoire d'étude du métabolisme des médicaments, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France.

Rationale: Precise assessment of renal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is essential for the early detection of chronic kidney disease. AcSDKP-NH(2), an analogue of the endogenous tetrapeptide AcSDKP, is not degraded in vivo and is freely filtered by the kidney and eliminated in urine; for that reason this analogue is an ideal candidate marker for the assessment of GRF after administration to humans. Proof-of-concept demonstration and lack of toxicity in animals have allowed an ongoing clinical study in which AcSDKP-NH(2) was administered intravenously at a dose of 100 µg and compared with currently available GFR markers. The use of the AcSDKP analogue in clinical practice requires that this novel marker be associated with an analytical method that combines specificity, robustness and high accuracy. We have developed a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) assay and compared it with an existing enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for AcSDKP-NH(2).

Methods: Human urine and plasma samples from the clinical study were analyzed by EIA and LC/MS/MS. Before LC/MS/MS assessment, AcSDKP-NH(2) was extracted using mixed-mode cation-exchange solid-phase extraction cartridges. Chromatographic separation was performed by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), before analysis with an electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometer.

Results: Mass spectrometry, through the use of an internal standard, tailored sample preparation and chromatographic separation, has better intra- and inter-assay precision (accuracies between 95 and 101% with CVs <8% for LC/MS/MS vs. accuracies between 90 and 115% with CVs <18% for EIA) and allows greater steadiness in intra-subject concentrations during the infusion (4.4% for LC/MS/MS vs. 8.6% for EIA). Moreover, the LC/MS/MS assay circumvents matrix effects observed in certain instances for the EIA and which may reduce its accuracy.

Conclusions: Although the EIA can provide sufficient information in most subjects, the LC/MS/MS assay associated with this new marker should be the reference method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.5326DOI Listing
January 2012

Pharmacokinetics of DTPA entrapped in conventional and long-circulating liposomes of different size for plutonium decorporation.

J Control Release 2005 Dec 28;110(1):177-88. Epub 2005 Oct 28.

CEA, Service de Pharmacologie et d'Immunologie, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

The aim of the present study was to develop an efficient DTPA liposome formulation designed for plutonium decorporation. DTPA was encapsulated in conventional (CL) and polyethylene glycol-coated stealth liposomes (SL) prepared by extrusion followed by the freeze-thawing method and sizing from around 100 to 800 nm. DTPA encapsulation percentages were approximately 30% in CL of any size but dropped from 48% to 7% as the diameter of SL was reduced. The pharmacokinetics of [(14)C]-DTPA encapsulated in large and small vesicles was evaluated in rats after a single intravenous administration. Both liposomal composition and size reduction had a significant impact on pharmacokinetic parameters, inducing a marked increased in exposure of the body to DTPA and its delayed excretion. DTPA distribution was moderate in liver but enhanced in spleen and bone and was dose-dependent, especially when SL of 100 nm were given. In conclusion, small and stealth(R) vesicles have interesting properties in delivering DTPA to contaminated tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2005.09.029DOI Listing
December 2005