Publications by authors named "Sophia Rehm"

10 Publications

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Regular Caffeine Intake Delays REM Sleep Promotion and Attenuates Sleep Quality in Healthy Men.

J Biol Rhythms 2021 May 23:7487304211013995. Epub 2021 May 23.

Centre for Chronobiology, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Acute caffeine intake can attenuate homeostatic sleep pressure and worsen sleep quality. Caffeine intake-particularly in high doses and close to bedtime-may also affect circadian-regulated rapid eye movement (REM) sleep promotion, an important determinant of subjective sleep quality. However, it is not known whether such changes persist under chronic caffeine consumption during daytime. Twenty male caffeine consumers (26.4 ± 4 years old, habitual caffeine intake 478.1 ± 102.8 mg/day) participated in a double-blind crossover study. Each volunteer completed a caffeine (3 × 150 mg caffeine daily for 10 days), a withdrawal (3 × 150 mg caffeine for 8 days then placebo), and a placebo condition. After 10 days of controlled intake and a fixed sleep-wake cycle, we recorded electroencephalography for 8 h starting 5 h after habitual bedtime (i.e., start on average at 04:22 h which is around the peak of circadian REM sleep promotion). A 60-min evening nap preceded each sleep episode and reduced high sleep pressure levels. While total sleep time and sleep architecture did not significantly differ between the three conditions, REM sleep latency was longer after daily caffeine intake compared with both placebo and withdrawal. Moreover, the accumulation of REM sleep proportion was delayed, and volunteers reported more difficulties with awakening after sleep and feeling more tired upon wake-up in the caffeine condition compared with placebo. Our data indicate that besides acute intake, also regular daytime caffeine intake affects REM sleep regulation in men, such that it delays circadian REM sleep promotion when compared with placebo. Moreover, the observed caffeine-induced deterioration in the quality of awakening may suggest a potential motive to reinstate caffeine intake after sleep.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07487304211013995DOI Listing
May 2021

Probability of pharmacological target attainment with flucloxacillin in Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection: a prospective cohort study of unbound plasma and individual MICs.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Division of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Basel, Petersgraben 4, 4031 Basel, Switzerland.

Objectives: MSSA bloodstream infections (BSIs) are associated with considerable mortality. Data regarding therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and pharmacological target attainment of the β-lactam flucloxacillin are scarce.

Patients And Methods: We determined the achievement of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets and its association with clinical outcome and potential toxicity in a prospective cohort of 50 patients with MSSA-BSI. Strain-specific MICs and unbound plasma flucloxacillin concentrations (at five different timepoints) were determined by broth microdilution and HPLC-MS, respectively.

Results: In our study population, 48% were critically ill and the 30 day mortality rate was 16%. The median flucloxacillin MIC was 0.125 mg/L. The median unbound trough concentration was 1.7 (IQR 0.4-9.3), 1.9 (IQR 0.4-6.2) and 1.0 (IQR 0.6-3.4) mg/L on study day 1, 3 and 7, respectively. Optimal (100% fT>MIC) and maximum (100% fT>4×MIC) target attainment was achieved in 45 (90%) and 34 (68%) patients, respectively, throughout the study period. Conversely, when using the EUCAST epidemiological cut-off value instead of strain-specific MICs, target attainment was achieved in only 13 (26%) patients. The mean unbound flucloxacillin trough concentration per patient was associated with neurotoxicity (OR 1.12 per 1 mg/L increase, P = 0.02) and significantly higher in deceased patients (median 14.8 versus 1.7 mg/L, P = 0.01).

Conclusions: Flucloxacillin pharmacological target attainment in MSSA-BSI patients is frequently achieved when unbound flucloxacillin concentrations and strain-specific MICs are considered. However, currently recommended dosing regimens may expose patients to excessive flucloxacillin concentrations, potentially resulting in drug-related organ damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkab089DOI Listing
April 2021

Insufficient Stability of Clavulanic Acid in Widely Used Child-Appropriate Formulations.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Feb 23;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Paediatric Infectious Diseases, University Children's Hospital Basel, 4056 Basel, Switzerland.

Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (AMC) belongs to the WHO Essential Medicines List for children, but for optimal antimicrobial effectiveness, reconstituted dry powder suspensions need to be stored in a refrigerated environment. Many patients in low- and middle-income countries who are sold AMC suspensions would be expected not to keep to the specified storage conditions. We aimed to assess the stability of both ingredients in liquid formulations and dispersible tablets, combined with nationally representative data on access to appropriate storage. Degradation of amoxicillin (AMX) and clavulanic-acid (CLA) was measured in suspensions and dispersible tablets commercially available in Switzerland at different ambient temperatures (8 °C vs. 28 °C over 7 days, and 23 °C vs. 28 °C over 24 h, respectively). Data on access to refrigeration and electricity were assessed from the USAID-funded Demographic and Health Survey program. In suspensions, CLA degraded to a maximum of 12.9% (95% CI -55.7%, +29.9%) at 8°C and 72.3% (95% CI -82.8%, -61.8%) at a 28 °C ambient temperature during an observation period of 7 days. Dispersible tablets were observed during 24 h and CLA degraded to 15.4% (95% CI -51.9%, +21.2%) at 23 °C and 21.7% (-28.2%, -15.1%) at a 28 °C ambient temperature. There is relevant degradation of CLA in suspensions during a 7-day course. To overcome the stability challenges for all active components, durable child-appropriate formulations are needed. Until then, prescribers of AMC suspensions or pharmacists who sell the drug need to create awareness for the importance of proper storage conditions regarding effectiveness of both antibiotics and this recommendation should be reflected in the WHO Essential Medicines List for children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10020225DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927114PMC
February 2021

The impact of daily caffeine intake on nighttime sleep in young adult men.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 25;11(1):4668. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Centre for Chronobiology, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Acute caffeine intake can delay sleep initiation and reduce sleep intensity, particularly when consumed in the evening. However, it is not clear whether these sleep disturbances disappear when caffeine is continuously consumed during daytime, which is common for most coffee drinkers. To address this question, we investigated the sleep of twenty male young habitual caffeine consumers during a double-blind, randomized, crossover study including three 10-day conditions: caffeine (3 × 150 mg caffeine daily), withdrawal (3 × 150 mg caffeine for 8 days, then switch to placebo), and placebo (3 × placebo daily). After 9 days of continuous treatment, electroencephalographically (EEG)-derived sleep structure and intensity were recorded during a scheduled 8-h nighttime sleep episode starting 8 (caffeine condition) and 15 h (withdrawal condition) after the last caffeine intake. Upon scheduled wake-up time, subjective sleep quality and caffeine withdrawal symptoms were assessed. Unexpectedly, neither polysomnography-derived total sleep time, sleep latency, sleep architecture nor subjective sleep quality differed among placebo, caffeine, and withdrawal conditions. Nevertheless, EEG power density in the sigma frequencies (12-16 Hz) during non-rapid eye movement sleep was reduced in both caffeine and withdrawal conditions when compared to placebo. These results indicate that daily caffeine intake in the morning and afternoon hours does not strongly impair nighttime sleep structure nor subjective sleep quality in healthy good sleepers who regularly consume caffeine. The reduced EEG power density in the sigma range might represent early signs of overnight withdrawal from the continuous presence of the stimulant during the day.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84088-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7907384PMC
February 2021

LC-MS/MS method for nine different antibiotics.

Clin Chim Acta 2020 Dec 5;511:360-367. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Basel, University Basel, Petersgraben 4, 4031 Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: TDM of antibiotics can bring benefits to patients and healthcare systems by providing better treatment and saving healthcare resources. We aimed to develop a multi-analyte method for several diverse antibiotics using LC-MS/MS.

Materials And Methods: Sample preparation consisted of protein precipitation with methanol, dilution and online extraction using a Turboflow Cyclone column. Separation was performed on a Synergi 4 µm Max RP column and deuterated forms of three antibiotics were used as internal standards.

Results: We present a LC-MS/MS method for the quantitative determination of nine antibiotics, including five cephalosporins, the carbapenem ertapenem, the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin as well as the combination drug trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole from plasma. Additionally, unbound ertapenem and cefazolin were analyzed in plasma water after ultrafiltration using plasma calibrators. Results from routine TDM show the applicability of the method.

Conclusion: The presented method is precise and accurate and was introduced in a university hospital, permitting fast TDM of all nine analytes. It was also used in a clinical study for measuring cefazolin free and total concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2020.11.001DOI Listing
December 2020

Wide awake at bedtime? Effects of caffeine on sleep and circadian timing in male adolescents - A randomized crossover trial.

Biochem Pharmacol 2020 Oct 15:114283. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Centre for Chronobiology, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Transfaculty Research Platform Molecular and Cognitive Neurosciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Adolescents often suffer from short and mistimed sleep. To counteract the resulting daytime sleepiness they frequently consume caffeine. However, caffeine intake may exaggerate sleep problems by disturbing sleep and circadian timing. In a 28-hour double-blind randomized crossover study, we investigated to what extent caffeine disturbs slow-wave sleep (SWS) and delays circadian timing in teenagers. Following a 6-day ambulatory phase of caffeine abstinence and fixed sleep-wake cycles, 18 male teenagers (14-17 years old) ingested 80 mg caffeine vs. placebo in the laboratory four hours prior to an electro-encephalographically (EEG) recorded nighttime sleep episode. Data were analyzed using both frequentist and Bayesian statistics. The analyses suggest that subjective sleepiness is reduced after caffeine compared to placebo. However, we did not observe a strong caffeine-induced reduction in subjective sleep quality or SWS, but rather a high inter-individual variability in caffeine-induced SWS changes. Exploratory analyses suggest that particularly those individuals with a higher level of SWS during placebo reduced SWS in response to caffeine. Regarding salivary melatonin onsets, caffeine-induced delays were not evident at group level, and only observed in participants exposed to a higher caffeine dose relative to individual bodyweight (i.e., a dose > 1.3 mg/kg). Together, the results suggest that 80 mg caffeine are sufficient to induce alertness at a subjective level. However, particularly teenagers with a strong need for deep sleep might pay for these subjective benefits by a loss of SWS during the night. Thus, caffeine-induced sleep-disruptions might change along with the maturation of sleep need.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2020.114283DOI Listing
October 2020

HILIC LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of cefepime, imipenem and meropenem.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2020 Jul 2;186:113289. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Petersgraben 4, 4031 Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

A high performance hydrophilic interaction chromatography method combined with tandem-mass spectrometry for the quantification of cefepime, meropenem and imipenem in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid is presented. A solution of 0.5 M 3-Morpholinopropanesulfonic acid and ethylene glycol (1:1) was added to the samples before analysis to ensure stability of analytes during work up and storage. Deuterated forms of cefepime and meropenem were used as internal standards. Protein precipitation prior to injection into the LC-MS/MS system provided a fast and easy sample preparation. For online extraction, a Turboflow Cyclone-MCX column was used and the chromatographic separation was carried out on a Hypersil GOLD HILIC column. Linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range of 0.4-40 mg/l, 0.6-60 mg/l and 1-100 mg/l for meropenem, imipenem and cefepime, respectively. The intra- and interday imprecision and inaccuracy values were below 10 % for plasma and 13 % for cerebrospinal fluid using a calibration in plasma. The method was employed for therapeutic drug measurements in a university hospital.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2020.113289DOI Listing
July 2020

A 2D HPLC-MS/MS method for several antibiotics in blood plasma, plasma water, and diverse tissue samples.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2020 Jan 3;412(3):715-725. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Petersgraben 4, 4031, Basel, Switzerland.

An analytical method using 2D high-performance liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry for the quantification of the beta-lactam antibiotics amoxicillin, flucloxacillin, piperacillin, benzylpenicillin, the beta-lactamase inhibitors clavulanic acid, and tazobactam, as well as the macrolide antibiotic clindamycin, is presented. All analytes were measured in human plasma, while amoxicillin, clavulanic acid, flucloxacillin, and clindamycin were also analyzed in human tissue samples. Because of its high-protein binding, additionally, the free fraction of flucloxacillin was measured after ultrafiltration. As internal standards, deuterated forms of the beta-lactams were used. Sample preparation for all matrices was protein precipitation followed by online extraction on a TurboFlow MAX column, while sample separation was performed on an Accucore XL C18 column. Calibration curves were linear over 0.2-25 mg/kg for the tissue samples and 0.05-20 mg/l for the free fraction of flucloxacillin. In plasma, the calibration curves for amoxicillin and piperacillin were linear over 3.125-125 mg/l, for clavulanic acid and tazobactam over 1-40 mg/l, for benzylpenicillin 0.25-40 mg/l, and for flucloxacillin and clindamycin over 1.5-60 mg/l and 0.05-8 mg/l respectively. In plasma and plasma ultrafiltrate, inaccuracy and imprecision for any analyte were always less than 15%. In tissue, the accuracy and precision varied up to 16%, respectively, 20%, when various tissues were analyzed using a calibration in water. Graphical abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-019-02285-0DOI Listing
January 2020

Caffeine-dependent changes of sleep-wake regulation: Evidence for adaptation after repeated intake.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2020 04 19;99:109851. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Centre for Chronobiology, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Transfaculty Research Platform Molecular and Cognitive Neurosciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Circadian and sleep-homeostatic mechanisms regulate timing and quality of wakefulness. To enhance wakefulness, daily consumption of caffeine in the morning and afternoon is highly common. However, the effects of such a regular intake pattern on circadian sleep-wake regulation are unknown. Thus, we investigated if daily daytime caffeine intake and caffeine withdrawal affect circadian rhythms and wake-promotion in habitual consumers.

Methods: Twenty male young volunteers participated in a randomised, double-blind, within-subject study with three conditions: i) caffeine (150 mg 3 x daily for 10 days), ii) placebo (3 x daily for 10 days) and iii) withdrawal (150 mg caffeine 3 x daily for eight days, followed by a switch to placebo for two days). Starting on day nine of treatment, salivary melatonin and cortisol, evening nap sleep as well as sleepiness and vigilance performance throughout day and night were quantified during 43 h in an in-laboratory, light and posture-controlled protocol.

Results: Neither the time course of melatonin (i.e. onset, amplitude or area under the curve) nor the time course of cortisol was significantly affected by caffeine or withdrawal. During withdrawal, however, volunteers reported increased sleepiness, showed more attentional lapses as well as polysomnography-derived markers of elevated sleep propensity in the late evening compared to both the placebo and caffeine condition.

Conclusions: The typical pattern of caffeine intake with consumption in both the morning and afternoon hours may not necessarily result in a circadian phase shift in the evening nor lead to clear-cut benefits in alertness. The time-of-day independent effects of caffeine withdrawal on evening nap sleep, sleepiness and performance suggest an adaptation to the substance, presumably in the homeostatic aspect of sleep-wake regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2019.109851DOI Listing
April 2020

Danger of Herbal Tea: A Case of Acute Cholestatic Hepatitis Due to Tea.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2019 11;6:221. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

University Center for Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases, Basel, Switzerland.

is a Chinese medicinal herb. Artemisinin-derivatives are recommended as part of a combination treatment for uncomplicated malaria. Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are increasingly used worldwide and HDS-induced liver injury is becoming a growing concern. We present the first case of severe acute cholestatic hepatitis due to the intake of tea as chemoprophylaxis for malaria in a patient returning from Ethiopia. The patients presented with jaundice, elevated transaminases, and parameters of cholestasis (total bilirubin 186.6 μmol/L, conjugated bilirubin 168.5 μmol/L). A liver biopsy showed a portal hepatitis with lymphocytic infiltration of the bile ducts and diffuse intra-canalicular and intra-cytoplasmic bilirubinostasis. The toxicologic analysis of the Artemisia tea revealed the ingredients arteannuin b, deoxyartemisin, campher, and scopoletin. There were no other identifiable etiologies of liver disease. The Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) score assessed a "probably" causal relationship. Sequencing of genes encoding for hepatic transporters for bile acid homeostasis (BSEP, MDR3, and FIC1) found no genetic variants typically associated with hereditary cholestasis syndromes. Normalization of bilirubin occurred 3 months after the onset of disease. The use of artemisinin-derivatives for malaria prevention is ineffective and potentially harmful and should thus be discouraged. Moreover, the case demonstrates our as yet inadequate understanding of the pathophysiology and susceptibility to HDS induced liver injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2019.00221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6798169PMC
October 2019